the bidirectional cavopulmonary anastomosis is commonly used in the palliation of patients with a functionally univentricular physiology. the management of alternative sources of flow of blood to the lungs, as well as the magnitude of acceptable accessory blood flow at the time of surgery, nonetheless, remains controversial. these issues are particularly significant when a cavopulmonary anastomosis is performed in infants who may become candidates for a fontan procedure. indeed, a long-standing volume overload, which is invariably associated with the maintenance of accessory sources of pulmonary blood flow, may result in systemic ventricular dysfunction. these observations prompted us to review the influence of antegrade pulmonary blood flow in the management of infants undergoing a cavopulmonary anastomosis.