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This chapter surveys the corpus of early Buddhist texts that have survived the passage of time and can be consulted by scholars. These comprise the complete canon of the Theravāda school written in Pali, a significant amount of the canon in Sanskrit belonging to the Sarvāstivāda school, plus more in Chinese translation, and substantial portions of the canons of other schools, also preserved in Chinese. Determining whether particular texts were early or later, along with analysis of their mode of transmission, enables them to be evaluated as sources for comparative analysis. This rather technical chapter concludes with a discussion of difficulties encountered in drawing parallels between texts from different schools in different languages.
To investigate the association between folate levels and the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) risk during the whole pregnancy.
In this retrospective cohort study of pregnant women, serum folate levels were measured before 24 gestational weeks (GW). GDM was diagnosed between 24th and 28th GW based on the criteria of the International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups. General linear models were performed to examine the association of serum folate with plasma glucose (i.e. linear regressions) and risk of GDM (i.e. log-binomial regressions) after controlling for confounders. Restricted cubic spline regression was conducted to test the dosage–response relationship between serum folate and the risk of GDM.
A sigle, urban hospital in Shanghai, China.
A total of 42 478 women who received antenatal care from April 2013 to March 2017 were included.
Consistent positive associations were observed between serum folate and plasma glucose levels (fasting, 1-h, 2-h). The adjusted relative risks (RR) and 95 % CI of GDM across serum folate quartiles were 1·00 (reference), 1·15 (95 % CI (1·04, 1·26)), 1·40 (95 % CI (1·27, 1·54)) and 1·54 (95 % CI (1·40, 1·69)), respectively (P-for-trend < 0·001). The positive association between serum folate and GDM remained when stratified by vitamin B12 (adequate v. deficient groups) and the GW of serum folate measurement (≤13 GW v. >13 GWs)
The findings of this study may provide important evidence for the public health and clinical guidelines of pregnancy folate supplementation in terms of GDM prevention.
This chapter investigates whether Taiwanese university students find EL in health information difficult. On average, approximately 90% of them did not have difficulty understanding EL while about 10% of them did. The rates of difficulty appear to increase with the severity of the health condition. Furthermore, the higher the number of different elastic terms intensively used in the excerpt, the more difficulty the participants experience in understanding EL. Based on interviews with approximately 20 participants, we address what may cause the difficulty and identify six reasons (e.g., unfulfilled expectation of specific information, semantic fuzziness combined with insufficient health literacy, unclear instructions that do not match the needs of the patient and family, increased vagueness caused by the intensive use of EL). In order to understand participants’ attitudes towards EL and non-EL, we analysed the participants’ written feedback as to why they preferred EL or non-EL in the health context. Six frames were identified, each with two orientations. Four of the most frequently activated frames are communication, folk–idiosyncratic, trust–scepticism, and voluntary–involuntary action. Two social factors (i.e., gender and age) in relation to Taiwanese participants’ perceptions of and attitudes towards EL are also addressed.
In this chapter, we address the issues related to sentence grammaticality and acceptability. We begin with a discussion of the relationship between the two notions, and point out that despite the differences in theoretical conceptualization, the two notions, grammaticality and acceptability, are often confluent and that grammaticality is usually measured as acceptability in linguistic research. We then discuss factors beyond syntax that may influence sentence acceptability, including processing factors and semantic/pragmatic considerations. Finally, we discuss the measurement of acceptability, via either experimental methods or corpus-based analyses. To conclude, we show in this chapter how grammaticality, a seemingly purely syntactic notion, is often materialized as acceptability, which encompasses multiple linguistic modules that go beyond syntax.
The primary function of language is to convey what we mean for communication. Semantics, a subfield of linguistics, aims to understand how meanings are encoded and operate in different levels of linguistic forms (such as morphemes, words, phrases, sentences, and discourses). The cumulative evidence thus far has mainly been based on native speaker intuitions about the meanings of linguistic forms in language usage. With recent breakthroughs in neuroimaging techniques, neurolinguistic research has been used to test and evaluate theories put forth by theoretical linguistics by measuring the brain activity underlying language processes. This chapter reviews a series of neurolinguistics studies that took N400, an event–related potentials (ERPs) component to index the semantic processing, to investigate how the brain processes meaning conveyed by Chinese radicals, characters, classifiers, and the leading context of sentences. These findings make essential contributions to the growing understanding of when and how meanings are extracted, represented, and processed in the brain for language comprehension.
The Mexican–US War ends with the top half of Mexico – and its people – subsumed into the voracious US empire. A new musical genre – the Corrido – emerges from the new borderlands. The California Gold Rush produces a wealth of song from as far east as Scandinavia and as far west as China. US nativists sing against the arriving Germans and Irish Catholics, but they reserve their greatest musical venom for the Chinese in the form of the “John Chinaman” minstrel stereotype. Against such vicious representations, we have the Songs of Gold Mountain to reflect the true humanity of Chinese immigrants. In the wake of the Seneca Falls Convention, songs of women’s suffrage resound across the landscape, including those of Sojourner Truth. The Hutchinson Family Singers become the first US “supergroup” with their abolition songs, and Black challenges to the minstrelsy of E. P. Christy, Stephen Foster, and others continue, not only through the oratory of Frederick Douglass and songs of the Underground Railroad, but also through the operatic accomplishments of Elizabeth Taylor Greenfield. As the country careens toward the irrepressible schism of civil war, song becomes a highly supercharged, sectional arena.
The debate on modern Chinese being SVO or SOV is facing a dilemma: the word order is SVO in an unmarked declarative sentence in Chinese, while Chinese exhibits many features shared by SOV languages. To tackle this difficult situation, researchers should focus on language types, but not the relative orders of subject, verb, and object. Based on the usage of modern Chinese, we have checked ten universals generalized in Greenberg (1963) which are relevant to this topic. It is shown that 90% of the universals support Chinese being a SOV language, and only one universal is on the SVO side. Modern Chinese is therefore argued to be located very close to the SOV end of a continuum.
Labor’s gloves are off, and the country is rocked by waves of strikes, all backed by militant battle songs. The Pullman Strike brings to the fore Eugene Debs and other champions of labor and socialism, Coxey’s Army marches on Washington (singing), German immigrants fly the red flag of Anarchism (in song), and Jews fleeing from Russian pogroms swell the streets and sweatshops of New York’s Lower East Side, transforming the national soundscape with Yiddish labor anthems and laying the foundations of modern musical theater. The Mexican corrido becomes more prominent amidst white nativist hostility, and in California the Chinese community continues to pit their authentic songs of struggle against the slanders of minstrelsy and the insult of the Chinese Exclusion Act. On the western plains, the Lakota Ghost Dance and its attendant songs drive the US government into a panic born of ignorance, culminating in the massacre at Wounded Knee. With the frontier officially closed and white settler colonialism entrenched from sea to shining sea, the champions of Manifest Destiny look further westward, to the Pacific islands, where a songwriter named Lili’uokalani, the queen of Hawai’i, awaits her overthrow.
There appears to be a combination of contributing factors that affect and shape the use of EL in the Chinese data: the nature of the medical condition (e.g. disease severity, sensitivity of mental conditions), the applications and restrictions of medicine (e.g. the groups suitable or unsuitable for vaccines), the society’s health policy (e.g. the groups eligible for free treatment), the written mode, the health professional’s stance towards the health information, and potentials and constraints of an elastic/vague term (e.g. keneng vs. sihu; hen vs. guodu). Social conventions in language use are also a significant factor, an issue that is further addressed in Chapter 6.
Black Americans sing of their hope in the promise of Reconstruction, which is eventually betrayed as the white North and South sing their way into the “romance of reunion.” The Indigenous peoples to the west face a US government hostile to their songs and dances, Mexican vaqueros are immortalized in corridos, Chinese and Irish railroad workers are pitted against each other in minstrel songs, and the Fisk Jubilee Singers introduce the spiritual to the world (even as the Ku Klux Klan churns out its earliest sheet music). Woman suffragists and former abolitionists join hands in song; and as the country descends into the corrupt mire of a Gilded Age, Grange farmers take on the monopolies of railroad magnates and “robber barons” in songs that ring into the present century. In the Pennsylvania coal fields, the executed Molly Maguires are memorialized in powerful balladry, and the Knights of Labor provide the musical soundtrack to the greatest fight between labor and capital that the country has yet seen.
Like many other sub-fields of sociolinguistics, two seemingly unbridgeable gaps exist in the sociolinguistic study of multilingualism and identity in urban settings. First, existing studies tend to examine Western and/or English-speaking societies only; and moreover, they do so by using either quantitative or qualitative methods and rarely considering both approaches. As a result, relevant theories have been developed without taking into consideration cases outside these sites using a more comprehensive methodological approach. This chapter presents a case study of urban multilingualism in Ningbo in Eastern China to demonstrate how investigations of non-Western/non-English multilingual settings incorporating interdisciplinary methodologies can help to validate, challenge and, more importantly, expand our understanding of the sociolinguistics of multilingual identity, both theoretically and methodologically. Informed by a variationist approach and mixed-methods designs, the case study not only presents the multilingual sociolinguistic reality of Ningbo, but also shows how an interdisciplinary perspective enriches the field of sociolinguistics.
This chapter discusses the changing local and global contexts in which Chinese (i.e., one or more Chinese languages or dialects) is being learned by multilingual youth and adults. Case studies of heritage- and non-heritage transnational learners of Mandarin in Canada, the United States, Australia and China illustrate the multi-scalar influences and enactments of larger geopolitical initiatives, ideologies, investments, and power relations in Chinese education and the many forms of Chinese-involved multilingualism(s) that can result. The chapter then explores how these and other factors shape learners’ identities, forms of agency, and linguistic histories as well as their trajectories and (sometimes fraught) subjectivities as multilingual Sinophones. The chapter concludes with a call for additional research representing a wider range of multilingualisms, raciolinguistic identities (especially among non-Anglophone learners), and migration histories and trajectories in Chinese language learning.
Maternal gestational weight gain (GWG) is an important determinant of infant birth weight, and having adequate total GWG has been widely recommended. However, the association of timing of GWG with birth weight remains controversial. We aimed to evaluate this association, especially among women with adequate total GWG. In a prospective cohort study, pregnant women’s weight was routinely measured during pregnancy, and their GWG was calculated for the ten intervals: the first 13, 14–18, 19–23, 24–28, 29–30, 31–32, 33–34, 35–36, 37–38 and 39–40 weeks. Birth weight was measured, and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) and large-for-gestational-age were assessed. Generalized linear and Poisson models were used to evaluate the associations of GWG with birth weight and its outcomes after multivariate adjustment, respectively. Of the 5049 women, increased GWG in the first 30 weeks was associated with increased birth weight for male infants, and increased GWG in the first 28 weeks was associated with increased birth weight for females. Among 1713 women with adequate total GWG, increased GWG percent between 14 and 23 weeks was associated with increased birth weight. Moreover, inadequate GWG between 14 and 23 weeks, compared with the adequate GWG, was associated with an increased risk of SGA (43 (13·7 %) v. 42 (7·2 %); relative risk 1·83, 95 % CI 1·21, 2·76). Timing of GWG may influence infant birth weight differentially, and women with inadequate GWG between 14 and 23 weeks may be at higher risk of delivering SGA infants, despite having adequate total GWG.
Within the Chester Beatty Library, Dublin, is a small, but especially interesting anthology of Persian poetry. Although the manuscript's colophon is missing, the stylistic evidence of its badly damaged illustrations and illuminations indicates that it was produced in Shiraz in the 1430s or 1440s. The discussion considers two unusual features of the manuscript, the first of which is that seven folios of a type of paper, generally thought to be of Chinese manufacture, are included among its 171 folios of otherwise Islamic paper. As is typical of this so-called Chinese paper, the folios are coloured—in this case an olive green—and one is decorated with a gold painted design of what appears to be an immature fruit of some sort, along with lobed leaves on a curling vine. Equally intriguing are the scenes and patterns, painted exclusively in gold, that fill the margins of the folios throughout the manuscript. No other such margins are known in any other contemporary manuscript.
Little is known about the effects of dietary patterns on prevalent pre-eclampsia in Chinese population. This study aimed to investigate the associations between dietary patterns and the odds of pre-eclampsia among Chinese pregnant women. A 1:1 age- and gestational week-matched case–control study was conducted between March 2016 and February 2019. A total of 440 pairs of pre-eclampsia cases and healthy controls were included. Dietary intakes were assessed by a seventy-nine-item FFQ and subsequently grouped into twenty-eight distinct groups. Factor analysis using the principal component method was adopted to derive the dietary patterns. Conditional logistic regression was used to analyse the associations of dietary patterns with prevalent pre-eclampsia. We identified four distinct dietary patterns: high fruit-vegetable, high protein, high fat-grain and high salt-sugar. We found that high fruit-vegetable dietary pattern (quartile (Q)4 v. Q1, OR 0·71, 95 % CI 0·55, 0·92, Ptrend = 0·013) and high protein dietary pattern (Q4 v. Q1, OR 0·72, 95 % CI 0·54, 0·95, Ptrend = 0·011) were associated with a decreased odds of pre-eclampsia in Chinese pregnant women. Whereas high fat-grain dietary pattern showed a U-shaped association with pre-eclampsia, the lowest OR was observed in the third quartile (Q3 v. Q1, OR 0·75, 95 % CI 0·57, 0·98, Ptrend = 0·111). No significant association was observed for high salt-sugar dietary pattern. In conclusion, pregnancy dietary pattern characterised by high fruit-vegetable or high protein was found to be associated with a reduced odds of pre-eclampsia in Chinese pregnant women.
It is pervasive today in studies of the Chinese language for spoken instances to be used to support both spoken and written grammars. As made clear in Chapter 3, spoken and written languages require different grammars. Based on the process relations, controversial constructions in written Chinese are analysed in Chapter 7. These constructions include the following in which non-finiteness plays an indispensable role: serial verb construction, the so-called pivotal construction, existential construction, and other controversial constructions. In Chapters 6 and 7, the controversial issues of non-finiteness in English and Chinese are dealt with from the process-relation perspective and new findings are presented. Thus, the answer to the fourth research question is given.
There is limited evidence on fruit and vegetable intake in relation to cognitive function. This study aimed to evaluate the associations of quantity and variety in fruit and vegetable intake in midlife with cognitive impairment in late life. We used data from 16,737 participants of the Singapore Chinese Health Study, a population-based cohort study. The participants provided dietary data at recruitment at median age of 52.5 (range: 45-74) years, and also participated in the third follow-up interview 20 years later at median age of 72.2 (range: 61-96) years. Quantity and variety of fruits and vegetables consumed at baseline were measured using a validated food-frequency-questionnaire. Cognitive impairment at the third follow-up was defined using a Singapore-modified version of Mini-Mental State Examination. About 14.3% participants had cognitive impairment. In multivariable logistic regression models, comparing extreme quartiles for intake of fruits and vegetables combined, the odds ratio (OR) [95% confidence interval (CI)] associated with cognitive impairment was 0.83 (0.73, 0.95; P-trend=0.006) for quantity and 0.76 (0.67, 0.87; P-trend<0.001) for variety scores. Independently, those with increased variety of fruit intake or higher quantity of vegetable intake also had significantly 22% and 15% reduced odds of cognitive impairment, respectively. Finally, compared to those with low intake for both quantity and variety, those with both high quantity and variety scores for fruits and vegetables had 23% reduction in odds of cognitive impairment. In conclusion, increase in quantity and variety of fruits and vegetables in midlife may reduce the risk of cognitive impairment in late life.
Interpreters are hypothesized to anticipate the source language (SL) in comprehension and the target language (TL) in production to facilitate timely delivery. In two experiments, we examined whether interpreters make more predictions in SL comprehension in consecutive interpreting than in regular language comprehension and whether such enhanced prediction (if any) is constrained by cognitive resources. Participants were quicker at reading a predictable versus unpredictable critical word and/or following words (e.g., Without the sunglasses/hat, the sun will hurt your eyes on the beach, where eyes is the critical word), and the prediction effect was larger when they read to later interpret (into Chinese) than to later recall. The enhanced prediction in reading to interpret disappeared when the cognitive load was high, suggesting that SL prediction in interpreting requires cognitive resources. Our findings suggest that, when cognitive resources allow, interpreters engage in enhanced linguistic prediction in SL comprehension to facilitate the delivery of interpreting.
Since the early development of modern syntactic theory, empirical data from three major East Asian languages, Chinese, Japanese, and Korean, have often challenged empirical generalizations and theoretical proposals based on data from the better-studied Indo-European languages, especially English. Experimental syntax also began with studies of phenomena in English and other major Indo-European languages. More recently, however, a growing number of experimental syntactic studies have focused on East Asian languages, especially in the past decade. This chapter highlights three phenomena explored in the rapidly growing body of experimental syntactic research with Chinese, Japanese, and Korean: (i) split intransitivity, (ii) quantifier scope, and (iii) wh-in-situ. The goal of the chapter is to show that, while the literature on East Asian experimental syntax is still at an early stage, it has already accumulated interesting experimental data on syntactic phenomena with important theoretical implications.
The fourteenth century produced three great conquerors: The Ottoman Yildirim Bayazid, Tokhtamysh of the Jochid Ulus, and Temür (Tamerlane) from Transoxiana. Tamerlane, aiming to dominate the former Mongol Empire and the Islamic world, defeated Bayazid and Tokhtamysh, but established administration only over the lands of the Ilkhanate and the western Chaghadayid lands. Separate identities developed among the descendants of the steppe nomads; nomad Anatolian powers traced descent from the mythical Oghuz Khan of the Turk Khaghanate, while Turco-Mongolians in the eastern regions remained faithful to the Chinggisid tradition according to which only descendants of Chinggis Khan could hold sovereign power. Temür suppressed tribal organization in his army and administration, but tribalism increased in borderlands, notably Anatolia. In the mid-fifteenth century, the tribal confederations of Anatolia – first the Qaraqoyunlu and then the Aqqoyunlu – took over western and central Iran. From this time on, tribes became central to the military and provincial organization of Iran. The courts of the period patronized literature and art in a mixture of Chinese, Central Asia and Islamic traditions, and Turkic became a language of high culture.