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Existing literature has highlighted the importance of recognizing health fraud offenders’ intentional manipulations of victims’ vulnerabilities. However, the manipulation tactics of health fraud have received little attention. This study aims to extend the current understanding of health fraud by incorporating the concept of emotional labour. Nested in the Chinese context, which owns the most populous ageing population, three sets of qualitative data were collected, including 13 semi-structured interviews, 233 judicial documents, and 197 media reports. The findings suggest that health fraud offenders utilized three types of emotional labour as means of committing crime: including the labour of anxiety relief, the labour of filial piety, and the labour of social networking. This article not only provides novel insights into understanding health fraud, but also contributes to introducing the concept of emotional labour in criminological and socio-legal studies.
In this behavioral and electrophysiological study, we compare novel word learning, particularly lexical form acquisition, in an immersive virtual reality (VR) context with a picture-word (PW) association context. We also test whether inhibitory control and age of second language acquisition (L2 AoA) have modulating effects. Chinese speakers of L2 English learned two sets of German words, one set in each of the contexts. Behavioral performance from a subsequent recognition task indicated that responses to VR-learned words were faster than PW-leaned words. ERPs revealed that VR-learned words elicited more negative N100 and N200 waveforms than PW-learned words. Moreover, a significant relationship between L2 AoA and N200 amplitude was observed for VR-learned words. Taken together, the results suggest that the multi-sensory, interactive experience simulated by an immersive VR context has a positive effect on early lexical form acquisition of novel words.
As intense, ultrashort, kHz-repetition-rate laser systems become commercially available, pulse cumulative effects are critical for laser filament-based applications. In this work, the pulse repetition-rate effect on femtosecond laser filamentation in air was investigated both numerically and experimentally. The pulse repetition-rate effect has negligible influence at the leading edge of the filament. Clear intensity enhancement from a high-repetition pulse is observed at the peak and tailing edge of the laser filament. As the repetition rate of the laser pulses increases from 100 to 1000 Hz, the length of the filament extends and the intensity inside the filament increases. A physical picture based on the pulse repetition-rate dependent ‘low-density hole’ effect on filamentation is proposed to explain the obtained results well.
We developed a mechanism model which allows for simulating the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) transmission dynamics with the combined effects of human adaptive behaviours and vaccination, aiming at predicting the end time of COVID-19 infection in global scale. Based on the surveillance information (reported cases and vaccination data) between 22 January 2020 and 18 July 2022, we validated the model by Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) fitting method. We found that (1) if without adaptive behaviours, the epidemic could sweep the world in 2022 and 2023, causing 3.098 billion of human infections, which is 5.39 times of current number; (2) 645 million people could be avoided from infection due to vaccination; and (3) in current scenarios of protective behaviours and vaccination, infection cases would increase slowly, levelling off around 2023, and it would end completely in June 2025, causing 1.024 billion infections, with 12.5 million death. Our findings suggest that vaccination and the collective protection behaviour remain the key determinants against the global process of COVID-19 transmission.
The purpose of this study was to analyse the clinical characteristics of patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-COV-2) PCR re-positivity after recovering from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Patients (n = 1391) from Guangzhou, China, who had recovered from COVID-19 were recruited between 7 September 2021 and 11 March 2022. Data on epidemiology, symptoms, laboratory test results and treatment were analysed. In this study, 42.7% of recovered patients had re-positive result. Most re-positive patients were asymptomatic, did not have severe comorbidities, and were not contagious. The re-positivity rate was 39%, 46%, 11% and 25% in patients who had received inactivated, mRNA, adenovirus vector and recombinant subunit vaccines, respectively. Seven independent risk factors for testing re-positive were identified, and a predictive model was constructed using these variables. The predictors of re-positivity were COVID-19 vaccination status, previous SARs-CoV-12 infection prior to the most recent episode, renal function, SARS-CoV-2 IgG and IgM antibody levels and white blood cell count. The predictive model could benefit the control of the spread of COVID-19.
Extensive research has shown abnormal cerebral blood flow (CBF) in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) that is a heritable disease. The objective of this study was to investigate the genetic mechanisms of CBF abnormalities in MDD.
To achieve a more thorough characterization of CBF changes in MDD, we performed a comprehensive neuroimaging meta-analysis of previous literature as well as examined group CBF differences in an independent sample of 133 MDD patients and 133 controls. In combination with the Allen Human Brain Atlas, transcriptome-neuroimaging spatial association analyses were conducted to identify genes whose expression correlated with CBF changes in MDD, followed by a set of gene functional feature analyses.
We found increased CBF in the reward circuitry and default-mode network and decreased CBF in the visual system in MDD patients. Moreover, these CBF changes were spatially associated with expression of 1532 genes, which were enriched for important molecular functions, biological processes, and cellular components of the cerebral cortex as well as several common mental disorders. Concurrently, these genes were specifically expressed in the brain tissue, in immune cells and neurons, and during nearly all developmental stages. Regarding behavioral relevance, these genes were associated with domains involving emotion and sensation. In addition, these genes could construct a protein-protein interaction network supported by 60 putative hub genes with functional significance.
Our findings suggest a cerebral perfusion redistribution in MDD, which may be a consequence of complex interactions of a wide range of genes with diverse functional features.
Direct numerical simulations of turbulent pipe flow subjected to streamwise-varying wall rotation are performed. This control method is able to achieve drag reduction and even relaminarize the flow under certain control parameters at friction Reynolds number $Re_\tau =180$. Two control parameters, which are velocity amplitude and wavelength, are considered. It is found that increasing the wavelength rather than increasing the amplitude seems to be a better choice to improve the control efficiency. An annular boundary layer, called the spatial Stokes layer (SSL), is formed by the wall rotation. Based on the thickness of the SSL, two types of drag-reduction scenarios can be identified roughly. When the thickness is low, the SSL acts as a spacer layer, inhibiting the formation of streamwise vortices and thereby reducing the shear stress. The flow structures outside the SSL are stretched in the streamwise direction due to the increased velocity gradient. Within the SSL, the turbulence intensity diminishes dramatically. When the thickness is large, a streamwise wavy pattern of near-wall streaks is formed. The streak orientation is dominated by the mean shear-strain vector outside the viscous sublayer, and there is a phase difference between the streak orientation and local mean velocity vector. The streamwise scales of near-wall flow structures are reduced significantly, resulting in the disruption of downstream development of flow structures and hence leading to the drag reduction. Furthermore, it is found that it requires both large enough thickness of the SSL and velocity amplitude to relaminarize the turbulence. The relaminarization mechanism is that the annular SSL can absorb energy continuously from wall-normal stress due to the rotational effect, thereby the turbulence self-sustaining process cannot be maintained. For the relaminarization cases, the laminar state is stable to even extremely large perturbations, which possibly makes the laminar state the only fixed point for the whole system.
The relationship of a diet low in fibre with mortality has not been evaluated. This study aims to assess the burden of non-communicable chronic diseases (NCD) attributable to a diet low in fibre globally from 1990 to 2019.
All data were from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study 2019, in which the mortality, disability-adjusted life-years (DALY) and years lived with disability (YLD) were estimated with Bayesian geospatial regression using data at global, regional and country level acquired from an extensively systematic review.
All data sourced from the GBD Study 2019.
All age groups for both sexes.
The age-standardised mortality rates (ASMR) declined in most GBD regions; however, in Southern sub-Saharan Africa, the ASMR increased from 4·07 (95 % uncertainty interval (UI) (2·08, 6·34)) to 4·60 (95 % UI (2·59, 6·90)), and in Central sub-Saharan Africa, the ASMR increased from 7·46 (95 % UI (3·64, 11·90)) to 9·34 (95 % UI (4·69, 15·25)). Uptrends were observed in the age-standardised YLD rates attributable to a diet low in fibre in a number of GBD regions. The burden caused by diabetes mellitus increased in Central Asia, Southern sub-Saharan Africa and Eastern Europe.
The burdens of disease attributable to a diet low in fibre in Southern sub-Saharan Africa and Central sub-Saharan Africa and the age-standardised YLD rates in a number of GBD regions increased from 1990 to 2019. Therefore, greater efforts are needed to reduce the disease burden caused by a diet low in fibre.
This paper theoretically studies the effect of eccentricity on the conditions of capillary emptying (determined by critical Bond number) in a horizontal annular tube in a downward gravity field. Experiments are conducted to compare with theoretical results. We find that non-horizontal eccentricity can lead to the occurrence of a re-entrant liquid-state transition (from liquid non-occlusion to liquid plug to liquid non-occlusion) with increasing Bond number, when the eccentricity (e) or inner-to-outer radius ratio (χ) is large enough, and the two liquid non-occlusion states correspond to different emptying mechanisms dominated by the gravity effect and the ‘wedge’ effect, respectively. Existence of the re-entrant transition is accompanied by occurrence of unconditional liquid non-occlusion at large enough or small enough contact angles regardless of Bond numbers. The critical Bond numbers at a contact angle γ for vertical upward eccentricity are equal to those at a contact angle 180° − γ for vertical downward eccentricity. In a parameter space (γ, e/(1 − χ)), the region with the re-entrant transition becomes larger with the eccentric angle varying from 0° (horizontal) to 90° (vertical). Optimization of geometrical parameters and inner and outer contact angles can lead to better effect of capillary emptying. This paper provides a very effective scheme for removing a liquid blockage from a capillary in optofluidics/microfluidics.
Steinernema populi n. sp. was recovered by baiting from beneath poplar trees in China. Morphological and molecular features provided evidence for placing the new species into the Kushidai clade. The new species is characterized by the following morphological features: third-stage infective juveniles (IJ) with a body length of 1095 (973–1172) μm, a distance from the anterior end to excretory pore of 77 (70–86) μm and a tail length of 64 (55–72) μm. The Body length/Tail length (c) ratio and Anterior end to Excretory pore/ Tail length × 100 (E%) of S. populi n. sp. are substantially greater than those of all other ‘Feltiae–Kushidai–Monticolum’ group members. The first-generation males can be recognized by a spicule length of 66 (57–77) μm and a gubernaculum length of 46 (38–60) μm. The new species is further characterized by sequences of the internal transcribed spacer and partial 28S regions of the ribosomal DNA. Phylogenetic analyses show that Steinernema akhursti and Steinernema kushidai are the closest relatives to S. populi n. sp.
The subduction model of the Neo-Tethys during the Early Cretaceous has always been a controversial topic, and the scarcity of Early Cretaceous magmatic rocks in the southern part of the Gangdese batholith is the main cause of this debate. To address this issue, this article presents new zircon U–Pb chronology, zircon Hf isotope, whole-rock geochemistry and Sr–Nd isotope data for the Early Cretaceous quartz diorite dykes with adakite affinity in Liuqiong, Gongga. Zircon U–Pb dating of three samples yielded ages of c. 141–137 Ma, indicating that the Liuqiong quartz diorite was emplaced in the Early Cretaceous. The whole-rock geochemical analysis shows that the Liuqiong quartz diorite is enriched in large-ion lithophile elements (LILEs) and light rare-earth elements (LREEs) and is depleted in high-field-strength elements (HFSEs), which are related to slab subduction. Additionally, the Liuqiong quartz diorite has high SiO2, Al2O3 and Sr contents, high Sr/Y ratios and low heavy rare-earth element (HREE) and Y contents, which are compatible with typical adakite signatures. The initial 87Sr/86Sr values of the Liuqiong adakite range from 0.705617 to 0.705853, and the whole-rock ϵNd(t) values vary between +5.78 and +6.24. The zircon ϵHf(t) values vary from +11.5 to +16.4. Our results show that the Liuqiong adakite magma was derived from partial melting of the Neo-Tethyan oceanic plate (mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) + sediment + fluid), with some degree of subsequent peridotite interaction within the overlying mantle wedge. Combining regional data, we favour the interpretation that the Neo-Tethyan oceanic crust was subducted at a low angle beneath the Gangdese during the Early Cretaceous.
We have grown intermetallic ErPd2Si2 single crystals employing laser diodes with the floating-zone method. The temperature dependence of the unit-cell parameters was determined using synchrotron and in-house X-ray powder diffraction measurements from 20 to 500 K. The diffraction patterns fit well with the tetragonal I4/mmm space group (No. 139) with two chemical formulae within the unit cell. The synchrotron powder diffraction study shows that the refined unit-cell parameters are a = 4.10320(2) Å, c = 9.88393(5) Å at 298 K and a = 4.11737(2) Å, c = 9.88143(5) Å at 500 K, resulting in the unit-cell volume V = 166.408(1) Å3 (298 K) and 167.517(2) Å3 (500 K). In the whole studied temperature range, no structural phase transition was observed. Upon cooling, the unit-cell parameters a and c are shortened and elongated, respectively.
A droplet impinging on a superhydrophobic substrate in an electric field is an important process in droplet manipulation and electrostatic spraying. Here, the entire impinging dynamic of the droplet in a vertical electric field is studied by a visualization experiment and numerical simulation with OpenFOAM. We investigate the effect of an electrostatic force on droplet impact in depth, where four ejection modes and three rebound modes are found experimentally. In particular, the filamentous ejecting phenomenon occurs after a droplet impinging on a superhydrophobic substrate is first discovered. In the numerical simulation, the strong coupling between the dynamic distribution of the interface electric charge and the evolution of the droplet profile can lead to different ejection modes, and the different ejection behaviours are caused by the combined effects of electrostatic pressure, capillary pressure, dynamic pressure and static pressure on the droplet apex. A charge scaling law for the ejection droplets is proposed. Furthermore, a set of theoretical models is established, which can successfully predict the threshold electric capillary number for different droplet ejection modes. The results reveal some important characteristics for a droplet impinging on a superhydrophobic surface in an electric field, which could facilitate the design of electrically operated droplet equipment and guide the safe and stable operation of the device.
Epidemiological studies on the association between the low carbohydrate diet (LCD) score and CVD risk factors have limited and inconsistent results. Data are from the baseline survey of Community-based Cohort Study on Nervous System Diseases. A total of 4609 adults aged ≥ 18 years were included in the study. Dietary data were assessed using a validated semi-quantitative FFQ. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to estimate relationships of three LCD scores with low HDL-cholesterol, high LDL-cholesterol, hypercholesterolaemia, hypertriacylglycerolaemia, impaired fasting glucose (IFG), high blood pressure and hyperuricaemia after adjusting for potential confounders. A higher LCD score was negatively associated with low HDL-cholesterol (OR: 0·65 (95 % CI 0·50, 0·83), P = 0·0001) and IFG (OR: 0·65 (95 % CI 0·51, 0·81), P = 0·001) after the final adjustment. However, there are sex differences in this result. Males in the highest quintile of the animal-based or plant-based LCD scores showed a decreased risk of low HDL-cholesterol, and females in the highest quintile of the animal-based or plant-based LCD scores showed a decreased risk of IFG than those in the lowest quintile of the LCD scores. These results suggest that sex differences should be considered when using LCD to treat dyslipidaemia and reduce fasting blood glucose.
Subthreshold depression (sD) negatively impacts well-being and psychosocial function and is more prevalent compared with major depressive disorder (MDD). However, as adults with sD are less likely to seek face-to-face intervention, internet-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (ICBT) may overcome barriers of accessibility to psychotherapy. Although several trials explored the efficacy of ICBT for sD, the results remain inconsistent. This study evaluated whether ICBT is effective in reducing depressive symptoms among Chinese adults with sD.
A randomized controlled trial was performed. The participants were randomly assigned to 5 weeks of ICBT, group-based face-to-face cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), or a waiting list (WL). Assessments were conducted at baseline, post-intervention and at a 6-month follow-up. The primary outcome measured depressive symptoms using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Outcomes were analyzed using a mixed-effects model to assess the effects of ICBT.
ICBT participants reported greater reductions on all the outcomes compared to the WL group at post-intervention. The ICBT group showed larger improvement on the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) at post-intervention (d = 0.12) and at follow-up (d = 0.10), and with CES-D at post-intervention (d = 0.06), compared to the CBT group.
ICBT is effective in reducing depressive symptoms among Chinese adults with sD, and improvements in outcomes were sustained at a 6-month follow-up. Considering the low rates of face-to-face psychotherapy, our findings highlight the considerable potential and implications for the Chinese government to promote the use of ICBT for sD in China.
A Glyptagnostus reticulatus (Angelin, 1851)–bearing trilobite assemblage has been found from an unnamed Cambrian formation in the Northern Qilian Mountains area, of which geographical placement in the Cambrian is contested. Glyptagnostus reticulatus is a biostratigraphic indicator of the Furongian Series and Paibian Stage, and three agnostoid and six polymerid taxa from the Changgou section, Daliang area are described herein, along with conspecific forms from the nearby Chuancigou section. This well-preserved assemblage shows strong taxonomic affinity with northwestern Queensland, Australia, and western Hunan–eastern Guizhou, China, and likely comes from deep outer-shelf to slope setting associated with the Northern Qilian arc. It is consistent with other arguments that during the Cambrian, the Northern Qilian arc, along with the Hexi Corridor of the Alxa terrane, were more closely allied to South China than to North China.
We investigated the drug resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from patients with tuberculosis (TB) and HIV, and those diagnosed with only TB in Sichuan, China. TB isolates were obtained from January 2018 to December 2020 and subjected to drug susceptibility testing (DST) to 11 anti-TB drugs and to GeneXpert MTB/RIF testing. The overall proportion of drug-resistant TB (DR-TB) isolates was 32.1% (n = 10 946). HIV testing was not universally available for outpatient TB cases, only 29.5% (3227/10 946) cases had HIV testing results. The observed proportion of multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) isolates was almost double than that of the national level, with approximately 1.5% and 0.1% of the isolates being extensively drug resistant and universally drug resistant, respectively. The proportions of resistant isolates were generally higher in 2018 and 2019 than in 2020. Furthermore, the sensitivities of GeneXpert during 2018–2020 demonstrated a downward trend (80.9, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 76.8–85.0; 80.2, 95% CI 76.4–84.1 and 75.4, 95% CI 70.7–80.2, respectively). Approximately 69.0% (7557/10 946) of the TB cases with DST results were subjected to GeneXpert detection. Overall, the DR-TB status and the use of GeneXpert in Sichuan have improved, but DR-TB challenges remain. HIV testing for all TB cases is recommended.
Whereas the existing literature on the relationship between parental behavior and family business succession mainly focuses on parental behavior in the business domain, we highlight the importance of parental behavior in the family domain. Integrating attachment theory, the family business succession literature, and person-job fit literature, our study proposes a theoretical framework hypothesizing that general self-efficacy and perceived person-job fit mediate the association between perceived parental care (an underrepresented family-domain-specific parental behavior) and next-generation family members’ succession intentions. This framework is tested by data from two surveys and further verified by qualitative interviews of next-generation family members. Multivariate analysis results suggest that next-generation family members’ general self-efficacy and perceived person-job fit played a sequential-mediating role in the relationship between perceived parental care and next-generation family members’ succession intentions. Our interviews not only confirm these results but also reveal new insights, particularly into the specific Chinese context in the study of family business succession.