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Vibration energy harvesting aims to harness the energy of ambient random vibrations for power generation, particularly in small-scale devices. Typically, stochastic excitation driving the harvester is modelled as a Brownian process and the dynamics are studied in the equilibrium state. However, non-Brownian excitations are of interest, particularly in the nonequilibrium regime of the dynamics. In this work we study the nonequilibrium dynamics of a generic piezoelectric harvester driven by Brownian as well as (non-Brownian) Lévy flight excitation, both in the linear and the Duffing regimes. Both the monostable and the bistable cases of the Duffing regime are studied. The first set of results demonstrate that Lévy flight excitation results in higher expectation values of harvested power. In particular, it is shown that increasing the noise intensity leads to a significant increase in power output. It is also shown that a linearly coupled array of nonlinear harvesters yields improved power output for tailored values of coupling coefficients. The second set of results show that Lévy flight excitation fundamentally alters the bifurcation characteristics of the dynamics. Together, the results underscore the importance of non-Brownian excitation characterised by Lévy flight in vibration energy harvesting, both from a theoretical viewpoint and from the perspective of practical applications.
This work investigates analytically, the use of piezoelectric tiles placed on stairways for vibrational energy harvesting – harnessing electrical power from natural vibrational phenomena – from pedestrian footfalls. While energy harvesting from pedestrian traffic along flat pathways has been studied in the linear regime and realised in practical applications, the greater amounts of energy naturally expended in traversing stairways suggest better prospects for harvesting. Considering the characteristics of two types of commercially available piezoelectric tiles – Navy Type III and Navy Type V – analytical models for the coupled electromechanical system are formulated. The harvesting potential of the tiles is then studied under conditions of both deterministic and carefully developed random excitation profiles for three distinct cases: linear, monostable nonlinear and an array of monostable nonlinear tiles on adjacent steps with linear coupling between them. The results indicate enhanced power output when the tiles are: (1) placed on stairways, (2) uncoupled and (3) subjected to excitation profiles with stochastic frequency. In addition, the Navy Type V tiles are seen to outperform the Navy Type III tiles. Finally, the strongly nonlinear regime outperforms the linear one suggesting that the realisation of commercially available piezoelectric tiles with appropriately tailored nonlinear characteristics will likely have a significant impact on energy harvesting from pedestrian traffic.
This study investigates the phenomenon of targeted energy transfer (TET) from a linear oscillator to a nonlinear attachment behaving as a nonlinear energy sink for both transient and stochastic excitations. First, the dynamics of the underlying Hamiltonian system under deterministic transient loading is studied. Assuming that the transient dynamics can be partitioned into slow and fast components, the governing equations of motion corresponding to the slow flow dynamics are derived and the behaviour of the system is analysed. Subsequently, the effect of noise on the slow flow dynamics of the system is investigated. The Itô stochastic differential equations for the noisy system are derived and the corresponding Fokker–Planck equations are numerically solved to gain insights into the behaviour of the system on TET. The effects of the system parameters as well as noise intensity on the optimal regime of TET are studied. The analysis reveals that the interaction of nonlinearities and noise enhances the optimal TET regime as predicted in deterministic analysis.
An approximate analytical solution is derived for a certain class of stochastic differential equations with constant diffusion, but nonlinear drift coefficients. Specifically, a closed form expression is derived for the response process transition probability density function (PDF) based on the concept of the Wiener path integral and on a Cauchy–Schwarz inequality treatment. This is done in conjunction with formulating and solving an error minimisation problem by relying on the associated Fokker–Planck equation operator. The developed technique, which requires minimal computational cost for the determination of the response process PDF, exhibits satisfactory accuracy and is capable of capturing the salient features of the PDF as demonstrated by comparisons with pertinent Monte Carlo simulation data. In addition to the mathematical merit of the approximate analytical solution, the derived PDF can be used also as a benchmark for assessing the accuracy of alternative, more computationally demanding, numerical solution techniques. Several examples are provided for assessing the reliability of the proposed approximation.
New directions in Markov processes and research on master equations are showcased by example. The utility of Magnus expansions for handling time-varying rates is demonstrated. The useful notion in applied mathematics often turns out to be the pseudospectra and not simply the eigenvalues. We highlight that general principle with our own examples of Markov processes where exact eigenvalues are found and contrasted with the large errors produced by standard numerical methods. As a motivating application, isomerisation provides a running example and an illustration of our approaches to chemical kinetics. We also present a brief example of a totally asymmetric exclusion process.
This paper is devoted to numerical methods for mean-field stochastic differential equations (MSDEs). We first develop the mean-field Itô formula and mean-field Itô-Taylor expansion. Then based on the new formula and expansion, we propose the Itô-Taylor schemes of strong order γ and weak order η for MSDEs, and theoretically obtain the convergence rate γ of the strong Itô-Taylor scheme, which can be seen as an extension of the well-known fundamental strong convergence theorem to the mean-field SDE setting. Finally some numerical examples are given to verify our theoretical results.
In error estimates of various numerical approaches for solving decoupled forward backward stochastic differential equations (FBSDEs), the rate of convergence for one variable is usually less than for the other. Under slightly strengthened smoothness assumptions, we show that the fully discrete Euler scheme admits a first-order rate of convergence for both variables.
The numerical solution of large-scale PDEs, such as those occurring in data-driven applications, unavoidably require powerful parallel computers and tailored parallel algorithms to make the best possible use of them. In fact, considerations about the parallelization and scalability of realistic problems are often critical enough to warrant acknowledgement in the modelling phase. The purpose of this paper is to spread awareness of the Probabilistic Domain Decomposition (PDD) method, a fresh approach to the parallelization of PDEs with excellent scalability properties. The idea exploits the stochastic representation of the PDE and its approximation via Monte Carlo in combination with deterministic high-performance PDE solvers. We describe the ingredients of PDD and its applicability in the scope of data science. In particular, we highlight recent advances in stochastic representations for non-linear PDEs using branching diffusions, which have significantly broadened the scope of PDD. We envision this work as a dictionary giving large-scale PDE practitioners references on the very latest algorithms and techniques of a non-standard, yet highly parallelizable, methodology at the interface of deterministic and probabilistic numerical methods. We close this work with an invitation to the fully non-linear case and open research questions.
The deferred correction (DC) method is a classical method for solving ordinary differential equations; one of its key features is to iteratively use lower order numerical methods so that high-order numerical scheme can be obtained. The main advantage of the DC approach is its simplicity and robustness. In this paper, the DC idea will be adopted to solve forward backward stochastic differential equations (FBSDEs) which have practical importance in many applications. Noted that it is difficult to design high-order and relatively “clean” numerical schemes for FBSDEs due to the involvement of randomness and the coupling of the FSDEs and BSDEs. This paper will describe how to use the simplest Euler method in each DC step–leading to simple computational complexity–to achieve high order rate of convergence.
This is one of our series papers on multistep schemes for solving forward backward stochastic differential equations (FBSDEs) and related problems. Here we extend (with non-trivial updates) our multistep schemes in [W. Zhao, Y. Fu and T. Zhou, SIAM J. Sci. Comput., 36 (2014), pp. A1731-A1751] to solve the second-order FBSDEs (2FBSDEs). The key feature of the multistep schemes is that the Euler method is used to discretize the forward SDE, which dramatically reduces the entire computational complexity. Moreover, it is shown that the usual quantities of interest (e.g., the solution tuple (Yt,Zt,At,Γt) of the 2FBSDEs) are still of high order accuracy. Several numerical examples are given to show the effectiveness of the proposed numerical schemes. Applications of our numerical schemes to stochastic optimal control problems are also presented.
We study the construction of symplectic Runge-Kutta methods for stochastic Hamiltonian systems (SHS). Three types of systems, SHS with multiplicative noise, special separable Hamiltonians and multiple additive noise, respectively, are considered in this paper. Stochastic Runge-Kutta (SRK) methods for these systems are investigated, and the corresponding conditions for SRK methods to preserve the symplectic property are given. Based on the weak/strong order and symplectic conditions, some effective schemes are derived. In particular, using the algebraic computation, we obtained two classes of high weak order symplectic Runge-Kutta methods for SHS with a single multiplicative noise, and two classes of high strong order symplectic Runge-Kutta methods for SHS with multiple multiplicative and additive noise, respectively. The numerical case studies confirm that the symplectic methods are efficient computational tools for long-term simulations.
In this paper, we propose a compact scheme to numerically study the coupled stochastic nonlinear Schrödinger equations. We prove that the compact scheme preserves the discrete stochastic multi-symplectic conservation law, discrete charge conservation law and discrete energy evolution law almost surely. Numerical experiments confirm well the theoretical analysis results. Furthermore, we present a detailed numerical investigation of the optical phenomena based on the compact scheme. By numerical experiments for various amplitudes of noise, we find that the noise accelerates the oscillation of the soliton and leads to the decay of the solution amplitudes with respect to time. In particular, if the noise is relatively strong, the soliton will be totally destroyed. Meanwhile, we observe that the phase shift is sensibly modified by the noise. Moreover, the numerical results present inelastic interaction which is different from the deterministic case.
In this paper, we investigate the mean-square convergence of the split-step θ-scheme for nonlinear stochastic differential equations with jumps. Under some standard assumptions, we rigorously prove that the strong rate of convergence of the split-step θ-scheme in strong sense is one half. Some numerical experiments are carried out to assert our theoretical result.
By introducing a new Gaussian process and a new compensated Poisson random measure, we propose an explicit prediction-correction scheme for solving decoupled forward backward stochastic differential equations with jumps (FBSDEJs). For this scheme, we first theoretically obtain a general error estimate result, which implies that the scheme is stable. Then using this result, we rigorously prove that the accuracy of the explicit scheme can be of second order. Finally, we carry out some numerical experiments to verify our theoretical results.
Based on the martingale theory and large deviation techniques, we investigate the pth moment exponential stability criterion of the exact and numerical solutions to hybrid stochastic differential equations (SDEs) under the local Lipschitz condition. This new stability criterion shows that Markovian switching can serve as a stochastic stabilizing factor by its logarithmic moment-generating function. We also investigate the pth moment exponential stability of Euler–Maruyama (EM), backward EM (BEM) and split-step backward EM (SSBEM) approximations for hybrid SDEs and show that, under the additional linear growth condition, the EM method can share the mean-square exponential stability of the exact solution for sufficiently small step size. However, the BEM method can work without the linear growth condition. We further investigate the SSBEM method under a coupled condition.
Various numerical methods have been developed in order to solve complex systems with uncertainties, and the stochastic collocation method using l1-minimisation on low discrepancy point sets is investigated here. Halton and Sobol' sequences are considered, and low discrepancy point sets and random points are compared. The tests discussed involve a given target function in polynomial form, high-dimensional functions and a random ODE model. Our numerical results show that the low discrepancy point sets perform as well or better than random sampling for stochastic collocation via l1-minimisation.
Upon a set of backward orthogonal polynomials, we propose a novel multi-step numerical scheme for solving the decoupled forward-backward stochastic differential equations (FBSDEs). Under Lipschtiz conditions on the coefficients of the FBSDEs, we first get a general error estimate result which implies zero-stability of the proposed scheme, and then we further prove that the convergence rate of the scheme can be of high order for Markovian FBSDEs. Some numerical experiments are presented to demonstrate the accuracy of the proposed multi-step scheme and to numerically verify the theoretical results.
The Doss-Sussmann (DS) approach is used for uniform simulation of the Cox-Ingersoll-Ross (CIR) process. The DS formalism allows us to express trajectories of the CIR process through solutions of some ordinary differential equation (ODE) depending on realizations of a Wiener process involved. By simulating the first-passage times of the increments of the Wiener process to the boundary of an interval and solving the ODE, we uniformly approximate the trajectories of the CIR process. In this respect special attention is payed to simulation of trajectories near 0. From a conceptual point of view the proposed method gives a better quality of approximation (from a pathwise point of view) than standard, even exact, simulation of the stochastic differential equation at some deterministic time grid.
In this paper, we are concerned with probabilistic high order numerical schemes
for Cauchy problems of fully nonlinear parabolic PDEs. For such parabolic PDEs,
it is shown by Cheridito, Soner, Touzi and Victoir  that the associated exact
solutions admit probabilistic interpretations, i.e., the solution of a fully
nonlinear parabolic PDE solves a corresponding second order forward backward
stochastic differential equation (2FBSDEs). Our numerical schemes rely on
solving those 2FBSDEs, by extending our previous results [W. Zhao, Y. Fu and T.
Zhou, SIAM J. Sci. Comput., 36 (2014), pp. A1731-A1751.]. Moreover, in our
numerical schemes, one has the flexibility to choose the associated forward SDE,
and a suitable choice can significantly reduce the computational complexity.
Various numerical examples including the HJB equations are presented to show the
effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed numerical schemes.
Convergence analysis is presented for recently proposed multistep schemes, when applied to a special type of forward-backward stochastic differential equations (FB-SDEs) that arises in finance and stochastic control. The corresponding k-step scheme admits a k-order convergence rate in time, when the exact solution of the forward stochastic differential equation (SDE) is given. Our analysis assumes that the terminal conditions and the FBSDE coefficients are sufficiently regular.