To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The association between milk consumption and metabolic syndrome remains inconclusive, and the data from Chinese populations are scarce. We conducted a cross-sectional study to investigate the association between milk consumption and metabolic syndrome and its components among the residents of Suzhou Industrial Park, Suzhou, China. A total of 5149 participants were included in the final analysis. A logistic regression model was applied to estimate the odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components according to milk consumption. In addition, the results of our study were further meta-analyzed with other published observational studies to quantify the association between the highest versus lowest categories of milk consumption and metabolic syndrome and its components. There was no significant difference in the odds of having metabolic syndrome between milk consumers and non-milk consumers (OR 0.86, 95% CI 0.73, 1.01). However, milk consumers had lower odds of having elevated waist circumference (OR 0.78, 95% CI 0.67, 0.92), elevated triglyceride (OR 0.83, 95% CI 0.70, 0.99), and elevated blood pressure (OR 0.85, 95% CI 0.73, 0.99). When the results were pooled together with other published studies, higher milk consumption was inversely associated with the risk of metabolic syndrome (relative risk 0.80, 95% CI 0.72, 0.88) and its components (except elevated fasting blood glucose); however, these results should be treated with caution as high heterogeneity observed. In summary, the currently available evidence from observational studies suggests that higher milk consumption may be inversely associated with metabolic syndrome.
Freshwater habitats in China are potentially suitable for invasive alien turtle species and, consequently, raising turtles in aquaculture facilities and the trade in turtles this supplies pose risks to habitats and native wetland communities when exotic turtles escape or are released deliberately. Online trade (e-commerce) is making an increasing contribution to turtle sales in China, seemingly driving demand and thus potentially exacerbating the risk of release. We document the scale and spatial pattern of online sales of non-native turtles over 90 days on China's Taobao.com e-commerce site. The majority of sales were in the ecologically sensitive middle and lower Yangtze river basin (82.35% of > 840,000 slider turtles Trachemys scripta elegans, and 68.26% of > 100,000 snapping turtles, Chelydridae spp.). These species are native to the Americas. Concurrently, over 2008–2018, we found 104 mentions of feral turtle issues listed on Baidu News where, among the 53 prefectures mentioned, issues with invasive turtle populations also focused predominantly in the middle and lower Yangtze river basin. Although circumstantial, this association suggests that the substantial online sale of alien turtles could be having detrimental effects in China's Yangtze river basin. It is important to safeguard these wetland habitats, which are of global importance, by improving policies for detecting and regulating invasive alien turtle issues and by warning consumers about the ecological hazard of their purchases.
Autonomous ships are gaining in importance and are expected to shape the future of the global shipping industry. This evolutionary shift raises serious issues about compliance with the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea 1972 (COLREGs). This paper reviews the literature on autonomous ships from the perspective of the obligations of good seamanship imposed by COLREGs. The authors conclude that to facilitate the introduction of autonomous ships, the application barriers presented by COLREGs need to be analysed. With this goal, this paper presents a perspective from navigational practice. Four nautical scientists and two deck officers were invited to give their opinions. The analysis indicates that COLREGs require further elaboration and amendments to eliminate uncertainty of interpretation. In particular, the paper highlights the need to amend the ‘look-out’ rule (COLREGs Rule 5) to permit look-out by ‘computer vision’ alone while, at the same time, preserving the distinction between vessels navigating in restricted visibility and in sight of one another.
Relationship of genetic polymorphisms in cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and interleukin-18 (IL-18) with susceptibility to viral hepatitis was already investigated by many association studies. The aim of this study was to more comprehensively analyse associations between genetic polymorphisms in CTLA-4/IL-18 and viral hepatitis by combing the results of all relevant association studies. We searched Pubmed, Embase, Web of Science and CNKI for eligible studies. We used Review Manager to combine the results of eligible studies. Thirty-seven studies were finally included in this meta-analysis. Combined results demonstrated that CTLA-4 rs231775 (recessive comparison: OR 1.31, 95% CI 1.11–1.55), IL-18 rs1946518 (dominant comparison: OR 0.82, 95% CI 0.75–0.90; recessive comparison: OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.11–1.50; allele comparison: OR 0.76, 95% CI 0.68–0.86) and IL-18 rs187238 (dominant comparison: OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.03–1.52; allele comparison: OR 1.20, 95% CI 1.05–1.37) polymorphisms were all significantly associated with viral hepatitis in the general population. Further subgroup analyses revealed that CTLA-4 rs231775, IL-18 rs1946518 and IL-18 rs187238 polymorphisms were significantly associated with susceptibility to hepatitis B virus (HBV), especially among East Asians. Moreover, CTLA-4 rs5742909, IL-18 rs1946518 and IL-18 rs187238 polymorphisms were also significantly associated with susceptibility to hepatitis C virus (HCV), especially among South Asians. So to conclude, this meta-analysis demonstrated that CTLA-4 rs231775, IL-18 rs1946518 and IL-18 rs187238 polymorphisms may confer susceptibility to HBV in East Asians, while CTLA-4 rs5742909, IL-18 rs1946518 and IL-18 rs187238 polymorphisms may confer susceptibility to HCV in South Asians.
Metabolically healthy obesity refers to a subset of obese people with a normal metabolic profile. We aimed to explore the association between metabolically healthy and obesity status and risk of hypertension among Chinese adults from The Rural Chinese Cohort Study. This prospective cohort study enrolled 9137 Chinese adults without hypertension, type 2 diabetes or treatment for lipid abnormality at baseline (2007–2008) and followed up during 2013–2014. Modified Poisson regression models were used to examine the risk of hypertension by different metabolically healthy and obesity status, estimating relative risks (RR) and 95 % CI. During 6 years of follow-up, we identified 1734 new hypertension cases (721 men). After adjusting for age, sex, smoking and other confounding factors, risk of hypertension was increased with metabolically healthy general obesity (MHGO) defined by BMI (RR 1·75, 95 % CI 1·02, 3·00) and metabolically healthy abdominal obesity (MHAO) defined by waist circumference (RR 1·51, 95 % CI 1·12, 2·04) as compared with metabolically healthy non-obesity. The associations between metabolically healthy and obesity status and hypertension outcome were consistent after stratifying by sex, age, smoking, alcohol drinking and physical activity. Both MHGO and MHAO were associated with increased risk of hypertension. Obesity control programmes should be implemented to prevent or delay the development of hypertension in rural China.
Minor and major zygotic genome activation (ZGA) are crucial for preimplantation development. During this process, histone variants and methylation influence chromatin accessibility and consequently regulated the expression of zygotic genes. However, the detailed exchanges of these modifications during ZGA remain to be determined. In the present study, the epigenetic modifications of histone 3 on lysine 9 (H3K9), 27 (H3K27) and 36 (H3K36), as well as four histone variants were determined during minor and major ZGA and in post-ZGA stages of mouse embryos. Firstly, microH2A1, H3K27me3 and H3K36me3 were asymmetrically stained in the female pronucleus during minor ZGA but lost staining in major ZGA. Secondly, H3K9me2 and H3K9me3 were strongly stained in the female pronucleus, but weakly stained in the male pronucleus and disappeared after ZGA. Thirdly, H2A.Z and H3.3 were symmetrically stained in male and female pronuclei during minor ZGA. Moreover, H3K27me2 was not statistically changed during mouse early development, while H3K36me2 was only detected in 2- and 4-cell embryos. In conclusion, our data revealed dynamics of histone methylation and variants during mice ZGA and provided details of their exchange in mice embryogenesis. Moreover, we further inferred that macroH2A1, H2A.Z, H3K9me2/3 and H3K27me2/3 may play crucial roles during mouse ZGA.
The aim of this study is to describe the risk factors of injured children’s posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in China and provide the scientific data for PTSD prevention and control in children.
Electronic databases, including Medline, Science Direct, Google Scholar, and CNKI (China National Knowledge Infrastructure), were searched for articles published on or before October 30, 2018, searching for the words, “PTSD,” “child”/“children,” “injury”/“injuries,” and “China”/“Chinese.” Forty-seven articles met the inclusion criteria and were meta-analyzed using random-effect models.
The total sample size in our meta-analysis was 65 298, and there were 13 402 children diagnosed with PTSD. The prevalence of PTSD after suffering from injury was 20.52% (95% CI = 17%–23%). PTSD occurrence was higher in girls than boys (24.61% vs 19.36%, P < 0.001). The PTSD rate for students was 51.82%, 37.12%, and 14.02% in senior, junior high school children, and primary school student, respectively. PTSD prevalence was 58.93% in rural children and higher than the urban children (57.36%). The prevalence of PTSD in ethnic minority children was significantly higher than that of Han Chinese children (35.38% vs 13.50%).
PTSD in injured children is significantly higher in girls, senior high school children, in rural areas, and in ethnic minority children. PTSD prevention and control should be focused on these 4 subgroups.
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk is influenced by genetic and environmental factors. The present study explored genetic risk scores (GRS) of genetic variants that influence the MetS and the effect of interactions between GRS and nutrient intake on MetS risk. The genetic variants that influence MetS risk were selected by genome-wide association study after adjusting for age, sex, area of residence and BMI in 8840 middle-aged adults. GRS were calculated by summing the risk alleles of the selected SNP and divided into low (0–1), medium (2–3) and high (4–7) risk groups, and the relationships between the MetS and GRS were determined by logistic regression after adjusting covariates involved in MetS risk. We also analysed the interaction between GRS and lifestyles. Four genetic variants (APOA5_rs651821, EFCAB4B_rs4766165, ZNF259_rs2160669 and APOBEC1_rs10845640) were selected because they increased MetS risk after adjusting for covariates. Individuals with medium-GRS and high-GRS alleles had a higher MetS risk by 1·48- and 2·23-fold, respectively, compared with those with low-GRS after adjusting for covariates. The increase in MetS risk was mainly related to serum TAG and HDL-cholesterol concentrations. The GRS had an interaction with carbohydrate (CHO) and Na intakes and daily physical activities for MetS risk. In conclusion, Asian middle-aged adults with high-GRS alleles were at increased MetS risk mainly due to dyslipidaemia. High daily physical activity (≥1 h moderate activity per d) reduced the MetS risk but a low-CHO diet (<65 % of total energy intake) increased the risk in carriers with high-GRS alleles. Low Na intake (<1·6 g Na intake/4 MJ) did not decrease its risk.
The regeneration of human tissues with complex anatomy such as gastrointestinal (GI) tract remains greatly challenging since it requires appropriate cell microenvironments with well-defined structural and biochemical cues. In this investigation, bilayer scaffolds consisting of different polymer nanofibers with orthogonal fiber orientations were prepared, in which vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) were encapsulated separately. The bilayer scaffolds have similar architecture to the anatomy of the GI tract and can achieve dual releases of VEGF and PDGF in sequential and sustained manners, which hold promise as appropriate cell microenvironments for promoting the regeneration of the GI tract.
Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.), Echinococcus multilocularis and Echinococcus canadensis are the common causes of human echinococcosis in China. An accurate species identification tool for human echinococcosis is needed as the treatments and prognosis are different among species. The present work demonstrates a method for the simultaneous detection of these three Echinococcus species based on multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR). Specific primers of this mPCR were designed based on the mitochondrial genes and determined by extensive tests. The method can successfully detect either separated or mixed target species, and generate expected amplicons of distinct size for each species. Sensitivity of the method was tested by serially diluted DNA, showing a detection threshold as less as 0.32 pg for both E. granulosus s.s. and E. canadensis, and 1.6 pg for E. multilocularis. Specificity assessed against 18 other parasites was found to be 100% except weakly cross-react with E. shiquicus. The assay was additionally applied to 69 echinococcosis patients and 38 healthy persons, confirming the high reliability of the method. Thus, the mPCR described here has high application potential for clinical identification purposes, and can further provide a useful tool for evaluation of serology and imaging method.
In this paper, we consider a kind of ideal quotient of an extriangulated category such that the ideal is the kernel of a functor from this extriangulated category to an abelian category. We study a condition when the functor is dense and full, in another word, the ideal quotient becomes abelian. Moreover, a new equivalent characterization of cluster tilting subcategories is given by applying homological methods according to this functor. As an application, we show that in a connected 2-Calabi-Yau triangulated category ℬ, a functorially finite, extension closed subcategory 𝒯 of ℬ is cluster tilting if and only if ℬ /𝒯 is an abelian category.
We construct a shifted version of the Turán sieve method developed by R. Murty and the second author and apply it to counting problems on tournaments. More precisely, we obtain upper bounds for the number of tournaments which contain a fixed number of restricted
-cycles. These are the first concrete results which count the number of cycles over “all tournaments”.
Soil erosion can pose a serious problem to environmental quality and sustainable development. On the Tibetan Plateau, soil erosion is one of the main challenges to regional ecological security. Our analysis investigates soil erosion and evaluates its economic value in alpine steppe, alpine meadow, alpine desert steppe and forest ecosystems on the Tibetan Plateau. Analysis was carried out from 1984 to 2013. The results show that the annual average potential soil erosion, practical soil erosion and soil conservation calculated by the Revised University Soil Loss Equation model were 2.19×109ta–1, 2.16×109ta–1 and 2.72×107ta–1, respectively. The economic value of retaining soil nutrients, reducing the formation of wasteland and the economic benefit of reducing sediment deposition were 1.98×108RMBa–1, 2.55×1012RMBa–1 and 7.44×104RMBa–1, respectively. From comparing different ecosystems, we found that the forest ecosystem had the greatest soil retention and economic values. We also found that the potential and actual soil erosion values were extremely high on the Tibetan Plateau. The study highlights that state and local policymakers must give greater emphasis to ecological protection in the future.
Limited information is available on the prevalence and effect of hypertriglyceridaemic–waist (HTGW) phenotype on the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in rural populations.
In the present cross-sectional study, we investigated the prevalence of the HTGW phenotype and T2DM and the strength of their association among rural adults in China.
HTGW was defined as TAG >1·7 mmol/l and waist circumference (WC) ≥90 cm for males and ≥80 cm for females. Logistic regression analysis yielded adjusted odds ratios (aOR) relating risk of T2DM with HTGW.
Adults (n 12 345) aged 22·83–92·58 years were recruited from July to August of 2013 and July to August of 2014 from a rural area of Henan Province in China.
The prevalence of HTGW and T2DM was 23·71 % (males: 15·35 %; females: 28·88 %) and 11·79 % (males: 11·15 %; females: 12·18 %), respectively. After adjustment for sex, age, smoking, alcohol drinking, blood pressure, physical activity and diabetic family history, the risk of T2DM (aOR; 95 % CI) was increased with HTGW (v. normal TAG and WC: 3·23; CI 2·53, 4·13; males: 3·37; 2·30, 4·92; females: 3·41; 2·39, 4·85). The risk of T2DM with BMI≥28·0 kg/m2, simple enlarged WC and simple disorders of lipid metabolism showed an increasing tendency (aOR=1·31, 1·75 and 2·32).
The prevalence of HTGW and T2DM has reached an alarming level among rural Chinese people, and HTGW is a significant risk factor for T2DM.
Multifunctional scaffolds with dual release of small molecular drugs and biomacromolecules have potential in many applications such as cancer postoperative care, which require appropriate administration of anticancer drugs and biomacromolecules in a spatiotemporal manner. Herein, a systematic investigation into the dual release of anticancer drugs and biomacromolecules from the bicomponent nanofibrous scaffolds is performed. Their release behavior is affected by different fabrication techniques and different polymers used. We show that the bicomponent scaffold fabricated by dual-source dual-power emulsion electrospinning enables dual release of anticancer drugs and biomacromolecules in a controlled manner, holding promise for combinational cancer postoperative care.
Low urinary iodine concentration (UIC) is associated with dyslipidaemia in adults but is not well characterised in adolescents. Because dyslipidaemia is a cardiovascular risk factor, identifying such an association in adolescents would allow for the prescription of appropriate measures to maintain cardiovascular health. The present study addresses this question using data in the 2001–2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for 1692 adolescents aged 12–19 years. Primary outcomes were UIC, cardiometabolic risk factors and dyslipidaemia. Data for subjects categorised by low and normal UIC and by sex were analysed by univariate and multivariate logistic regression. Treating UIC as the independent variable, physical activity level, apoB and lipid profiles differed significantly between subjects with low and normal UIC. Subjects with low UIC had a significantly greater risk of elevated total cholesterol (TC) (95 % CI 1·37, 2·81), elevated non-HDL (95 % CI 1·33, 2·76) and elevated LDL (95 % CI 1·83, 4·19) compared with those with normal UIC. Treating UIC as a dependent variable, the risk of low UIC was significantly greater in those with higher apoB (95 % CI 1·52, 19·08), elevated TC (≥4·4mmol/l) (95 % CI 1·37, 2·81) and elevated non-HDL (≥3·11mmol/l) (95 % CI 1·33, 2·76) than in those with normal UIC. These results show that male and female adolescents with low UIC tend to be at greater risk of dyslipidaemia and abnormal cardiometabolic biomarkers, though the specific abnormal parameters differed between sexes. These results may help to identify youth who would benefit from interventions to improve their cardiometabolic risk.
be an extension between minimal systems; we consider its relative sensitivity. We obtain that
-sensitive if and only if the relative
-regionally proximal relation contains a point whose coordinates are distinct; and the structure of
which is relatively
-sensitive but not relatively
-sensitive is determined. Let
be the families consisting of thick sets. We introduce notions of relative block
-sensitivity and relatively strong
be an extension between minimal systems. Then the following Auslander–Yorke type dichotomy theorems are obtained: (1)
is either relatively block
is a proximal extension where
is the maximal equicontinuous factor of
is either relatively strongly
is a proximal extension where
is the maximal distal factor of
The paper presents an experimental investigation on the flow-induced vibrations of two tandem circular cylinders for spacing ratio
and reduced velocity
is the cylinder centre-to-centre spacing and
is the cylinder diameter. Both cylinders are allowed to vibrate only laterally. Extensive measurements are conducted to capture the cylinder vibration and frequency responses, surface pressures, shedding frequencies and flow fields using laser vibrometer, hotwire, pressure scanner and PIV techniques. Four vibration regimes are identified based on the characteristics and generation mechanisms of the cylinder galloping vibrations. Several findings are made on the mechanisms of vibration generation and sustainability. First, the initial states (vibrating or fixed) of a cylinder may have a pronounced impact on the vibration of the other. Second, alternating reattachment, detachment, rolling up and shedding of the upper and lower gap shear layers all contribute to the vibrations. Third, the gap vortices around the base surface of the upstream cylinder produce positive work on the cylinder, sustaining the upstream cylinder vibration. Fourth, reattachment, detachment and switching of the gap shear layers result in largely positive work on the downstream cylinder, playing an important role in sustaining its vibration.
Suicide attempt (SA), which is one of the strongest predictors of completed suicide, is common in major depressive disorder (MDD) but its prevalence across epidemiological studies has been mixed. The aim of this comprehensive meta-analysis was to examine the pooled prevalence of SA in individuals with MDD.
A systematic literature search was conducted in PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO, Web of Science and Cochrane Library from their commencement date until 27 December 2017. Original studies containing data on prevalence of SA in individuals with MDD were analyzed.
In all, 65 studies with a total of 27 340 individuals with MDD were included. Using the random effects model, the pooled lifetime prevalence of SA was 31% [95% confidence interval (CI) 27–34%], 1-year prevalence was 8% (95% CI 3–14%) and 1-month prevalence was 24% (95% CI 15–34%). Subgroup analyses revealed that the lifetime prevalence of SA was significantly associated with the patient setting, study region and income level, while the 1-month prevalence of SA was associated with only the patient setting.
This meta-analysis confirmed that SA was common in individuals with MDD across the world. Careful screening and appropriate interventions should be implemented for SA in the MDD population.