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ZL104 alloy foam and ZL104 alloy/aluminum fiber composite foams with a porosity of 71–90% were prepared by an infiltration casting method. The pore structure and the sound absorption properties of these two kinds of foams were studied. The results show that fibers partially embedded in the porous pore walls and partially extending out of the pore in the composite foams. The sound absorption coefficient of the foams has a sound absorption peak and a sound absorption trough with increasing frequency. The fiber composite foam possesses better sound absorption properties compared with the alloy foam. As porosity, fiber diameter, and fiber content increases, the average sound absorption coefficient of the composite foam first increases and then decreases. The average sound absorption coefficient (0.88) of the composite foam with a fiber content of 5 vol%, a fiber diameter of 0.1 mm, and a porosity of 82% increased 10% compared with that of the alloy foam. The surface roughness and specific surface area of the foam increase after fiber compounding, and the sound wave drives the fibers to vibrate to enlarge the consumption of sound energy.
Shifts in ceramic technology are often assumed to reflect wider social changes. Closer attention, however, needs to be directed to the fundamental issue of production. Shifts in the ceramic record of the Tao River Valley in north-western China (c. 2100 BC) are no exception and the relationships between ceramic form, clay recipes and communities of practice have not been previously investigated for this region. Here, petrographic analysis demonstrates that, despite major shifts in ceramic form and surface treatment, production techniques, raw materials and exchange relationships show surprising continuity through time.
Cinnamomum chago is a woody species of the family Lauraceae endemic to Yunnan province, China, previously known from only one location, and categorized as a Plant Species with Extremely Small Population. We surveyed to determine the distribution and population size of C. chago, characterize its habitat, identify any threats, assess its conservation status, and provide guidelines for its management and conservation. During 2014–2017 we found only 64 mature C. chago, in five locations. These small, fragmented populations occur along Lancang River in Dali Prefecture at altitudes of 2,200–2,400 m. The species' extent of occurrence is c. 923 km2, with an area of occupancy of c. 60 km2. The habitat of the species has been degraded by expansion of pastoral activities and deforestation. We recommend categorization of C. chago as Endangered on the IUCN Red List, prevention of the collection of seeds and wood of the species, protection and monitoring, and ex situ propagation for future reintroductions.
Endometrial injury is an important cause of intrauterine adhesion (IUA), amenorrhea and infertility in women, with limited effective therapies. Recently, stem cells have been used in animal experiments to repair and improve injured endometrium. To date, our understanding of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) in endometrial injury repair and their further therapeutic mechanisms is incomplete. Here, we examined the benefit of ADSCs in restoration of injured endometrium by applying a rat endometrial injury model. The results revealed by immunofluorescence showed that green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labelled ADSCs can differentiate into endometrial epithelial cells in vivo. At 30 days after ADSCs transplantation, injured endometrium was significantly improved, with increased microvessel density, endometrial thickness and glands when compared with the model group. Furthermore, the fertility of rats with injured endometrium in ADSCs group was improved and had a higher conception rate (60% vs 20%, P = 0.014) compared with the control phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) group. However, there was no difference in the control group compared with the sham group. In addition, expression levels of the oestrogen receptor Eα/β (ERα, ERβ) and progesterone receptor (PR) detected by western blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were higher in the ADSCs group than in the PBS group. Taken together, these results suggested that ADSC transplantation could improve endometrial injury as a novel therapy for IUA.
The regeneration of human tissues with complex anatomy such as gastrointestinal (GI) tract remains greatly challenging since it requires appropriate cell microenvironments with well-defined structural and biochemical cues. In this investigation, bilayer scaffolds consisting of different polymer nanofibers with orthogonal fiber orientations were prepared, in which vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) were encapsulated separately. The bilayer scaffolds have similar architecture to the anatomy of the GI tract and can achieve dual releases of VEGF and PDGF in sequential and sustained manners, which hold promise as appropriate cell microenvironments for promoting the regeneration of the GI tract.
Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.), Echinococcus multilocularis and Echinococcus canadensis are the common causes of human echinococcosis in China. An accurate species identification tool for human echinococcosis is needed as the treatments and prognosis are different among species. The present work demonstrates a method for the simultaneous detection of these three Echinococcus species based on multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR). Specific primers of this mPCR were designed based on the mitochondrial genes and determined by extensive tests. The method can successfully detect either separated or mixed target species, and generate expected amplicons of distinct size for each species. Sensitivity of the method was tested by serially diluted DNA, showing a detection threshold as less as 0.32 pg for both E. granulosus s.s. and E. canadensis, and 1.6 pg for E. multilocularis. Specificity assessed against 18 other parasites was found to be 100% except weakly cross-react with E. shiquicus. The assay was additionally applied to 69 echinococcosis patients and 38 healthy persons, confirming the high reliability of the method. Thus, the mPCR described here has high application potential for clinical identification purposes, and can further provide a useful tool for evaluation of serology and imaging method.
Many components in diet have regulated oxidative stress, inflammatory reaction and even balance estrogen levels. Because these factors are closely associated with depressive symptoms in postmenopausal women, it is considered that dietary factors are able to prevent and control depressive symptoms. On the other hand, dietary pattern that considers the correlations and synergies between foods and nutrients, is expected to have a greater impact on disease risk. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether dietary patterns are associated with depressive symptoms in Chinese postmenopausal women.
A cross-sectional study of 2051 postmenopausal women (mean age: 58.8±7.4 years) was conducted in Tianjin, China. Dietary consumption was assessed by a valid self-administered food frequency questionnaire. Principal component analysis was used to derive three major dietary patterns: “healthy”, “sweets” and “Traditional Tianjin” from 88 food items. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale, and cut-off point of 48 indicating serious depressive symptoms. The associations between quartile of dietary patterns and depressive symptoms were assessed by using multiple logistic regression analysis.
The multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) of having depressive symptoms for increasing quartile of dietary patterns were as follows: “healthy”, 1.00, 0.79(0.49–1.28), 0.62(0.37–1.04), and 0.57(0.33–0.97); “sweets”,1.00, 0.75(0.42–1.3), 1.08(0.64–1.81) and 1.66(1.03–2.71); “Traditional Tianjin”, 1.00, 1.02(0.58–1.79), 0.96 (0.54–1.71) and 2.53(1.58–4.16), respectively.
The present study demonstrated that a healthy dietary pattern was inversely associated with depressive symptoms. On the contrary, greater adherence to sweets and Traditional Tianjin dietary patterns were associated with a higher prevalence of depressive symptoms.
Evaluation of Cr, Mn, Fe, Zn and Se in humans is challenged by the potentially high within-individual variability of these elements in biological specimens, which are poorly characterised. This study aimed to evaluate their within-day, between-day and between-month variability in spot samples, first-morning voids and 24-h collections. A total of 529 spot urine samples (including eighty-eight first-morning voids and 24-h collections) were collected from eleven Chinese adult men on days 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 30, 60 and 90 and analysed for these five elements using inductively coupled plasma-MS. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were utilised to characterise the reproducibility, and their sensitivity and specificity were analysed to assess how well a single measurement classified individuals’ 3-month average exposures. Serial measurements of Zn in spot samples exhibited fair to good reproducibility (creatinine-adjusted ICC = 0·47) over five consecutive days, which became poor when the samples were gathered months apart (creatinine-adjusted ICC = 0·33). The reproducibility of Cr, Mn, Fe and Se in spot samples was poor over periods ranging from days to months (creatinine-adjusted ICC = 0·01–0·12). Two spot samples were sufficient for classifying 60 % of the men who truly had the highest (top 33 %) 3-month average Zn concentrations; for Cr, Mn, Fe and Se, however, at least three specimens were required to achieve similar sensitivities. In conclusion, urinary Cr, Mn, Fe, Zn and Se concentrations showed a strong within-individual variability, and a single measurement is not enough to efficiently characterise individuals’ long-term exposures.
Computerized cognitive remediation therapy (CCRT) is generally effective for the cognitive deficits of schizophrenia. However, there is much uncertainty about what factors mediate or moderate effectiveness and are therefore important to personalize treatment and boost its effects.
In total, 311 Chinese inpatients with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV schizophrenia were randomized to receive CCRT or Active control for 12 weeks with four to five sessions per week. All participants were assessed at baseline, post-treatment and 3-month follow-up. The outcomes were cognition, clinical symptoms and functional outcomes.
There was a significant benefit in the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB) total score for CCRT (F1,258 = 5.62; p = 0.02; effect size was 0.27, 95% confidence interval 0.04–0.49). There were no specific moderators of CCRT improvements. However, across both groups, Wisconsin Card Sort Test improvement mediated a positive effect on functional capacity and Digit Span benefit mediated decreases in positive symptoms. In exploratory analyses younger and older participants showed cognitive improvements but on different tests (younger on Symbol Coding Test, while older on the Spatial Span Test). Only the older age group showed MSCEIT benefits at post-treatment. In addition, cognition at baseline negatively correlated with cognitive improvement and those whose MCCB baseline total score was around 31 seem to derive the most benefit.
CCRT can improve the cognitive function of patients with schizophrenia. Changes in cognitive outcomes also contributed to improvements in functional outcomes either directly or solely in the context of CCRT. Age and the basic cognitive level of the participants seem to affect the cognitive benefits from CCRT.
In this paper, instabilities in the flow over a circular cylinder of diameter
with dual splitter plates attached to its rear surface are numerically investigated using the spectral element method. The key parameters are the splitter plate length
, the attachment angle
and the Reynolds number
. The presence of the plates was found to significantly modify the flow topology, leading to substantial changes in both the primary and secondary instabilities. The results showed that the three instability modes present in the bare circular cylinder wake still exist in the wake of the present configurations and that, in general, the occurrences of modes A and B are delayed, while the onset of mode QP is earlier in the presence of the splitter plates. Furthermore, two new synchronous modes, referred to as mode A
and mode B
, are found to develop in the wake. Mode A
is similar to mode A but with a quite long critical wavelength. Mode B
shares the same spatio-temporal symmetries as mode B but has a distinct spatial structure. With the exception of the case of
, mode A
persists for all configurations investigated here and always precedes the transition through mode A. The onset of mode B
. The characteristics of all the transition modes are analysed, and their similarities and differences are discussed in detail in comparison with the existing modes. In addition, the physical mechanism responsible for the instability mode B
is proposed. The weakly nonlinear feature of mode B
, as well as that of mode A
, is assessed by employing the Landau model. Finally, selected three-dimensional simulations are performed to confirm the existence of these two new modes and to investigate the nonlinear evolution of the three-dimensional modes.
Glyphodes pyloalis Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralididae) is a common pest in sericulture and has developed resistance to different insecticides. However, the mechanisms involved in insecticide resistance of G. pyloalis are poorly understood. Here, we present the first whole-transcriptome analysis of differential expression genes in insecticide-resistant and susceptible G. pyloalis. Clustering and enrichment analysis of DEGs revealed several biological pathways and enriched Gene Ontology terms were related to detoxification or insecticide resistance. Genes involved in insecticide metabolic processes, including cytochrome P450, glutathione S-transferases and carboxylesterase, were identified in the larval midgut of G. pyloalis. Among them, CYP324A19, CYP304F17, CYP6AW1, CYP6AB10, GSTs5, and AChE-like were significantly increased after propoxur treatment, while CYP324A19, CCE001c, and AChE-like were significantly induced by phoxim, suggesting that these genes were involved in insecticide metabolism. Furthermore, the sequence variation analysis identified 21 single nucleotide polymorphisms within CYP9A20, CYP6AB47, and CYP6AW1. Our findings reveal many candidate genes related to insecticide resistance of G. pyloalis. These results provide novel insights into insecticide resistance and facilitate the development of insecticides with greater specificity to G. pyloalis.
Existing data on folate status and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) prognosis are scarce. We prospectively examined whether serum folate concentrations at diagnosis were associated with liver cancer-specific survival (LCSS) and overall survival (OS) among 982 patients with newly diagnosed, previously untreated HCC, who were enrolled in the Guangdong Liver Cancer Cohort (GLCC) study between September 2013 and February 2017. Serum folate concentrations were measured using chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay. Cox proportional hazards models were performed to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % CI by sex-specific quartile of serum folate. Compared with patients in the third quartile of serum folate, patients in the lowest quartile had significantly inferior LCSS (HR = 1·48; 95 % CI 1·05, 2·09) and OS (HR = 1·43; 95 % CI 1·03, 1·99) after adjustment for non-clinical and clinical prognostic factors. The associations were not significantly modified by sex, age at diagnosis, alcohol drinking status and Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) stage. However, there were statistically significant interactions on both multiplicative and additive scale between serum folate and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels or smoking status and the associations of lower serum folate with worse LCSS and OS were only evident among patients with CRP > 3·0 mg/l or current smokers. An inverse association with LCSS were also observed among patients with liver damage score ≥3. These results suggest that lower serum folate concentrations at diagnosis are independently associated with worse HCC survival, most prominently among patients with systemic inflammation and current smokers. A future trial of folate supplementation seems to be promising in HCC patients with lower folate status.
This is a copy of the slides presented at the meeting but not formally written up for the volume.
Surface morphology modification by low-energy ion bombardment is widely used in many thin film techniques such as sputter deposition, ion-beam-assisted growth and ion polishing, in order to obtain smooth surfaces desirable for device applications. Under certain circumstances, ion bombardment on surfaces is also known to produce 2-D (ripples or wires) and 1-D (dot) structures by a self-organization process that arises from a competition of a roughing instability mechanism and surface relaxation. Knowledge of the mechanisms which govern those surface processes is very crucial to engineer technologically significant surface morphologies at the submicron or nano-scale in a more controlled way. Recently, the fast-growing advances in synchrotron x-ray scattering and detector techniques have enabled detailed investigations into the surface kinetics during ion bombardment. In this work, a study of surface smoothing on nanocorrugated sapphire surfaces by low-energy ion bombardment at normal incidence will be presented. Real time characterization by synchrotron grazing incidence small angle x-ray scattering for the dependence of smoothing rate on ion energy and wavelength of sapphire ripples is performed. A ripple amplitude displays a classic behavior of profile-preserving exponential decay with time upon ion irradiation. The dependence of smoothing rate on ion energy and wavelength is discussed with existing surface smoothing mechanisms. The wavelength dependence exhibits a power law behavior with exponential close to 2 instead of 4, which suggests a dominant smoothing mechanism related to ion impact induced lateral mass redistribution for near normal incidence condition. The appearance of multiple smoothing rate constants at high temperature is thought to be relative with emerging atomic steps after surface recrystallization.
High-power orbital angular momentum (OAM) beams have distinct advantages in improving capacity and data receiving for free-space optical communication systems at long distances. Utilizing the coherent combination of a beam array technique and helical phase approximation by a piston phase array, we have proposed a generating system for a novel high-power beam carrying OAM, which could overcome the power limitations of a common vortex phase modulator and a single beam. The characteristics of this generating method and the orthogonality of the generated OAM beams with different eigenstates have been theoretically analyzed and verified. Also a high-power OAM beam produced by coherent beam combination (CBC) of a six-element hexagonal fiber amplifier array has been experimentally implemented. Results show that the CBC technique utilized to control the piston phase differences among the array beams has a high efficiency of 96.3%. On the premise of CBC, we have obtained novel vortex beams carrying OAM of
by applying an additional piston phase array modulation on the corresponding beam array. The experimental results agree approximately with the theoretical analysis. This work could be beneficial to areas that need high-power OAM beams, such as ultra-long distance free-space optical communications, biomedical treatments, and powerful trapping and manipulation under deep potential wells.
A novel and highly efficient Ag3VO4/C3N4/reduced TiO2 microsphere composite was obtained through a hydrothermal and depositional process. The microstructure, individual components with different proportions, and optical properties of the ternary nanocomposites were intensively studied. The prepared ternary composites exhibited superior photocatalytic performance of degradation of methylene blue compared with single component and S1 (C3N4/reduced TiO2) binary composites, demonstrating that the introduction of Ag3VO4 into g-C3N4/r-TiO2 can effectively improve the photocatalytic activity. Recycling experiments confirmed that the nanocomposites exhibited superior cycle performance. The enhanced capability could be attributed to a synergetic effect including the formation of heterojunction, large surface area, improved light absorption, matched energy band structure, and the improved separation efficiency of photogenerated charges coming from dual Z-scheme structure. Particularly, the introduction of Ag3VO4 makes the dual Z-scheme charge transfer pathway completed with improved separation efficiency and stronger redox ability of photogenerated electrons and holes. The work provides a promising method to develop a new dual Z-scheme photocatalytic system to remove environmental pollutant.
The Katian (Upper Ordovician) Shiyanhe Formation at the Sigang section, Neixiang area, Henan Province, central China, has been investigated for carbon isotope (δ13Ccarb) chemostratigraphy. The carbon isotopic data document signal between the two major Ordovician positive shifts in δ13C, the early Katian Guttenberg and the Hirnantian excursions. The Kope (Ka1/2), Fairview (Ka2/3), Waynesville (Ka3/4), Whitewater (Ka4) excursions and a doubtful Elkhorn (Ka4) excursion are identified herein. The continuous and well-defined conodont zonal succession of the Sigang section provides a secure biostratigraphic framework for the mid-late Katian carbon isotope chemostratigraphy in China. Correlation between carbon-isotope data curve and the relative sea-level changes shows no clear correspondence, and hence the sea-level change is probably not the main driver of δ13C excursions during the Katian. Intercontinentally, the mid–late Katian carbon isotope excursions, identified mainly in the North American and Baltoscandian successions, are useful for improving long-distance stratigraphic correlations. This further suggests that these excursions represent global perturbations in the carbon cycle.
Employing atomic-scale simulations, the response of a high-angle grain boundary (GB), the soft/hard GB, against external loading was systematically investigated. Under tensile loading close to the hard orientation, strain-induced dynamic recrystallization was observed to initiate through direct soft-to-hard grain reorientation, which was triggered by stress mismatch, inhibited by surface tension from the soft-hard GB, and proceeded by interface ledges. Such grain reorientation corresponds with expansion and contraction of the hard grain along and perpendicular to the loading direction, respectively, accompanied by local atomic shuffling, providing relatively large normal strain of 8.3% with activation energy of 0.04 eV per atom. Tensile strain and residual dislocations on the hard/soft GB facilitate the initiation of dynamic recrystallization by lowering the energy barrier and the critical stress for grain reorientation, respectively.
Penetrative turbulent Rayleigh–Bénard convection which depends on the density maximum of water near
is studied using two-dimensional and three-dimensional direct numerical simulations. The working fluid is water near
with Prandtl number
. The considered Rayleigh numbers
. The density inversion parameter
varies from 0 to 0.9. It is found that the ratio of the top and bottom thermal boundary-layer thicknesses (
) increases with increasing
, and the relationship between
seems to be independent of
. The centre temperature
is enhanced compared to that of Oberbeck–Boussinesq cases, as
is related to
is also found to have a universal relationship with
which is independent of
. Both the Nusselt number
and the Reynolds number
decrease with increasing
, the normalized Nusselt number
and Reynolds number
also have universal relationships with
which seem to be independent of both
and the aspect ratio
. The scaling exponents of
are found to be insensitive to
despite of the remarkable change of the flow organizations.