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We present a discrete-type approximation scheme to solve continuous-time optimal stopping problems based on fully non-Markovian continuous processes adapted to the Brownian motion filtration. The approximations satisfy suitable variational inequalities which allow us to construct
-optimal stopping times and optimal values in full generality. Explicit rates of convergence are presented for optimal values based on reward functionals of path-dependent stochastic differential equations driven by fractional Brownian motion. In particular, the methodology allows us to design concrete Monte Carlo schemes for non-Markovian optimal stopping time problems as demonstrated in the companion paper by Bezerra et al.
It is well understood that a supercritical continuous-state branching process (CSBP) is equal in law to a discrete continuous-time Galton–Watson process (the skeleton of prolific individuals) whose edges are dressed in a Poissonian way with immigration which initiates subcritical CSBPs (non-prolific mass). Equally well understood in the setting of CSBPs and superprocesses is the notion of a spine or immortal particle dressed in a Poissonian way with immigration which initiates copies of the original CSBP, which emerges when conditioning the process to survive eternally. In this article we revisit these notions for CSBPs and put them in a common framework using the well-established language of (coupled) stochastic differential equations (SDEs). In this way we are able to deal simultaneously with all types of CSBPs (supercritical, critical, and subcritical) as well as understanding how the skeletal representation becomes, in the sense of weak convergence, a spinal decomposition when conditioning on survival. We have two principal motivations. The first is to prepare the way to expand the SDE approach to the spatial setting of superprocesses, where recent results have increasingly sought the use of skeletal decompositions to transfer results from the branching particle setting to the setting of measure valued processes. The second is to provide a pathwise decomposition of CSBPs in the spirit of genealogical coding of CSBPs via Lévy excursions, albeit precisely where the aforesaid coding fails to work because the underlying CSBP is supercritical.
We introduce variance-optimal semi-static hedging strategies for a given contingent claim. To obtain a tractable formula for the expected squared hedging error and the optimal hedging strategy we use a Fourier approach in a multidimensional factor model. We apply the theory to set up a variance-optimal semi-static hedging strategy for a variance swap in the Heston model, which is affine, in the 3/2 model, which is not, and in a market model including jumps.
We study the stochastic cubic nonlinear Schrödinger equation (SNLS) with an additive noise on the one-dimensional torus. In particular, we prove local well-posedness of the (renormalized) SNLS when the noise is almost space–time white noise. We also discuss a notion of criticality in this stochastic context, comparing the situation with the stochastic cubic heat equation (also known as the stochastic quantization equation).
In large storage systems, files are often coded across several servers to improve reliability and retrieval speed. We study load balancing under the batch sampling routeing scheme for a network of n servers storing a set of files using the maximum distance separable (MDS) code (cf. Li (2016)). Specifically, each file is stored in equally sized pieces across L servers such that any k pieces can reconstruct the original file. When a request for a file is received, the dispatcher routes the job into the k-shortest queues among the L for which the corresponding server contains a piece of the file being requested. We establish a law of large numbers and a central limit theorem as the system becomes large (i.e. n → ∞), for the setting where all interarrival and service times are exponentially distributed. For the central limit theorem, the limit process take values in ℓ2, the space of square summable sequences. Due to the large size of such systems, a direct analysis of the n-server system is frequently intractable. The law of large numbers and diffusion approximations established in this work provide practical tools with which to perform such analysis. The power-of-d routeing scheme, also known as the supermarket model, is a special case of the model considered here.
This work investigates analytically, the use of piezoelectric tiles placed on stairways for vibrational energy harvesting – harnessing electrical power from natural vibrational phenomena – from pedestrian footfalls. While energy harvesting from pedestrian traffic along flat pathways has been studied in the linear regime and realised in practical applications, the greater amounts of energy naturally expended in traversing stairways suggest better prospects for harvesting. Considering the characteristics of two types of commercially available piezoelectric tiles – Navy Type III and Navy Type V – analytical models for the coupled electromechanical system are formulated. The harvesting potential of the tiles is then studied under conditions of both deterministic and carefully developed random excitation profiles for three distinct cases: linear, monostable nonlinear and an array of monostable nonlinear tiles on adjacent steps with linear coupling between them. The results indicate enhanced power output when the tiles are: (1) placed on stairways, (2) uncoupled and (3) subjected to excitation profiles with stochastic frequency. In addition, the Navy Type V tiles are seen to outperform the Navy Type III tiles. Finally, the strongly nonlinear regime outperforms the linear one suggesting that the realisation of commercially available piezoelectric tiles with appropriately tailored nonlinear characteristics will likely have a significant impact on energy harvesting from pedestrian traffic.
Vibration energy harvesting aims to harness the energy of ambient random vibrations for power generation, particularly in small-scale devices. Typically, stochastic excitation driving the harvester is modelled as a Brownian process and the dynamics are studied in the equilibrium state. However, non-Brownian excitations are of interest, particularly in the nonequilibrium regime of the dynamics. In this work we study the nonequilibrium dynamics of a generic piezoelectric harvester driven by Brownian as well as (non-Brownian) Lévy flight excitation, both in the linear and the Duffing regimes. Both the monostable and the bistable cases of the Duffing regime are studied. The first set of results demonstrate that Lévy flight excitation results in higher expectation values of harvested power. In particular, it is shown that increasing the noise intensity leads to a significant increase in power output. It is also shown that a linearly coupled array of nonlinear harvesters yields improved power output for tailored values of coupling coefficients. The second set of results show that Lévy flight excitation fundamentally alters the bifurcation characteristics of the dynamics. Together, the results underscore the importance of non-Brownian excitation characterised by Lévy flight in vibration energy harvesting, both from a theoretical viewpoint and from the perspective of practical applications.
This study investigates the phenomenon of targeted energy transfer (TET) from a linear oscillator to a nonlinear attachment behaving as a nonlinear energy sink for both transient and stochastic excitations. First, the dynamics of the underlying Hamiltonian system under deterministic transient loading is studied. Assuming that the transient dynamics can be partitioned into slow and fast components, the governing equations of motion corresponding to the slow flow dynamics are derived and the behaviour of the system is analysed. Subsequently, the effect of noise on the slow flow dynamics of the system is investigated. The Itô stochastic differential equations for the noisy system are derived and the corresponding Fokker–Planck equations are numerically solved to gain insights into the behaviour of the system on TET. The effects of the system parameters as well as noise intensity on the optimal regime of TET are studied. The analysis reveals that the interaction of nonlinearities and noise enhances the optimal TET regime as predicted in deterministic analysis.
Results on the behaviour of a pendulum which is parametrically excited by large amplitude random loads at its pivot are presented, including a novel experimental case study. Thereby, it is dealt with a random excitation by a non-white Gaussian stochastic process with prescribed spectral density. Special focus is devoted to stochastic processes resulting from random sea wave elevation and the question whether random sea waves can lead to rotational motion of the parametrically excited pendulum. The motivation for such an experimental study is energy harvesting from ocean waves.
We consider a finite-time optimal consumption problem where an investor wants to maximize the expected hyperbolic absolute risk aversion utility of consumption and terminal wealth. We treat a stochastic factor model in which the mean returns of risky assets depend linearly on underlying economic factors formulated as the solutions of linear stochastic differential equations. We discuss the partial information case in which the investor cannot observe the factor process and uses only past information of risky assets. Then our problem is formulated as a stochastic control problem with partial information. We derive the Hamilton–Jacobi–Bellman equation. We solve this equation to obtain an explicit form of the value function and the optimal strategy for this problem. Moreover, we also introduce the results obtained by the martingale method.
We provide an elementary method for exploring pricing problems of one spread options within a fractional Wick–Itô–Skorohod integral framework. Its underlying assets come from two different interactive markets that are modelled by two mixed fractional Black–Scholes models with Hurst parameters,
. Pricing formulae of these options with respect to strike price
are given, and their application to the real market is examined.
Left-invariant PDE-evolutions on the roto-translation group SE(2)(and their resolvent equations) have been widely studied in the fields of cortical modeling and image analysis. They include hypo-elliptic diffusion (for contour enhancement) proposed by Citti & Sarti, and Petitot, and they include the direction process (for contour completion) proposed by Mumford. This paper presents a thorough study and comparison of the many numerical approaches, which, remarkably, are missing in the literature. Existing numerical approaches can be classified into 3 categories: Finite difference methods, Fourier based methods (equivalent to SE(2)-Fourier methods), and stochastic methods (Monte Carlo simulations). There are also 3 types of exact solutions to the PDE-evolutions that were derived explicitly (in the spatial Fourier domain) in previous works by Duits and van Almsick in 2005. Here we provide an overview of these 3 types of exact solutions and explain how they relate to each of the 3 numerical approaches. We compute relative errors of all numerical approaches to the exact solutions, and the Fourier based methods show us the best performance with smallest relative errors. We also provide an improvement of Mathematica algorithms for evaluating Mathieu-functions, crucial in implementations of the exact solutions. Furthermore, we include an asymptotical analysis of the singularities within the kernels and we propose a probabilistic extension of underlying stochastic processes that overcomes the singular behavior in the origin of time-integrated kernels. Finally, we show retinal imaging applications of combining left-invariant PDE-evolutions with invertible orientation scores.
We consider a stochastic evolutionary model for a phenotype developing amongst n related species with unknown phylogeny. The unknown tree is modelled by a Yule process conditioned on n contemporary nodes. The trait value is assumed to evolve along lineages as an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process. As a result, the trait values of the n species form a sample with dependent observations. We establish three limit theorems for the sample mean corresponding to three domains for the adaptation rate. In the case of fast adaptation, we show that for large n the normalized sample mean is approximately normally distributed. Using these limit theorems, we develop novel confidence interval formulae for the optimal trait value.
We study optimal double stopping problems driven by a Brownian bridge. The objective is to maximize the expected spread between the payoffs achieved at the two stopping times. We study several cases where the solutions can be solved explicitly by strategies of a threshold type.
In this work, we develop a minimum action method (MAM) with optimal linear time scaling, called tMAM for short. The main idea is to relax the integration time as a functional of the transition path through optimal linear time scaling such that a direct optimization of the integration time is not required. The Feidlin-Wentzell action functional is discretized by finite elements, based on which h-type adaptivity is introduced to tMAM. The adaptive tMAM does not require reparametrization for the transition path. It can be applied to deal with quasi-potential: 1) When the minimal action path is subject to an infinite integration time due to critical points, tMAM with a uniform mesh converges algebraically at a lower rate than the optimal one. However, the adaptive tMAM can recover the optimal convergence rate. 2) When the minimal action path is subject to a finite integration time, tMAM with a uniform mesh converges at the optimal rate since the problem is not singular, and the optimal integration time can be obtained directly from the minimal action path. Numerical experiments have been implemented for both SODE and SPDE examples.
Chladni figures are formed when particles scattered across a plate move due to an external harmonic force resonating with one of the natural frequencies of the plate. Chladni figures are precisely the nodal set of the vibrational mode corresponding to the frequency resonating with the external force. We propose a plausible model for the movement of the particles that explains the formation of Chladni figures in terms of the stochastic stability of the equilibrium solutions of stochastic differential equations.
In this paper we study Nash equilibrium payoffs for nonzero-sum stochastic differential games with two reflecting barriers. We obtain an existence and a characterization of Nash equilibrium payoffs for nonzero-sum stochastic differential games with nonlinear cost functionals defined by doubly controlled reflected backward stochastic differential equations with two reflecting barriers.
In this paper we study the optimal dividend payments for a company of limited liability whose cash reserves in the absence of dividends follow a Markov-modulated jump-diffusion process with positive drifts and negative exponential jumps, where parameters and discount rates are modulated by a finite-state irreducible Markov chain. The main aim is to maximize the expected cumulative discounted dividend payments until bankruptcy time when cash reserves are nonpositive for the first time. We extend the results of Jiang and Pistorius  to our setup by proving that it is optimal to adopt a modulated barrier strategy at certain positive regime-dependent levels and that the value function can be explicitly characterized as the fixed point of a contraction.
We consider explicit formulae for equilibrium prices in a continuous-time vertical contracting model. A manufacturer sells goods to a retailer, and the objective of both parties is to maximize expected profits. Demand is an Itô-Lévy process, and to increase realism, information is delayed. We provide complete existence and uniqueness proofs for a series of special cases, including geometric Brownian motion and the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process, both with time-variable coefficients. Moreover, explicit solution formulae are given, so these results are operational. An interesting finding is that information that is more precise may be a considerable disadvantage for the retailer.