A diverse assemblage of Carboniferous plant fossils occurs in the upper Benxi Formation at
the Kaihuagou Section near Taiyuan, Shanxi, China. It consists of impressions and fusain fragments,
the latter revealing anatomical details. Unlike previously published assemblages from the Benxi
Formation, there are no pteridosperms, but a predominance of noeggerathioids and fern fragments.
There are three new species: Achlamydocarpon taiyuanensis, Conchophyllum suboblongifolium, and
the first reported example of a Selaginella from the Carboniferous System of China, S. benxiensis.
The arborescent lycophytes do not to belong to Lepidodendron, as previously claimed, but to
Synchysidendron, and three new combinations are therefore proposed for species from the Benxi
Formation: S. galeatum, S. subrhombicum and S. tripunctatum. The Benxi Formation flora represents
a transition between the tropical swamp vegetation represented in the Westphalian floras of Europe
and North America, and the Stephanian and Permian Cathaysian floras of China. It is evidence of an
essential continuity between the Late Palaeozoic vegetation of the western and eastern tropics, which
should be united as a single phytochorion, the Amerosinian Realm.