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We present a metric condition $\TTMetric$ which describes the geometry of classical small cancellation groups and applies also to other known classes of groups such as two-dimensional Artin groups. We prove that presentations satisfying condition $\TTMetric$ are diagrammatically reducible in the sense of Sieradski and Gersten. In particular, we deduce that the standard presentation of an Artin group is aspherical if and only if it is diagrammatically reducible. We show that, under some extra hypotheses, $\TTMetric$-groups have quadratic Dehn functions and solvable conjugacy problem. In the spirit of Greendlinger's lemma, we prove that if a presentation P = 〈X| R〉 of group G satisfies conditions $\TTMetric -C'(\frac {1}{2})$, the length of any nontrivial word in the free group generated by X representing the trivial element in G is at least that of the shortest relator. We also introduce a strict metric condition $\TTMetricStrict$, which implies hyperbolicity.
The main objective of this paper is the following two results. (1) There exists a computable bi-orderable group that does not have a computable bi-ordering; (2) there exists a bi-orderable, two-generated computably presented solvable group with undecidable word problem. Both of the groups can be found among two-generated solvable groups of derived length $3$.
(1) [a]nswers a question posed by Downey and Kurtz; (2) answers a question posed by Bludov and Glass in Kourovka Notebook.
One of the technical tools used to obtain the main results is a computational extension of an embedding theorem of B. Neumann that was studied by the author earlier. In this paper we also compliment that result and derive new corollaries that might be of independent interest.
In this paper we continue the study of right-angled Artin groups up to commensurability initiated in [CKZ]. We show that RAAGs defined by different paths of length greater than 3 are not commensurable. We also characterise which RAAGs defined by paths are commensurable to RAAGs defined by trees of diameter 4. More precisely, we show that a RAAG defined by a path of length n > 4 is commensurable to a RAAG defined by a tree of diameter 4 if and only if n ≡ 2 (mod 4). These results follow from the connection that we establish between the classification of RAAGs up to commensurability and linear integer-programming.
A permutoid is a set of partial permutations that contains the identity and is such that partial compositions, when defined, have at most one extension in the set. In 2004 Peter Cameron conjectured that there can exist no algorithm that determines whether or not a permutoid based on a finite set can be completed to a finite permutation group. In this note we prove Cameron’s conjecture by relating it to our recent work on the profinite triviality problem for finitely presented groups. We also prove that the existence problem for finite developments of rigid pseudogroups is unsolvable. In an appendix, Steinberg recasts these results in terms of inverse semigroups.
It is well known that a finitely generated group ${\rm\Gamma}$ has Kazhdan’s property (T) if and only if the Laplacian element ${\rm\Delta}$ in $\mathbb{R}[{\rm\Gamma}]$ has a spectral gap. In this paper, we prove that this phenomenon is witnessed in $\mathbb{R}[{\rm\Gamma}]$. Namely, ${\rm\Gamma}$ has property (T) if and only if there exist a constant ${\it\kappa}>0$ and a finite sequence ${\it\xi}_{1},\ldots ,{\it\xi}_{n}$ in $\mathbb{R}[{\rm\Gamma}]$ such that ${\rm\Delta}^{2}-{\it\kappa}{\rm\Delta}=\sum _{i}{\it\xi}_{i}^{\ast }{\it\xi}_{i}$. This result suggests the possibility of finding new examples of property (T) groups by solving equations in $\mathbb{R}[{\rm\Gamma}]$, possibly with the assistance of computers.
In response to questions by Kassabov, Nikolov and Shalev, we show that a given subset A of a finite simple group G is the image of some word map w : G × G → G if and only if (i) A contains the identity and (ii) A is invariant under Aut(G).
Some recent results of Khukhro and Makarenko on the existence of characteristic -subgroups of finite index in a group G, for certain varieties , are used to obtain generalisations of some well-known results in the literature pertaining to groups G, in which all proper subgroups satisfy some condition or other related to the property ‘soluble-by-finite’. In addition, a partial generalisation is obtained for the aforementioned results on the existence of characteristic subgroups.
The computation of growth series for the higher Baumslag–Solitar groups is an open problem first posed by de la Harpe and Grigorchuk. We study the growth of the horocyclic subgroup as the key to the overall growth of these Baumslag–Solitar groups BS(p,q), where 1<p<q. In fact, the overall growth series can be represented as a modified convolution product with one of the factors being based on the series for the horocyclic subgroup. We exhibit two distinct algorithms that compute the growth of the horocyclic subgroup and discuss the time and space complexity of these algorithms. We show that when p divides q, the horocyclic subgroup has a geodesic combing whose words form a context-free (in fact, one-counter) language. A theorem of Chomsky–Schützenberger allows us to compute the growth series for this subgroup, which is rational. When p does not divide q, we show that no geodesic combing for the horocyclic subgroup forms a context-free language, although there is a context-sensitive geodesic combing. We exhibit a specific linearly bounded Turing machine that accepts this language (with quadratic time complexity) in the case of BS(2,3) and outline the Turing machine construction in the general case.
The first main result of the paper is a criterion for a partially commutative group $\mathbb{G}$ to be a domain. It allows us to reduce the study of algebraic sets over $\mathbb{G}$ to the study of irreducible algebraic sets, and reduce the elementary theory of $\mathbb{G}$ (of a coordinate group over $\mathbb{G}$) to the elementary theories of the direct factors of $\mathbb{G}$ (to the elementary theory of coordinate groups of irreducible algebraic sets).
Then we establish normal forms for quantifier-free formulas over a non-abelian directly indecomposable partially commutative group $\mathbb{H}$. Analogously to the case of free groups, we introduce the notion of a generalised equation and prove that the positive theory of $\mathbb{H}$ has quantifier elimination and that arbitrary first-order formulas lift from $\mathbb{H}$ to $\mathbb{H}\,*\,F$, where $F$ is a free group of finite rank. As a consequence, the positive theory of an arbitrary partially commutative group is decidable.
We show that the conjugacy problem is solvable in [finitely generated free]-by-cyclic groups, by using a result of O. Maslakova that one can algorithmically find generating sets for the fixed subgroups of free group automorphisms, and one of P. Brinkmann that one can determine whether two cyclic words in a free group are mapped to each other by some power of a given automorphism. We also solve the power conjugacy problem, and give an algorithm to recognize whether two given elements of a finitely generated free group are twisted conjugated to each other with respect to a given automorphism.
The class of co-context-free groups is studied. A co-context-free group is defined as one whose co-word problem (the complement of its word problem) is context-free. This class is larger than the subclass of context-free groups, being closed under the taking of finite direct products, restricted standard wreath products with context-free top groups, and passing to finitely generated subgroups and finite index overgroups. No other examples of co-context-free groups are known. It is proved that the only examples amongst polycyclic groups or the Baumslag–Solitar groups are virtually abelian. This is done by proving that languages with certain purely arithmetical properties cannot be context-free; this result may be of independent interest.
Further properties of a group $\Gamma$ introduced by the first author in 1980 (sometimes called the first Grigorchuk group) are established. These are notably that any two infinite finitely generated subgroups of $\Gamma$ have isomorphic subgroups of finite index and that the generalized word problem for $\Gamma$ is soluble.
Properties such as automaticity, growth and decidability are investigated for the class of finitely generated semigroups which have regular sets of unique normal forms. Knowledge obtained is then applied to the task of demonstrating that a class of semigroups derived from free inverse semigroups under certain closure operations is not automatic.
We derive a necessary and sufficient condition for $\text{HNN}$-extensions of cyclic subgroup separable groups with cyclic associated subgroups to be cyclic subgroup separable. Applying this, we explicitly characterize the residual finiteness and the cyclic subgroup separability of $\text{HNN}$-extensions of abelian groups with cyclic associated subgroups. We also consider these residual properties of $\text{HNN}$-extensions of nilpotent groups with cyclic associated subgroups.
We show that the group F discovered by Richard Thompson in 1965 has a subexponential upper bound for its Dehn function. This disproves a conjecture by Gersten. We also prove that F has a regular terminating confluent presentation.
We prove that generalized free products of finitely generated free-byfinite groups amalgamating a cyclic subgroup are subgroup separable. From this it follows that if where t ≥ 1 and u, v are words on {a1,...,am} and {b1,...,bn} respectively then G is subgroup separable thus generalizing a result in [9] that such groups have solvable word problems.
The following theorem is proved: Suppose R is a ring with identity which satisfies the identities xkyk = ykxk and xlyl = ylxl, where k and l are positive relatively prime integers. Then R is commutative. This theorem also holds for a group G. Furthermore, examples are given which show that neither R nor G need be commutative if either of the above identities is dropped. The proof of the commutativity of R uses the fact that G is commutative, where G is taken to be the group R* of units in R.
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