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We couple a multi-type stochastic epidemic process with a directed random graph, where edges have random weights (traversal times). This random graph representation is used to characterise the fractions of individuals infected by the different types of vertices among all infected individuals in the large population limit. For this characterisation, we rely on the theory of multi-type real-time branching processes. We identify a special case of the two-type model in which the fraction of individuals of a certain type infected by individuals of the same type is maximised among all two-type epidemics approximated by branching processes with the same mean offspring matrix.
In this paper we derive nonasymptotic upper bounds for the size of reachable sets in random graphs. These bounds are subject to a phase transition phenomenon triggered by the spectral radius of the hazard matrix, a reweighted version of the adjacency matrix. Such bounds are valid for a large class of random graphs, called local positive correlation (LPC) random graphs, displaying local positive correlation. In particular, in our main result we state that the size of reachable sets in the subcritical regime for LPC random graphs is at most of order O(√n), where n is the size of the network, and of order O(n2/3) in the critical regime, where the epidemic thresholds are driven by the size of the spectral radius of the hazard matrix with respect to 1. As a corollary, we also show that such bounds hold for the size of the giant component in inhomogeneous percolation, the SIR model in epidemiology, as well as for the long-term influence of a node in the independent cascade model.
In this paper we consider the integral functionals of the general epidemic model up to its extinction. We develop a new approach to determine the exact Laplace transform of such integrals. In particular, we obtain the Laplace transform of the duration of the epidemic T, the final susceptible size ST, the area under the trajectory of the infectives AT, and the area under the trajectory of the susceptibles BT. The method relies on the construction of a family of martingales and allows us to solve simple recursive relations for the involved parameters. The Laplace transforms are then expanded in terms of a special class of polynomials. The analysis is generalized in part to Markovian epidemic processes with arbitrary state-dependent rates.
We provide a qualitative analysis of a system of nonlinear differential equations that model the spread of alcoholism through a population. Alcoholism is viewed as an infectious disease and the model treats it within a sir framework. The model exhibits two generic types of steady-state diagram. The first of these is qualitatively the same as the steady-state diagram in the standard sir model. The second exhibits a backwards transcritical bifurcation. As a consequence of this, there is a region of bistability in which a population of problem drinkers can be sustained, even when the reproduction number is less than one. We obtain a succinct formula for this scenario when the transition between these two cases occurs.
The classical SIR epidemic model is generalized to incorporate a detection process of infectives in the course of time. Our purpose is to determine the exact distribution of the population state at the first detection instant and the following ones. An extension is also discussed that allows the parameters to change with the number of detected cases. The followed approach relies on simple martingale arguments and uses a special family of Abel–Gontcharoff polynomials.
We analyse the asymptotic behaviour of a biological system described by a stochastic competition model with
resources (chemostat model), in which the species mortality rates are influenced by the fractional Brownian motion of the extrinsic noise environment. By constructing a Lyapunov functional, the persistence and extinction criteria are derived in the mean square sense. Some examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the theoretical result.
In this paper we aim to apply simple actuarial methods to build an insurance plan protecting against an epidemic risk in a population. The studied model is an extended SIR epidemic in which the removal and infection rates may depend on the number of registered removals. The costs due to the epidemic are measured through the expected epidemic size and infectivity time. The premiums received during the epidemic outbreak are measured through the expected susceptibility time. Using martingale arguments, a method by recursion is developed to calculate the cost components and the corresponding premium levels in this extended epidemic model. Some numerical examples illustrate the effect of removals and the premium calculation in an insurance plan.
The shapes of branching trees have been linked to disease transmission patterns. In this paper we use the general Crump‒Mode‒Jagers branching process to model an outbreak of an infectious disease under mild assumptions. Introducing a new class of characteristic functions, we are able to derive a formula for the limit of the frequency of the occurrences of a given shape in a general tree. The computational challenges concerning the evaluation of this formula are in part overcome using the jumping chronological contour process. We apply the formula to derive the limit of the frequency of cherries, pitchforks, and double cherries in the constant-rate birth‒death model, and the frequency of cherries under a nonconstant death rate.
We prove that, for Poisson transmission and recovery processes, the classic susceptible→infected→recovered (SIR) epidemic model of Kermack and McKendrick provides, for any given time t>0, a strict lower bound on the expected number of susceptibles and a strict upper bound on the expected number of recoveries in the general stochastic SIR epidemic. The proof is based on the recent message passing representation of SIR epidemics applied to a complete graph.
In this paper we are concerned with a stochastic model for the spread of an epidemic in a closed homogeneously mixing population when an infective can go through several stages of infection before being removed. The transitions between stages are governed by either a Markov process or a semi-Markov process. An infective of any stage makes contacts amongst the population at the points of a Poisson process. Our main purpose is to derive the distribution of the final epidemic size and severity, as well as an approximation by branching, using simple matrix analytic methods. Some illustrations are given, including a model with treatment discussed by Gani (2006).
We study a susceptible–infected–susceptible reaction–diffusion model with spatially heterogeneous disease transmission and recovery rates. A basic reproduction number is defined for the model. We first prove that there exists a unique endemic equilibrium if . We then consider the global attractivity of the disease-free equilibrium and the endemic equilibrium for two cases. If the disease transmission and recovery rates are constants or the diffusion rate of the susceptible individuals is equal to the diffusion rate of the infected individuals, we show that the disease-free equilibrium is globally attractive if , while the endemic equilibrium is globally attractive if .
Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) is frequently used when sampling from hidden populations. In RDS, sampled individuals pass on participation coupons to at most c of their acquaintances in the community (c = 3 being a common choice). If these individuals choose to participate, they in turn pass coupons on to their acquaintances, and so on. The process of recruiting is shown to behave like a new Reed–Frost-type network epidemic, in which 'becoming infected' corresponds to study participation. We calculate R0, the probability of a major 'outbreak', and the relative size of a major outbreak for c < ∞ in the limit of infinite population size and compare to the standard Reed–Frost epidemic. Our results indicate that c should often be chosen larger than in current practice.
During the course of a day an individual typically mixes with different groups of individuals. Epidemic models incorporating population structure with individuals being able to infect different groups of individuals have received extensive attention in the literature. However, almost exclusively the models assume that individuals are able to simultaneously infect members of all groups, whereas in reality individuals will typically only be able to infect members of any group they currently reside in. In this paper we develop a model where individuals move between a community and their household during the course of the day, only infecting within their current group. By defining a novel branching process approximation with an explicit expression for the probability generating function of the offspring distribution, we are able to derive the probability of a major epidemic outbreak.
We propose a class of random scale-free spatial networks with nested community structures called SHEM and analyze Reed–Frost epidemics with community related independent transmissions. We show that in a specific example of the SHEM the epidemic threshold may be trivial or not as a function of the relation among community sizes, distribution of the number of communities, and transmission rates.
Density dependent Markov population processes in large populations of size N were shown by Kurtz (1970), (1971) to be well approximated over finite time intervals by the solution of the differential equations that describe their average drift, and to exhibit stochastic fluctuations about this deterministic solution on the scale √N that can be approximated by a diffusion process. Here, motivated by an example from evolutionary biology, we are concerned with describing how such a process leaves an absorbing boundary. Initially, one or more of the populations is of size much smaller than N, and the length of time taken until all populations have sizes comparable to N then becomes infinite as N → ∞. Under suitable assumptions, we show that in the early stages of development, up to the time when all populations have sizes at least N1-α for 1/3 < α < 1, the process can be accurately approximated in total variation by a Markov branching process. Thereafter, it is well approximated by the deterministic solution starting from the original initial point, but with a random time delay. Analogous behaviour is also established for a Markov process approaching an equilibrium on a boundary, where one or more of the populations become extinct.
We give an exponential tail approximation for the extinction time of a subcritical multitype branching process arising from the SIR epidemic model on a random graph with given degrees, where the type corresponds to the vertex degree. As a corollary we obtain a Gumbel limit law for the extinction time, when beginning with a large population. Our contribution is to allow countably many types (this corresponds to unbounded degrees in the random graph epidemic model, as the number of vertices tends to∞). We only require a second moment for the offspring-type distribution featuring in our model.
For a Markov two-dimensional death-process of a special class we consider the use of Fourier methods to obtain an exact solution of the Kolmogorov equations for the exponential (double) generating function of the transition probabilities. Using special functions, we obtain an integral representation for the generating function of the transition probabilities. We state the expression of the expectation and variance of the stochastic process and establish a limit theorem.
We model the transmission of a message on the complete graph with n vertices and limited resources. The vertices of the graph represent servers that may broadcast the message at random. Each server has a random emission capital that decreases at each emission. Quantities of interest are the number of servers that receive the information before the capital of all the informed servers is exhausted and the exhaustion time. We establish limit theorems (law of large numbers, central limit theorem and large deviation principle), as n → ∞, for the proportion of informed vertices before exhaustion and for the total duration. The analysis relies on a construction of the transmission procedure as a dynamical selection of successful nodes in a Galton–Watson tree with respect to the success epochs of the coupon collector problem.