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Little is known about how sociodemographic and clinical factors affect the caregiving burden of persons with schizophrenia (PwSs) with transition in primary caregivers.
This study aimed to examine the predictive effects of sociodemographic and clinical factors on the caregiving burden of PwSs with and without caregiver transition from 1994 to 2015 in rural China.
Using panel data, 206 dyads of PwSs and their primary caregivers were investigated in both 1994 and 2015. The generalised linear model approach was used to examine the predictive effects of sociodemographic factors, severity of symptoms and changes in social functioning on the caregiving burden with and without caregiver transition.
The percentages of families with and without caregiver transition were 38.8% and 61.2%, respectively. Among families without caregiver transition, a heavier burden was significantly related to a larger family size and more severe symptoms in PwSs. Deteriorated functioning of ‘social activities outside the household’ and improved functioning of ‘activity in the household’ were protective factors against a heavy caregiving burden. Among families with caregiver transition, younger age, improved marital functioning, deteriorated self-care functioning, and better functioning of ‘social interest or concern’ were significant risk factors for caregiving burden.
The effects of sociodemographic and clinical correlates on the caregiving burden were different among families with and without caregiver transition. It is crucial to explore the caregiver arrangement of PwSs and the risk factors for burden over time, which will facilitate culture-specific family interventions, community-based mental health services and recovery.
Owing to limited data, we conducted a meta-analysis to re-evaluate the relationship between obesity and coronavirus-2019 (COVID-19). Literature published between 1 January 2020 and 22 August 2020 was comprehensively analysed, and RevMan3.5 was used for data analysis. A total of 50 studies, including data on 18 260 378 patients, were available. Obesity was associated with a higher risk of severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) infection (odds ratio (OR): 1.39, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.25–1.54; P < 0.00001) and increased severity of COVID-19 (hospitalisation rate: OR: 2.45, 95% CI 1.78–3.39; P < 0.00001; severe cases: OR: 3.74, 95% CI 1.18–11.87; P: 0.02; need for intensive care unit admission: OR: 1.30, 95% CI 1.21–1.40; P < 0.00001; need for invasive mechanical ventilation: OR: 1.59, 95% CI 1.35–1.88; P < 0.00001 and mortality: OR: 1.65, 95% CI 1.21–2.25; P: 0.001). However, we found a non-linear association between BMI and the severity of COVID-19. In conclusion, we found that obesity could increase the risk of SARS-CoV2 infection and aggregate the severity of COVID-19. Further studies are needed to explore the possible mechanisms behind this association.
In November 2011, the New York Times published two articles on the inadequacies of mental health treatment in China. In the first article, the authors discussed the ‘dearth of care’ in the dark Chinese household:
Left to their own devices, some relatives resort to heartbreaking solutions. In 2007, He Jiyue, a government psychiatrist, discovered a 46-year-old man locked behind a metal door in a stinking room in a rural Hebei Province home. The man was mentally ill, his aged parents told Dr. He. They had locked him up after he attacked his uncle.
That was 28 years earlier. The man, a high school graduate, could no longer speak. ‘I said to the parents: ‘How could you do this to somebody?’’ Dr. He recalled. They replied, ‘We had no choice’.
In the past three years, Chinese mental health workers have rescued 339 other people whose relatives were too poor, ignorant or ashamed to seek treatment. Some, shackled in outdoor sheds, were ‘treated just like animals’, said Dr. Liu Jin, of the Peking University Mental Health Institute.
In a nutshell, the article portrayed mentally ill Chinese as treated like animals, locked up by his ignorant and heartless families, awaiting a liberating and humanitarian rescue by the psychiatric science. The authors of the article used this image to lament the shortage of professional mental health care in China, to establish psychiatry's authority against other practices of care, and to legitimize the profession's expansion.
On the symbolic space endowed with a metric given by a Gibbs measure, it is shown that, for any invariant probability measure $\mu$ other than the given Gibbs measure, the set of $\mu$-generical points satisfies a ‘zero-infinity law’ (in particular, its Hausdorff and packing measure are infinite). This extends a result of R. Kaufman on Besicovitch–Eggleston sets, and applies to level sets of Birkhoff averages and certain subsets of self-similar sets.
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