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The development of glufosinate-resistant soybean cultivars has created opportunities for use of glufosinate applied postemergence for weed control. Four field experiments were conducted in 2021 and 2022 to ascertain the effect of glufosinate rate and the addition of ammonium sulfate on annual weed control in glyphosate/glufosinate/2,4-D–resistant soybean. An increased glufosinate rate of 500 from 300 g ai ha−1 improved control of common ragweed, common lambsquarters, redroot pigweed, and foxtail species and resulted in decreased density and dry biomass of common lambsquarters and foxtail species. The addition of ammonium sulfate to glufosinate increased control of common lambsquarters, 2 and 8 wk after application (WAA), and of foxtail species, 2, 4, and 8 WAA, but did not improve control of common ragweed and redroot pigweed. Increasing the dose of glufosinate from 300 to 500 g ai ha−1 improves control of common ragweed, redroot pigweed, common lambsquarters, and foxtail species; however, the benefit of the addition of ammonium sulfate to glufosinate is weed species-specific.
Limited information exists on the global economic impact of glyphosate-resistant (GR) weeds. The objective of this manuscript was to estimate the potential yield and economic loss from uncontrolled GR weeds in the major field crops grown in Ontario, Canada. The impact of GR weed interference on field crop yield was determined using an extensive database of field trials completed on commercial farms in southwestern Ontario between 2010 and 2021. Crop yield loss was estimated by expert opinion (weed scientists and Ontario government crop specialists) when research data were unavailable. This manuscript assumes that crop producers adjust their weed management programs to control GR weeds, which increases weed management costs but reduces crop yield loss from GR weed interference by 95%. GR volunteer corn, horseweed, waterhemp, giant ragweed, and common ragweed would cause an annual monetary loss of (in millions of Can$) $172, $104, $11, $3, and $0.3, respectively, for a total annual loss of $290 million if Ontario farmers did not adjust their weed management programs to control GR biotypes. The increased herbicide cost to control GR volunteer corn, horseweed, waterhemp, giant ragweed, and common ragweed in the major field crops in Ontario is estimated to be (in millions of Can$) $17, $9, $2, $0.1, and $0.02, respectively, for a total increase in herbicide expenditures of $28 million annually. Reduced GR weed interference with the adjusted weed management programs would reduce farm-gate monetary crop loss by 95% from $290 million to $15 million. This study estimates that GR weeds would reduce the farm-gate value of the major field crops produced in Ontario by Can$290 million annually if Ontario farmers did not adjust their weed management programs, but with increased herbicide costs of Can$28 million and reduced crop yield loss of 95% the actual annual monetary loss in Ontario is estimated to be Can$43 million annually.
Tolpyralate is commonly mixed with atrazine for improved control of common annual weed species in corn production systems in the United States and Canada. Weed control efficacy with this mixture is enhanced with the addition of methylated seed oil (MSO) Concentrate®; however, there is little information on the efficacy of tolpyralate + atrazine with other proprietary adjuvants. Therefore, four trials were conducted at field research sites in Ontario, Canada, to evaluate the efficacy of tolpyralate + atrazine when applied with six different commercially available adjuvants on four annual broadleaf and two annual grass weed species in corn. The adjuvants evaluated were MSO Concentrate®, Agral® 90, Assist® Oil Concentrate, Carrier®, LI 700®, and Merge®. A treatment of tolpyralate + atrazine applied with no adjuvant was also included in the study. For the control of velvetleaf and wild mustard, the adjuvants evaluated with tolpyralate + atrazine did not improve control. At 8 wk after application (WAA), the use of Agral® 90, Assist® Oil Concentrate, Carrier®, MSO Concentrate®, or Merge® with tolpyralate + atrazine provided similar or greater control of common ragweed than tolpyralate + atrazine applied with LI 700®. At 8 WAA, the adjuvants performed similarly with tolpyralate + atrazine for the control of common lambsquarters; however, LI 700® was the only adjuvant that did not improve control compared to tolpyralate + atrazine applied without an adjuvant. At 8 WAA, MSO Concentrate®, Carrier®, and Merge® improved control of barnyardgrass and foxtail species with tolpyralate + atrazine to a similar or greater level than Assist® Oil Concentrate, Agral® 90, and LI 700®. Overall, MSO Concentrate®, Carrier®, or Merge® should be added to tolpyralate + atrazine for control of the myriad of weed species interfering with corn production.
Tolpyralate is a 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase–inhibiting herbicide that is applied postemergence for control of annual broadleaf and grass weeds in corn. Current Canadian label recommendations for tolpyralate specify the addition of a methylated seed oil (MSO) adjuvant (MSO Concentrate®) for improved weed control. The efficacy of tolpyralate applied with other proprietary adjuvants has not been widely reported in the peer-reviewed literature. Therefore, four field trials were conducted in corn over 2020 and 2021 in Ontario, Canada, to evaluate MSO Concentrate®, Agral® 90 (nonionic surfactant), Assist® Oil Concentrate (blended surfactant), Carrier® (blended surfactant), LI 700® (nonionic surfactant), and Merge® (blended surfactant) as adjuvants with tolpyralate for the control of annual broadleaf and grass weeds. At 8 wk after application (WAA), tolpyralate applied with MSO Concentrate®, Agral® 90, Assist® Oil Concentrate, Carrier®, or Merge® controlled velvetleaf, wild mustard, barnyardgrass, and foxtail species similarly. These adjuvants also enhanced the efficacy of tolpyralate similarly for the control of common ragweed at 8 WAA with the exception that Agral® 90 was inferior to Merge®. At 8 WAA, tolpyralate controlled common lambsquarters the greatest when applied with MSO Concentrate®, Agral® 90, Carrier®, or Merge®; these adjuvants with the exception of Agral® 90 were superior to Assist® Oil Concentrate. At 8 WAA, tolpyralate applied with LI 700® controlled common ragweed, barnyardgrass, and foxtail species less than when tolpyralate was applied with the other adjuvants tested; control of these weed species with tolpyralate was not improved with LI 700® when compared to tolpyralate applied without an adjuvant. Overall, tolpyralate applied with either MSO Concentrate®, Carrier®, or Merge® controlled all annual broadleaf and grass weed species similarly or greater than tolpyralate applied without an adjuvant or tolpyralate with Agral® 90, Assist® Oil Concentrate, or LI 700® at 8 WAA.
Tolpyralate is a new 4-hydroxyphenyl-pyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD)–inhibiting herbicide for weed control in corn. Previous research has reported efficacy of tolpyralate + atrazine on several annual grass and broadleaf weed species; however, no studies have evaluated weed control of tolpyralate + atrazine depending on time-of-day (TOD) of application. Six field experiments were conducted over a 2-yr period (2018, 2019) near Ridgetown, ON, to determine if there is an effect of TOD of application on tolpyralate + atrazine efficacy on common annual grass and broadleaf weeds. An application was made at 3-h intervals beginning at 06:00 h with the last application at 24:00 h. There was a slight TOD effect on velvetleaf, pigweed species, and common ragweed control with tolpyralate + atrazine; however, the magnitude of change throughout the day was ≤3% at 2, 4, or 8 wk after application (WAA). There was no effect of TOD of tolpyralate + atrazine on the control of lambsquarters, barnyardgrass, and green foxtail. All weed species were controlled ≥88% at 8 WAA. There was no effect of TOD of tolpyralate + atrazine application on corn yield. Results of this study show no evidence of a TOD effect on weed control efficacy with tolpyralate + atrazine.
Residual herbicides are routinely applied to control troublesome weeds in pumpkin production. Fluridone and acetochlor, Groups 12 and 15 herbicides, respectively, provide broad-spectrum PRE weed control. Field research was conducted in Virginia and New Jersey to evaluate pumpkin tolerance and weed control to PRE herbicides. Treatments consisted of fomesafen at two rates, ethalfluralin, clomazone, halosulfuron, fluridone, S-metolachlor, acetochlor emulsifiable concentrate (EC), acetochlor microencapsulated (ME), and no herbicide. At one site, fluridone, acetochlor EC, acetochlor ME, and halosulfuron injured pumpkin 81%, 39%, 34%, and 35%, respectively, at 14 d after planting (DAP); crop injury at the second site was 40%, 8%, 19%, and 33%, respectively. Differences in injury between the two sites may have been due to the amount and timing of rainfall after herbicides were applied. Fluridone provided 91% control of ivyleaf morningglory and 100% control of common ragweed at 28 DAP. Acetochlor EC controlled redroot pigweed 100%. Pumpkin treated with S-metolachlor produced the most yield (10,764 fruits ha–1) despite broadcasting over the planted row; labeling requires a directed application to row-middles. A separate study specifically evaluated fluridone applied PRE at 42, 84, 126, 168, 252, 336, and 672 g ai ha–1. Fluridone resulted in pumpkin injury ≥95% when applied at rates of ≥168 g ai ha–1; significant yield loss was noted when the herbicide was applied at rates >42 g ai ha–1. We concluded that fluridone and acetochlor formulations are unacceptable candidates for pumpkin production.
Understanding how plants alter their growth in response to interplant competition is an overlooked but complex problem. Previous studies have characterized the effect of light and water stress on soybean or common ragweed growth in monoculture, but no study has characterized soybean and common ragweed growth in mixture. A field study was conducted in 2015 and 2016 at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln to characterize the growth response of soybean and common ragweed with different irrigation levels and intraspecific and interspecific interference. The experiment was arranged in a split-plot design with irrigation level (0, 50%, 100% replacement of simulated evapotranspiration) as the main plot and common ragweed density (0, 2, 6, 12 plants m−1 row) as the subplot. Crop- and weed-free controls and three mixture treatments were included as subplots. Periodic destructive samples of leaf area and biomass of different organ groups were collected, and leaf area index (LAI), aboveground biomass partitioning, specific leaf area (SLA), and leaf area ratio (LAR) were calculated. Additionally, soybean and common ragweed yield were harvested, and 100-seed weight and seed production were determined. Soybean did not alter biomass partitioning, SLA, or LAR in mixture with common ragweed. Soybean LAI, biomass, and seed size were affected by increasing common ragweed density. Conversely, common ragweed partitioned less new biomass to leaves and increased SLA in response to increased interference. Common ragweed LAI, biomass, and seed number were reduced by the presence of soybean and increasing common ragweed density; however, seed weight was not affected. Results show that adjustment in biomass partitioning, SLA, and LAR is not the method that soybean uses to remain plastic under competition for light. Common ragweed demonstrated plasticity in both biomass partitioning and SLA, indicating an ability to maintain productivity under intra- and inter-specific competition for light or soil resources.
Tolpyralate is a new Group 27 pyrazolone herbicide that inhibits the 4-hydroxyphenyl-pyruvate dioxygenase enzyme. In a study of the biologically effective dose of tolpyralate from 2015 to 2017 in Ontario, Canada, tolpyralate exhibited efficacy on a broader range of species when co-applied with atrazine; however, there is limited published information on the efficacy of tolpyralate and tolpyralate+atrazine relative to mesotrione and topramezone, applied POST with atrazine at label rates, for control of annual grass and broadleaf weeds. In this study, tolpyralate applied alone at 30 g ai ha−1 provided >90% control of common lambsquarters, velvetleaf, common ragweed, Powell amaranth/redroot pigweed, and green foxtail at 8 weeks after application (WAA). Addition of atrazine was required to achieve >90% control of wild mustard, ladysthumb, and barnyardgrass at 8 WAA. Tolpyralate+atrazine (30+1,000 g ai ha−1) and topramezone+atrazine (12.5+500 g ai ha−1) provided similar control at 8 WAA of the eight weed species in this study; however, tolpyralate+atrazine provided >90% control of green foxtail by 1 WAA. Tolpyralate+atrazine provided 18, 68, and 67 percentage points better control of common ragweed, green foxtail, and barnyardgrass, respectively, than mesotrione+atrazine (100+280 g ai ha−1) at 8 WAA. Overall, tolpyralate+atrazine applied POST provided equivalent or improved control of annual grass and broadleaf weeds compared with mesotrione+atrazine and topramezone+atrazine.
Tolpyralate is a new 4-hydroxyphenyl-pyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD)-inhibiting herbicide for POST weed management in corn; however, there is limited information regarding its efficacy. Six field studies were conducted in Ontario, Canada, over 3 yr (2015 to 2017) to determine the biologically effective dose of tolpyralate for the control of eight annual weed species. Tolpyralate was applied POST at six doses from 3.75 to 120 g ai ha−1 and tank mixed at a 1:33.3 ratio with atrazine at six doses from 125 to 4,000 g ha−1. Regression analysis was performed to determine the effective dose (ED) of tolpyralate, and tolpyralate+atrazine, required to achieve 50%, 80%, or 90% control of eight weed species at 1, 2, 4, and 8 wk after application (WAA). The ED of tolpyralate for 90% control (ED90) of velvetleaf, common lambsquarters, common ragweed, redroot pigweed or Powell amaranth, and green foxtail at 8 WAA was ≤15.5 g ha−1; however, tolpyralate alone did not provide 90% control of wild mustard, barnyardgrass, or ladysthumb at 8 WAA at any dose evaluated in this study. In contrast, the ED90 for all species in this study with tolpyralate+atrazine was ≤13.1+436 g ha−1, indicating that tolpyralate+atrazine can be highly efficacious at low field doses.
Soil-residual herbicides can be applied to the soil under grapevines during fall or spring before weed emergence. But, early spring moisture and warm weather conditions may enhance weed emergence before spring herbicide applications. Therefore, fall application of herbicide can be useful if the herbicides provide adequate weed control the following spring and summer. Fall and spring applications of oryzalin or norflurazon, applied alone or in combination with diuron, simazine, or oxyfluorfen, were evaluated for weed control in grape at Oskaloosa and Eudora in northeast Kansas in the 2002 to 2003 and 2003 to 2004 growing seasons. Weeds were not controlled adequately with oryzalin or norflurazon applied alone. At the end of the growing season, weed control was 10 to 20% greater when herbicides were applied in the spring than when applied in the fall. In addition, weed control with norflurazon was slightly greater than with oryzalin. In general, norflurazon or oryzalin applied in combination with simazine, diuron, or oxyfluorfen gave greater weed control than norflurazon or oryzalin applied alone. The greatest control was with norflurazon or oryzalin applied with oxyfluorfen. In general, all herbicide combinations provided similar weed control 4 mo after spring treatment in 2003 and 3 mo after spring treatment in 2004. This study showed that acceptable weed control can be achieved when norflurazon or oryzalin is applied with oxyfluorfen or diuron in the fall.
Glyphosate-resistant (GR) Palmer amaranth has become a serious pest in parts of the Cotton Belt. Some GR cotton cultivars also contain the WideStrike™ insect resistance trait, which confers tolerance to glufosinate. Use of glufosinate-based management systems in such cultivars could be an option for managing GR Palmer amaranth. The objective of this study was to evaluate crop tolerance and weed control with glyphosate-based and glufosinate-based systems in PHY 485 WRF cotton. The North Carolina field experiment compared glyphosate and glufosinate alone and in mixtures applied twice before four- to six-leaf cotton. Additional treatments included glyphosate and glufosinate mixed with S-metolachlor or pyrithiobac applied to one- to two-leaf cotton followed by glyphosate or glufosinate alone on four- to six-leaf cotton. All treatments received a residual lay-by application. Excellent weed control was observed from all treatments on most weed species. Glyphosate was more effective than glufosinate on glyphosate-susceptible (GS) Palmer amaranth and annual grasses, while glufosinate was more effective on GR Palmer amaranth. Annual grass and GS Palmer amaranth control by glyphosate plus glufosinate was often less than control by glyphosate alone but similar to or greater than control by glufosinate alone, while mixtures were more effective than either herbicide alone on GR Palmer amaranth. Glufosinate caused minor and transient injury to the crop, but no differences in cotton yield or fiber quality were noted. This research demonstrates glufosinate can be applied early in the season to PHY 485 WRF cotton without concern for significant adverse effects on the crop. Although glufosinate is often less effective than glyphosate on GS Palmer amaranth, GR Palmer amaranth can be controlled with well-timed applications of glufosinate. Use of glufosinate in cultivars with the WideStrike trait could fill a significant void in current weed management programs for GR Palmer amaranth in cotton.
During the past century, common ragweed has spread from its native eastern North America to Europe, where it has become an increasing problem from both an agricultural and a human health perspective. Two field experiments were performed over a 2-yr period in a naturally infested fallow field in northern Italy to evaluate the effects of common ragweed plant density on its growth dynamics and to study its response to clipping. In the first experiment, three plant densities were tested (4, 12.5, and 25 plants m−2) and plant height, aboveground biomass, and leaf area were assessed. Intraspecific competition had a substantial negative effect on leaf area and aboveground biomass on a per plant basis in both years, but did not affect plant height. However, the high-density (25 plants m−2) treatment resulted in the highest total aboveground biomass (1,428 and 4,377 g m−2) and leaf area index (5.6 and 12.6 m2 m−2) in 2006 and 2007, respectively. In the second experiment, common ragweed plants were clipped at reaching 20 cm (four clippings during the season), 50 cm (three clippings), or 80 cm (two clippings) plant height. Number of surviving plants, flowering plants, and aboveground biomass were assessed before each clipping. Clipping resulted in a partial reduction in the surviving plants and did not prevent flowering. Under the most stressing condition (clipping at 20 cm height), more than 67% of plants survived to the last clipping and, among these, more than 97% flowered, whereas before the last clipping at reaching 80 cm height from 50 to 100% of plants survived and 100% of them flowered. These findings in northern Italy confirm that common ragweed is a fast-growing annual species, capable of producing considerable aboveground biomass at various pure stand densities and that plants can still flower from plants clipped at various frequencies.
To assess the effectiveness of interrow cultivation, counts were taken before and after cultivation of corn and soybean during the first two crop rotations in a corn–soybean–spelt organic grain cropping systems experiment. Overall control per cultivation event in soybean was 73%, about equal to the 67% of the interrow area actually covered by cultivator tools. Weed control per cultivation event in corn was higher, and exceeded 91% at later cultivations. The greater weed control in corn relative to soybean, particularly at later cultivations, was probably due to more soil being thrown into the corn row, burying a greater proportion of the weeds. Perennial weeds emerging from roots and rhizomes were less controlled by cultivation events than weeds emerging from seeds. Relatively poor control of perennials was due both to rapid resprouting during the few days between cultivation and assessment and to a lower probability of death in the zone indirectly disturbed by cultivator tools. Seedlings of perennial species suffered greater mortality from cultivation than annual weeds, probably because the low relative growth rate of perennials resulted in small seedlings that were susceptible to cultivation. Common ragweed was less controlled by cultivation than other annual weeds, probably because its heavier seeds produced larger seedlings at the time of cultivation. These larger seedlings were less likely to be buried during hilling-up operations at later cultivations. Counts of weeds before and after individual cultivation events provide insight into the processes affecting weed mortality during mechanical management.
A population of common ragweed from Delaware was not controlled in the field by herbicides that inhibit acetolactate synthase (ALS) or protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPO). Research was conducted to ascertain if this population was resistant to these herbicidal modes of action and, if so, to determine the resistance mechanism(s). Resistance was confirmed by dose-response studies on greenhouse-grown plants with multiple ALS- and PPO-inhibiting herbicides. DNA sequence data revealed that resistance to ALS-inhibiting herbicides was due to the previously reported W574L ALS mutation. To assist in determining the mechanism of resistance to PPO-inhibiting herbicides, an F2 population was derived from a cross between the resistant biotype (Del-R) and a sensitive biotype (DV1-S). This population segregated in the ratio of three resistant : one sensitive when treated with fomesafen, indicating that resistance to PPO-inhibiting herbicides was conferred by a single, (incompletely) dominant, nuclear gene. Sequences of the target-site genes, PPX1 and PPX2, for PPO-inhibiting herbicides were obtained through the screening of a common ragweed cDNA library and subsequent cDNA extension (5′-RACE). Molecular marker analysis with the F2 population revealed that the PPX2 gene cosegregated with resistance to PPO-inhibiting herbicides. A mutation substituting an arginine codon for a leucine codon at a conserved location (R98L) of the PPX2 gene was suspected of being responsible for resistance. By using a transgenic Escherichia coli system, it was demonstrated that the R98L mutation was sufficient to confer resistance to PPO-inhibiting herbicides. The level of resistance to acifluorfen conferred by the R98L mutation in the E. coli system was about 31-fold, similar to the level of resistance seen in the whole-plant dose-response study. Last, a DNA-based assay was developed to identify the presence or absence of the common ragweed PPX2 R98L mutation. The R98L PPX2 mutation is the second mechanism identified for evolved resistance to PPO-inhibiting herbicides.
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