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Hamit Bozarslan, Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales, Paris,Cengiz Gunes, The Open University, Milton Keynes,Veli Yadirgi, School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London
“This chapter traces the transformation of the Kurdish issue into a transnational indigenous one. It argues that we rethink and shift our analyst categories in tandem with this transformation. By considering the impact of diaspora, Rojava and indigeneity, the chapter argues that the Kurdish issue should no longer simply be conceived as ‘minority rights within a state/regional system’ but one which centres on the issue of Kurdish transnational indigeneity. It argues that Kurdish roots will continue to be articulated through transnational routes. The chapter considers the significance of Kurdish transnational indigeneity for understanding indigeneity and transnationality, as well as the various possible consequences of the Kurdish issue being increasingly framed and understood as a transnational indigenous one. It calls for a linguistic and conceptual shift towards transnational indigeneity in the field of Kurdish studies.”
This chapter examines cross-cultural and intercultural approaches to sociopragmatic dimensions of language use. After an initial introduction, the first main section clarifies and discusses some key concepts and issues, including ‘culture’ and ‘context’, as they have been conceptualized within cross-cultural and intercultural pragmatics; the distinctions between cross-cultural and intercultural research perspectives; and context and the interconnections between context and culture. It then proceeds to review some of the main research findings deriving from cross-cultural work on speech acts and cultural scripts, as well as cognitive and sociocultural perspectives on sociopragmatic aspects of intercultural communication. It includes authentic samples of data that illustrate a number of the above issues. Finally, the chapter reflects on the main theoretical challenges and opportunities associated with addressing the sociopragmatic aspects of language use from cross-cultural and intercultural perspectives, providing a critical summary and identifying promising areas for future research.
Presents the main arguments of sociological neoinstitutionalism in the areas of organizations, states, and identities. Illustrates the arguments with empirical research conducted through the year 2000.
The post-Enlightenment evolution of models of national society and state. The development of ideas of individual and collective actorhood, and the corresponding peripheralization of the concept of culture.
We analyse the role of culture in economic freedom reform and dispersion in an unbalanced panel of up to 80 countries, and in dyadic models with up to 3,003 unique country pairs. We find that a sense of individualism strengthens the effectiveness of democracy in promoting economic freedom within countries over 1950–2015, and that institutional distance between countries increases in their cultural distance, suggesting an important role of culture in determining long-run institutional equilibria. Our results are robust to a large variety of socio-economic controls, measures of institutions and measures of bilateral geographic, economic and demographic distances.
This paper proposes a model for developmental psychopathology that is informed by recent research suggestive of a single model of mental health disorder (the p factor) and seeks to integrate the role of the wider social and cultural environment into our model, which has previously been more narrowly focused on the role of the immediate caregiving context. Informed by recently emerging thinking on the social and culturally driven nature of human cognitive development, the ways in which humans are primed to learn and communicate culture, and a mentalizing perspective on the highly intersubjective nature of our capacity for affect regulation and social functioning, we set out a cultural-developmental approach to psychopathology.
Chapter 2 connects histories of the English Bible to histories of the English novel. When culture is understood to be a kind of secular scripture, the intellectual problems involved in telling the origins of the English novel – that is, the change that occurs in English prose fiction during the eighteenth century – do not get resolved so much as displaced by other problems, such as the rise of the middle class (Ian Watt) or the twin crises of truth and virtue (Michael McKeon) or the advent of the print-media entertainment industry (William Warner). This chapter discusses a recent exhibit at the Folger Shakespeare Library commemorating the 400th anniversary of the King James Bible, two passages from Olaudah Equiano’s Interesting Narrative (1789), and Bruno Latour’s actor–network theory to suggest how we might approach culture differently in literary studies and how we might thereby reassemble the secular at the origins of the English novel in a way that opens up new questions about novelistic realism. The chapter ends with a brief discussion of why it matters to think through the postsecular and the postcritical together.
Over the past three decades, Meyer, Jepperson, and colleagues have contributed to the development of one of the leading approaches in social theory, by analyzing the cultural frameworks that have shaped modern organizations, states, and identities. Bringing together key articles and new reflections, this volume collects the essential theoretical ideas of 'sociological neoinstitutionalism.' It clarifies the core ideas and situates them within social theory writ large. Among other topics, the authors discuss the changing nature of the “actors” that have operated within contemporary social structure. The book concludes with the evolving frameworks that have structured social activity in the post–World War II period of 'embedded liberalism,' in the more recent neoliberal period, and in an emergent post-liberal period that appears to be a radical departure.
We examine the cultural context for individual's trust in public institutions. To shed some light on possible cultural explanations from a more comparative perspective and cover a wider set of cultural aspects, we use indicators of cultural dimensions by Kaasa et al. (2014) based on Hofstede's (1980) approach. Multilevel regression analysis is conducted with individual-level data from two waves of the European Social Survey (2008, 2010) and regional-level data from multiple sources. Confirmatory factor analysis is used to construct the indicators of social and institutional trust and corruption. Our results suggest that individuals tend to trust institutions less in regions with large power distance. Hence, an important key for governments being more successful in achieving their aims seems to be related to improving the sense of participation and civic responsibility.
Family interventions are critical in addressing many of the risks and issues of children and adolescents. However, a key factor in ensuring their effectiveness is understanding the context in which they are needed. This chapter describes the role of culture in shaping the acceptance of and access to family interventions. It focuses on how culture can influence the recognition of problems, access to information, openness to help-seeking, social support and acceptance of providers and interventions. It also discusses critical factors to enable community engagement with diverse ethnic and cultural groups, including information sharing, referral pathways, building social support, cultural adaptation, building trust relationships and cross-cultural competence, harnessing resources and using multi-disciplinal teams.
A strong role for gendered differences in communication has long been substantiated by sociolinguistic research. It is thus likely that gender also plays a role in how second language feedback is given by teachers and peers and how it is received by language learners. We provide an overview of the limited body of research examining the impact of gender on second language feedback. While several studies have shown differences in how learners receive oral feedback from male and female teachers and peers, conflicting results have been found, and little research has considered the role of gender in written corrective feedback. Further research is needed to clarify the role of gender on feedback, which cannot be understood without consideration of the complex interplay among learner gender, interlocutor gender, culture, task, and context. We call for (1) increased research in diverse educational and cultural contexts, (2) research that considers the role of gender in feedback provided in written as well as oral language use, (3) developmental studies investigating whether descriptive differences impact learning, and (4) consideration of the role of gender that goes beyond binary divisions, adopting qualitative and critical discourse analysis perspectives to understand how gendered language socializations impact second language feedback.
We study the link between residential segregation and fertility for the socially excluded and marginalized Roma ethnic minority. Using original survey data we collected in Serbia, we investigate whether fertility differs between ethnically homogeneous and mixed neighborhoods. Our results show that Roma in less-segregated areas tend to have significantly fewer children (around 0.8). Most of the difference arises from Roma in less-segregated areas waiting substantially more after having a boy than their counterparts in more-segregated areas. We exploit variation in the share of Serbian sounding first names to provide evidence that a mechanism at play is a shift in preferences toward lower fertility and sons rather than daughters induced by a higher exposure to the Serbian majority culture.
Citizens' tax compliance should not only respond to the quality of formal institutions, but might also be culturally driven. We contribute to this literature by investigating whether tax morale, an individual's intrinsic non-pecuniary motivation to comply with taxes, is associated with the cultural values (following Hofstede's typology) held by this individual. The analysis exploits four waves of the European Values Survey (1981–2010) across 48 countries. The cultural dimensions are constructed through a polychoric principal component analysis on a set of relevant survey items consistent with Hofstede's definitions. Ordered logit estimations suggest that although values of individualism and femininity are associated with higher individual's tax morale, power distance and uncertainty avoidance are associated with lower tax morale. These results remain consistent as we increase the level of granularity of our investigation through within-region analyses and, subsequently, within-cohort analyses. We argue that these results inevitably enrich the emerging debate about cultural values and citizens' compliance with formal institutions. They also indicate that societal culture as well as individual values should be considered when designing policies aiming to improve tax compliance.
This chapter combines developments in the emotion literature with developments in cross-cultural methodology in order to formulate four recommendations that can bridge the gap between relativist and universalist views on cultural variation in emotion. We recommend that researchers (1) specify the emotions or facets of emotions they study, preferably using a multi-componential approach to assessing emotions; (2) check the equivalence across languages and cultures of the emotion vocabulary they use, either by existing data bases or by including the measurement of meaning in their design; (3) specify the level at which they compare emotions across cultures ranging from descriptions of culture-specific constructs to direct comparisons of mean scores, and apply adequate methods to demonstrate the level of comparability claimed; and (4) account for both similarities and differences when they formulate hypotheses, as well as when they interpret their data. These recommendations are illustrated with historical and contemporary cross-cultural emotion research.
The ways in which cultural groups vary from one another has long been a matter of everyday observation. The construction of valid and reliable measures of these differences remains problematic. Comparisons of survey responses rest on assumptions about the functional equivalence of translated items and of the assumptions that respondents make about the meaning of such surveys. This chapter explores the different possible levels of measurement equivalence. Psychological variables are most frequently latent rather than directly observable. Philosophers of science have discussed how best to address the challenges one faces when working with latent variables. If we are to claim that latent variables such as individualism or collectivism can account for particular differences between groups, specific counterfactual theorising is required as to the limiting circumstances under which such effects will or will not occur. At a more practical level, we can note that differences are frequently found in the characteristic survey response styles of respondents from different cultural groups, but decisions as to whether or when to discount such variations rest on answers to the more basic philosophical questions raised in the earlier section of this chapter.
Chapter 3 maps out the different ways in which black activists from both the United States and France employed culture as a method of demonstrating their contributions to Western modernity and as a means of thinking through the relationship between republicanism and race. It spans from the 1925 publication of Alain Locke’s ethnographic anthology, The New Negro, through to the establishment of the anti-reformist, revolutionary journal Légitime Défense in 1932. During this period, understandings of race were framed by France’s vogue nègre of les années folles and the American negrophilia of the roaring twenties. These two phenomena had in common a fetishized representation of black men and women in the literature and anthropology of both nations. Many black thinkers such as James Weldon Johnson embraced this enthusiasm, reasoning that attention to the race and opportunities for patronage would eventually lead to greater social equality, an evolution that would theoretically enforce equality before the law. Other commentators and activists such as Jane Nardal and Alain Locke instead advocated a more inclusive understanding of what it meant to be civilized and to be human. These debates played out through journals that are rarely studied in tandem, such as Challenge, La Revue du Monde Noir, Opportunity and La Dépêche Africaine, as well as through the publications and personal correspondence of intellectuals such as Paulette and Jane Nardal, Alain Locke, Clara Shepard and René Ménil.
Gian Vittorio Caprara was born in Italy in 1944. He is Emeritus Professor in Psychology at the University of Rome and was also a fellow at the Netherlands Institute for Advanced Study and at the Swedish Collegium for Advanced Study. He founded the Interuniversity Center for the Study of Prosocial and Antisocial Motivation in Italy. He studied three major topics – personality, aggression, political preferences and participation – with an interactionist and social cognitive approach in which personality is considered a self-regulatory system while biological potential is mostly conditioned by culture. He initiated the Genzano Longitudinal Study, which followed 10-year-old children from elementary school through adolescence. The study focused on the development of aggression and prosocial behavior; stability and change in personality; the determinants of academic achievement and vocational choices; family and romantic relations; and civic and political behavior. The study investigated how different aspects of personality operate in concert. The aim was to clarify pathways that lead to maladjusted and risky behaviors. The findings led to the development of a theory that assigns to marginal deviations from normative behaviors a crucial role in the development of maladjusted behavior. The study also led to psychosocial interventions promoting and sustaining healthy development.
The United States is entering a pivotal period in history, led by extraordinary shifts in the demographic makeup of children who are in need of medical, educational, and developmental services. For the first time in this country's history, the majority of children are being born to non-white populations. Simultaneously, racism (personal, institutional, and systemic) is now being recognized as a powerful social determinant of children's mental and physical health by the time they enter kindergarten. It is crucial to evaluate how early childhood development (ECD) settings are prepared to authentically engage racially diverse children. In this paper, we critically analyze the narratives of the architect of Head Start, Dr. Edward Zigler, and investigate his evolving contributions to early childhood programming. We propose that Zigler's conceptualization of culture and its impact on children's development, although advanced for his time, had historical limitations that have perpetuated the personal, institutional, and systemic racism that children of color experience in early childhood settings. This paper concludes with suggestions to include topics covering implicit bias, white privilege, and the impact of slavery, colonization, and oppression as core principles in professional training. Only then will we be able to eliminate racism across early childhood settings in the United States.
Individualistic values are often presented as promoting economic development; however, their links to relevant behaviour and preferences at the micro-level remain under-explored. Here we investigate the relationship between individualistic values and personal attitudes towards reporting corruption. Unlike much of the previous research which focuses on attitudes towards corruption, we analyse the micro-level mechanisms relating to one's willingness to escape the status quo and act against corruption. We also focus on a region associated with persistently high levels of perceived corruption. Our findings indicate that individualism is associated with a greater likelihood to act against corruption. The effect estimated is small but highly significant and robust to changes in estimators and specifications. We also find evidence that institutional trust and individualism strengthen each other to generate greater willingness to report corruption.