To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Pinaki P. Banerjee, Center for Immunotherapy of Cancer and Infectious Diseases, University of Connecticut School of Medicine, Farmington, Connecticut, U.S.A.,
Zihai Li, Center for Immunotherapy of Cancer and Infectious Diseases, University of Connecticut School of Medicine, Farmington, Connecticut, U.S.A.
Tumour antigens can be broadly classified into four categories: (i) those that are expressed in larger quantities in tumours than their normal counterparts (e.g., tumour-associated carbohydrate antigens) , (ii) onco-fetal antigens (e.g., carcinoembryonic antigen) , (iii) differentiation antigens (e.g., melanoma differentiation antigen) [3, 4] and (iv) tumour-specific antigens. Tumour antigens in the first three categories could serve as useful markers for diagnostic and prognostic purposes. Although some of these antigens are being used in immunotherapy, none can be called tumour-specific in a true sense. Only the last group includes antigens that are truly specific for tumour cells, in that they contain tumour-specific mutations that are unique for individual tumours such as the tumour-specific point mutation that is found in cyclin-dependent kinase-4. Such a mutation gives rise to a novel antigenic epitope which can be recognised by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) . However, for these antigens to be of any value as therapeutic agents, they must be detected in and epitopes isolated from a large range of cancers, and this makes the general use of these antigens difficult.
In the past two decades, evidence has accumulated to support the concept that molecular chaperones or heat shock proteins can be used as a potent source of cancer vaccines [6, 7]. Molecular chaperones, particularly those derived from the Hsp70 and Hsp90 families, are now being tested in the clinical arena for therapeutic efficacy against a range of cancers (Table 18.1).
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.