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The development of glufosinate-resistant soybean cultivars has created opportunities for use of glufosinate applied postemergence for weed control. Four field experiments were conducted in 2021 and 2022 to ascertain the effect of glufosinate rate and the addition of ammonium sulfate on annual weed control in glyphosate/glufosinate/2,4-D–resistant soybean. An increased glufosinate rate of 500 from 300 g ai ha−1 improved control of common ragweed, common lambsquarters, redroot pigweed, and foxtail species and resulted in decreased density and dry biomass of common lambsquarters and foxtail species. The addition of ammonium sulfate to glufosinate increased control of common lambsquarters, 2 and 8 wk after application (WAA), and of foxtail species, 2, 4, and 8 WAA, but did not improve control of common ragweed and redroot pigweed. Increasing the dose of glufosinate from 300 to 500 g ai ha−1 improves control of common ragweed, redroot pigweed, common lambsquarters, and foxtail species; however, the benefit of the addition of ammonium sulfate to glufosinate is weed species-specific.
Limited information exists on the global economic impact of glyphosate-resistant (GR) weeds. The objective of this manuscript was to estimate the potential yield and economic loss from uncontrolled GR weeds in the major field crops grown in Ontario, Canada. The impact of GR weed interference on field crop yield was determined using an extensive database of field trials completed on commercial farms in southwestern Ontario between 2010 and 2021. Crop yield loss was estimated by expert opinion (weed scientists and Ontario government crop specialists) when research data were unavailable. This manuscript assumes that crop producers adjust their weed management programs to control GR weeds, which increases weed management costs but reduces crop yield loss from GR weed interference by 95%. GR volunteer corn, horseweed, waterhemp, giant ragweed, and common ragweed would cause an annual monetary loss of (in millions of Can$) $172, $104, $11, $3, and $0.3, respectively, for a total annual loss of $290 million if Ontario farmers did not adjust their weed management programs to control GR biotypes. The increased herbicide cost to control GR volunteer corn, horseweed, waterhemp, giant ragweed, and common ragweed in the major field crops in Ontario is estimated to be (in millions of Can$) $17, $9, $2, $0.1, and $0.02, respectively, for a total increase in herbicide expenditures of $28 million annually. Reduced GR weed interference with the adjusted weed management programs would reduce farm-gate monetary crop loss by 95% from $290 million to $15 million. This study estimates that GR weeds would reduce the farm-gate value of the major field crops produced in Ontario by Can$290 million annually if Ontario farmers did not adjust their weed management programs, but with increased herbicide costs of Can$28 million and reduced crop yield loss of 95% the actual annual monetary loss in Ontario is estimated to be Can$43 million annually.
Tolpyralate is commonly mixed with atrazine for improved control of common annual weed species in corn production systems in the United States and Canada. Weed control efficacy with this mixture is enhanced with the addition of methylated seed oil (MSO) Concentrate®; however, there is little information on the efficacy of tolpyralate + atrazine with other proprietary adjuvants. Therefore, four trials were conducted at field research sites in Ontario, Canada, to evaluate the efficacy of tolpyralate + atrazine when applied with six different commercially available adjuvants on four annual broadleaf and two annual grass weed species in corn. The adjuvants evaluated were MSO Concentrate®, Agral® 90, Assist® Oil Concentrate, Carrier®, LI 700®, and Merge®. A treatment of tolpyralate + atrazine applied with no adjuvant was also included in the study. For the control of velvetleaf and wild mustard, the adjuvants evaluated with tolpyralate + atrazine did not improve control. At 8 wk after application (WAA), the use of Agral® 90, Assist® Oil Concentrate, Carrier®, MSO Concentrate®, or Merge® with tolpyralate + atrazine provided similar or greater control of common ragweed than tolpyralate + atrazine applied with LI 700®. At 8 WAA, the adjuvants performed similarly with tolpyralate + atrazine for the control of common lambsquarters; however, LI 700® was the only adjuvant that did not improve control compared to tolpyralate + atrazine applied without an adjuvant. At 8 WAA, MSO Concentrate®, Carrier®, and Merge® improved control of barnyardgrass and foxtail species with tolpyralate + atrazine to a similar or greater level than Assist® Oil Concentrate, Agral® 90, and LI 700®. Overall, MSO Concentrate®, Carrier®, or Merge® should be added to tolpyralate + atrazine for control of the myriad of weed species interfering with corn production.
Tolpyralate is a 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase–inhibiting herbicide that is applied postemergence for control of annual broadleaf and grass weeds in corn. Current Canadian label recommendations for tolpyralate specify the addition of a methylated seed oil (MSO) adjuvant (MSO Concentrate®) for improved weed control. The efficacy of tolpyralate applied with other proprietary adjuvants has not been widely reported in the peer-reviewed literature. Therefore, four field trials were conducted in corn over 2020 and 2021 in Ontario, Canada, to evaluate MSO Concentrate®, Agral® 90 (nonionic surfactant), Assist® Oil Concentrate (blended surfactant), Carrier® (blended surfactant), LI 700® (nonionic surfactant), and Merge® (blended surfactant) as adjuvants with tolpyralate for the control of annual broadleaf and grass weeds. At 8 wk after application (WAA), tolpyralate applied with MSO Concentrate®, Agral® 90, Assist® Oil Concentrate, Carrier®, or Merge® controlled velvetleaf, wild mustard, barnyardgrass, and foxtail species similarly. These adjuvants also enhanced the efficacy of tolpyralate similarly for the control of common ragweed at 8 WAA with the exception that Agral® 90 was inferior to Merge®. At 8 WAA, tolpyralate controlled common lambsquarters the greatest when applied with MSO Concentrate®, Agral® 90, Carrier®, or Merge®; these adjuvants with the exception of Agral® 90 were superior to Assist® Oil Concentrate. At 8 WAA, tolpyralate applied with LI 700® controlled common ragweed, barnyardgrass, and foxtail species less than when tolpyralate was applied with the other adjuvants tested; control of these weed species with tolpyralate was not improved with LI 700® when compared to tolpyralate applied without an adjuvant. Overall, tolpyralate applied with either MSO Concentrate®, Carrier®, or Merge® controlled all annual broadleaf and grass weed species similarly or greater than tolpyralate applied without an adjuvant or tolpyralate with Agral® 90, Assist® Oil Concentrate, or LI 700® at 8 WAA.
Tolpyralate is a new 4-hydroxyphenyl-pyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD)–inhibiting herbicide for weed control in corn. Previous research has reported efficacy of tolpyralate + atrazine on several annual grass and broadleaf weed species; however, no studies have evaluated weed control of tolpyralate + atrazine depending on time-of-day (TOD) of application. Six field experiments were conducted over a 2-yr period (2018, 2019) near Ridgetown, ON, to determine if there is an effect of TOD of application on tolpyralate + atrazine efficacy on common annual grass and broadleaf weeds. An application was made at 3-h intervals beginning at 06:00 h with the last application at 24:00 h. There was a slight TOD effect on velvetleaf, pigweed species, and common ragweed control with tolpyralate + atrazine; however, the magnitude of change throughout the day was ≤3% at 2, 4, or 8 wk after application (WAA). There was no effect of TOD of tolpyralate + atrazine on the control of lambsquarters, barnyardgrass, and green foxtail. All weed species were controlled ≥88% at 8 WAA. There was no effect of TOD of tolpyralate + atrazine application on corn yield. Results of this study show no evidence of a TOD effect on weed control efficacy with tolpyralate + atrazine.
Residual herbicides are routinely applied to control troublesome weeds in pumpkin production. Fluridone and acetochlor, Groups 12 and 15 herbicides, respectively, provide broad-spectrum PRE weed control. Field research was conducted in Virginia and New Jersey to evaluate pumpkin tolerance and weed control to PRE herbicides. Treatments consisted of fomesafen at two rates, ethalfluralin, clomazone, halosulfuron, fluridone, S-metolachlor, acetochlor emulsifiable concentrate (EC), acetochlor microencapsulated (ME), and no herbicide. At one site, fluridone, acetochlor EC, acetochlor ME, and halosulfuron injured pumpkin 81%, 39%, 34%, and 35%, respectively, at 14 d after planting (DAP); crop injury at the second site was 40%, 8%, 19%, and 33%, respectively. Differences in injury between the two sites may have been due to the amount and timing of rainfall after herbicides were applied. Fluridone provided 91% control of ivyleaf morningglory and 100% control of common ragweed at 28 DAP. Acetochlor EC controlled redroot pigweed 100%. Pumpkin treated with S-metolachlor produced the most yield (10,764 fruits ha–1) despite broadcasting over the planted row; labeling requires a directed application to row-middles. A separate study specifically evaluated fluridone applied PRE at 42, 84, 126, 168, 252, 336, and 672 g ai ha–1. Fluridone resulted in pumpkin injury ≥95% when applied at rates of ≥168 g ai ha–1; significant yield loss was noted when the herbicide was applied at rates >42 g ai ha–1. We concluded that fluridone and acetochlor formulations are unacceptable candidates for pumpkin production.
Understanding how plants alter their growth in response to interplant competition is an overlooked but complex problem. Previous studies have characterized the effect of light and water stress on soybean or common ragweed growth in monoculture, but no study has characterized soybean and common ragweed growth in mixture. A field study was conducted in 2015 and 2016 at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln to characterize the growth response of soybean and common ragweed with different irrigation levels and intraspecific and interspecific interference. The experiment was arranged in a split-plot design with irrigation level (0, 50%, 100% replacement of simulated evapotranspiration) as the main plot and common ragweed density (0, 2, 6, 12 plants m−1 row) as the subplot. Crop- and weed-free controls and three mixture treatments were included as subplots. Periodic destructive samples of leaf area and biomass of different organ groups were collected, and leaf area index (LAI), aboveground biomass partitioning, specific leaf area (SLA), and leaf area ratio (LAR) were calculated. Additionally, soybean and common ragweed yield were harvested, and 100-seed weight and seed production were determined. Soybean did not alter biomass partitioning, SLA, or LAR in mixture with common ragweed. Soybean LAI, biomass, and seed size were affected by increasing common ragweed density. Conversely, common ragweed partitioned less new biomass to leaves and increased SLA in response to increased interference. Common ragweed LAI, biomass, and seed number were reduced by the presence of soybean and increasing common ragweed density; however, seed weight was not affected. Results show that adjustment in biomass partitioning, SLA, and LAR is not the method that soybean uses to remain plastic under competition for light. Common ragweed demonstrated plasticity in both biomass partitioning and SLA, indicating an ability to maintain productivity under intra- and inter-specific competition for light or soil resources.
A model for determination of economic thresholds, or minimum weed population densities justifying the use of postemergence herbicide treatment, for five weed species in soybeans [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is presented. Sensitivity analysis was performed on the model with respect to economic, statistical, and agronomic variables. The model was refined to include uncertainty about lost field days during the spraying period. Predictions from both the simple and refined models were consistent with economic theory. It was also determined that the economic threshold is sensitive to choice of data-collection ranges and functional form in weed-interference studies.
The introduction of the ragweed leaf beetle in the South of Russia in 1978–1989 was
accompanied by a number of spectacular phenomena that determined the general success of
the ragweed control and further dispersal and acclimatization of the beetles:
(i) formation of solitary population waves (SPW), characterized by an
extremely high density of the phytophage population at the narrow band of the front of a
moving wave defoliating nearly all ragweed plants, and (ii) rapid, within
5-6 generations, development of flight in the leaf beetle species that in its homeland
lost the ability to fly. We present here a demogenetic model capable of reproducing both
these phenomena, assuming that the flight ability of a phytophage population is governed
by a single diallelic locus with flight and flightless alleles that determine three
genotypes of the ragweed leaf beetle. Simulation results agree well with the practical
recommendation of retaining a high density of common ragweed in the release area in order
to provide the necessary conditions for the initial increase of the leaf beetle population
and the formation of the wave. The model confirms the earlier hypothesis that the SPW is
the key factor that determines efficiency of weed biocontrol program. We demonstrate also
that the formation of the wave has crucially accelerated the development of the beetles’
ability to fly.
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