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A slow positron beam was used to investigate the solid state reaction of Co/Si and Co/Ti/Si. Variable-energy (0-20 keV) positrons were implanted into samples at different depths. The Doppler broadening of the annihilation -y-ray energy spectra, measured at a number of different incident positron energies were characterized a line-shape parameter “5”. It was found that the measured S parameters were sensitive to thin film reaction and crystalline characteristics. In particular, the S parameter of epitaxial CoSi2 formed by the ternary reaction was quit different from that of the polycrystalline CoSi2 formed by direct reaction of Co with Si.
The effect of ion implantation on the formation and light emitting properties of porous silicon is reported. Si + , F+ ions were implanted into silicon wafers before electrochemical etching process. The experiments showed that porous structure can be formed on the wafer containing amorphous layer, while the porosity distribution with the depth changed greatly compared with the anodized crystalline Si. The implantation of F+ ions greatly affects the formation mechanism. The creation of point defects leads to red-shift in photoluminescence measurements.
Dual implantations of Si+ and P+ into InP:Fe were performed both at 200°C and room temperature. Si+ ions were implanted by 150keV with doses ranging from 5×1013 /cm2 to 1×1015 /cm2, while P+ ions were implanted by 110keV. 160keV and 180keV with doses ranging from 1×l013 /cm2 to 1×1015 /cm2. Hall measurements and photoluminescence spectra were used to characterize the silicon nitride encapsulated annealed samples. It was found that enhanced activation can be obtained by Si+ and P+ dual implantations. The optimal condition for dual implantations is that the atomic distribution of implanted P overlaps that of implanted si with the same implant dose. For a dose of 5×l014 /cm2, the highest activation for dual implants is 70% while the activation for single implant is 40% after annealing at 750°C for 15 minutes. PL spectrum measurement was carried out at temperatures from 11K to 100K. A broad band at about 1.26eV was found in Si+ implanted samples, of which the intensity increased with increasing of the Si dose and decreased with increasing of the co-implant P+ dose. The temperature dependence of the broad band showed that it is a complex (Vp-Sip) related band. All these results indicate that silicon is an amphoteric species in InP.
150keV Si* ions and 160keV P* ions were implanted at 200°C with doses ranging from 5x1013 to 1x1015/cm2 to study the effect of dual implantations on the electrical properties of Fe doped InP. Samples encapsulated with Si3N4 films of about 1000Å were annealed in a halogen tungsten lamp RTA system under flowing N2 at different temperatures from 700 to 900°C for 5s. It has been found that Si*+P* dual implantations into InP can result in an enhanced activation, particularly significant at high dose of implantation. The maximum dopant activation and average electron mobility for Si*+P* dual implants at a dose of 1×1015/cm2 are 70% and 750cm2/vs, which corresponds to a peak electron concentration of 5×1019/cm3 while that for Si* single implant at the same dose are 29% and 870cm2/vs, which corresponds to a peak electron concentration of 1.2×10 19/cm3. The improvement of the electrical properties is discussed in terms of amphoteric behavior of silicon in InP.
Three types of ions with different atomic masses (B , Ar and As ) were chosen to irradiate polyimide films in similar conditions in order to check mechanisms of the formation of ion beam induced damage in polyimide. A four-point probe technique was used to measure sheet resistivities of implanted films. An ion mass effect on conductivity of ion irradiated polyimide film was discovered. The ion mass effect on ion beam induced change of conductivity and on the energy loss process of the ions in polyimide suggest that the electronic energy loss of incident ions is an important factor for the increase of conductivity of implanted polyimide, and the contributions of recoil ionization are restricted by the grave damages as a result of nuclear energy loss process of ions in targets. Our hypothesis is supported by automatic spreading resistance measurement of B implanted polyimide film coated on silicon substrate. The results of this work have been compared with the hypothesis of degradation through direct knock on of atoms in polyimide, proposed by D.Fink et al [Nucl. Instr. and Meths B32 (1988) 125]
The damage behavior of <100>-Si implanted with P2+ and P+ ions at equivalent energies were investigated by 2MeV He* backscattering and channeling analysis. Different incident energies (25-90keV/atom) and intermediate doses (1013–1014/cm2) were used for the implantation with sample holder being kept at temperatures ranging from 77k to 483K. It has been shown that the damage created by P2* implants is always greater than that of P2+ implants when the dosage is below the threshold fluence at which amorphization takes place. This damage enhancement phenomenon is strongly related to implantation temperature. A striking damage enhancement induced by 90 keV/atom P2+ implants in the surface region of the sample was observed, and it has been attributed to the multiple collision effect between diatomic ions and host atoms.
Titanium nitride films have been synthesized at room temperature by alternate deposition of titanium and bombardment by nitrogen ions with an energy of 40KeV. The component depth profiles and the structure of titanium nitride films were investigated by means of RBS, AES, TEM, XPS and X-ray diffraction. The results showed that titanium nitride films formed by ion beam enhanced deposition (IBED) had columnar structure and were mainly composed of TiN crystallites with random orientation. The oxygen contamination in titanium nitride films prepared by IBED was less than that of the deposited film without nitrogen ion bombardment. It was confirmed that a significant intermixed layer exists at the interface. The thickness of this layer was about 40 nm for the film prepared on iron plate. The mechanical properties of the film have been investigated. The films formed by IBED exhibited high hardness, improved wear resistance and low friction.
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