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This paper presents new LA-ICP-MS zircon U–Pb chronology, whole-rock geochemical and zircon Hf isotopic data for the felsic lavas of the Huili Group from the southwestern Yangtze Block. LA-ICP-MS zircon U–Pb dating shows that these rocks were emplaced in Late Mesoproterozoic time (∼1028 to 1019 Ma). Relative to typical I-type and S-type granitoids, all the samples are characterized by low Sr and Eu, and high high-field-strength element contents, high TFeO/MgO, enriched rare earth element compositions and negative Eu anomalies, indicating that they share the geochemical signatures of A-type granitoid. They can be further divided into two groups: Group I and Group II. Group I are A1-type felsic rocks and were produced by fractional crystallization of alkaline basaltic magmas. The Group II felsic lavas belong to the A2-type and were derived by partial melting of a crustal source with mixing of mantle-derived magmas. Both Group I and Group II felsic lavas may erupt in a continental back-arc setting. The coexistence of A1- and A2-type rocks in the southwestern Yangtze Block suggests that they can occur in the same tectonic setting.
The present study was undertaken to investigate the antiparasitic activity of extracellular products of Streptomyces albus. Bioactivity-guided isolation of chloroform extracts affording a compound showing potent activity. The structure of the compound was elucidated as salinomycin (SAL) by EI-MS, 1H NMR and 13C NMR. In vitro test showed that SAL has potent anti-parasitic efficacy against theronts of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis with 10 min, 1, 2, 3 and 4 h (effective concentration) EC50 (95% confidence intervals) of 2.12 (2.22–2.02), 1.93 (1.98–1.88), 1.42 (1.47–1.37), 1.35 (1.41–1.31) and 1.11 (1.21–1.01) mg L−1. In vitro antiparasitic assays revealed that SAL could be 100% effective against I. multifiliis encysted tomonts at a concentration of 8.0 mg L−1. In vivo test demonstrated that the number of I. multifiliis trophonts on Erythroculter ilishaeformis treated with SAL was markedly lower than that of control group at 10 days after exposed to theronts (P < 0.05). In the control group, 80% mortality was observed owing to heavy I. multifiliis infection at 10 days. On the other hand, only 30.0% mortality was recorded in the group treated with 8.0 mg L−1 SAL. The median lethal dose (LD50) of SAL for E. ilishaeformis was 32.9 mg L−1.
Positron annihilation spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry were used to evaluate the changes of the atomic configurations in Zr-based metallic glasses (MGs) due to alloying and plastic deformation. The correlation between the atomic configurations of MGs and the amorphous-to-icosahedral phase transition due to heating was investigated. The results indicate that the free volume frozen in the as-cast Zr60Al15Ni25, Zr65Al7.5Ni10Cu17.5, and Zr65Al7.5Ni10Cu17.5Ag5 MGs substantially decreases in sequence. More excess free volume is introduced in Zr65Al7.5Ni10Cu17.5Ag5 MG due to cold rolling and milling. The annihilation of free volume due to alloying considerably stabilizes the icosahedral structure of MGs, which enhances the nucleation and growth of quasicrystals upon heating. However, the nucleation and growth of quasicrystals are considerably suppressed in Zr65Al7.5Ni10Cu17.5Ag5 MG due to cold rolling and milling, during which the more introduced excess free volume results in substantial destruction of short-range order with 5-fold symmetry. The present work further provides direct evidence for the prevalence of icosahedral short-range order in MGs.
We aimed to examine the contribution of blood lipids to the association between BMI and blood pressure (BP) in children with overweight and obesity. Data were collected in elementary and high schools of Chaoyang District, Beijing, China in 2012. Participants’ weight, height, BP and fasting plasma lipid profile were measured by standard protocols. Mediation analysis was used to examine the mediation role of blood lipids on the relation between BMI and BP, with age included as a covariate. We found that in boys 8·29 % (mediation effect=0·106, P=0·012) of the association between BMI and systolic BP was mediated through TAG. TAG mediated 12·53 % (mediation effect=0·093, P=0·018) and LDL-cholesterol mediated 7·75 % (mediation effect=0·57, P=0·046) of the association between BMI and diastolic BP was mediated by TAG and LDL-cholesterol, respectively. However, blood lipids did not show the mediation effect in girls. Our findings suggested that there was a sex difference in the contribution of blood lipids to the association between BMI and BP. Controlling TAG or LDL-cholesterol may be beneficial for reducing the risk of the BMI-related high BP in overweight boys; however, this outcome is not the case when controlling TAG or LDL-cholesterol in girls. This study may provide clues to explore the underlying mechanism of the association between obesity and hypertension.
The weightless planar 2R underactuated manipulators with passive last joint are considered in this paper for investigating a feasible method to stabilize the system, which is a second-order nonholonomic-constraint mechanical system with drifts. The characteristics including the controllability of the linear approximation model, the minimum phase property, the Small Time Local Controllability (STLC), the differential flatness, and the exactly nilpotentizable properties, are analyzed. Unfortunately, these negative characteristics indicate that the simplest underactuated mechanical system is difficult to design a stable closed-loop control system. In this paper, nilpotent approximation and iterative steering methods are utilized to solve the problem. A globally effective nilpotent approximation model is developed and the parameterized polynomial input is adopted to stabilize the system to its non-singularity equilibrium configuration. In accordance with this scheme, it is shown that designing a stable closed-loop control system for the underactuated mechanical system can be ascribed to solving a set of nonlinear algebraic equations. If the nonlinear algebraic equations are solvable, then the controller is asymptotically stable. Some numerical simulations demonstrate the effectiveness of the presented approach.
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of lutein and lycopene supplementation on carotid artery intima–media thickness (CAIMT) in subjects with subclinical atherosclerosis. A total of 144 subjects aged 45–68 years were recruited from local communities. All the subjects were randomly assigned to receive 20 mg lutein/d (n 48), 20 mg lutein/d+20 mg lycopene/d (n 48) or placebo (n 48) for 12 months. CAIMT was measured using Doppler ultrasonography at baseline and after 12 months, and serum lutein and lycopene concentrations were determined using HPLC. Serum lutein concentrations increased significantly from 0·34 to 1·96 μmol/l in the lutein group (P< 0·001) and from 0·35 to 1·66 μmol/l in the combination group (P< 0·001). Similarly, serum lycopene concentrations increased significantly from 0·18 to 0·71 μmol/l in the combination group at month 12 (P< 0·001), whereas no significant change was observed in the placebo group. The mean values of CAIMT decreased significantly by 0·035 mm (P= 0·042) and 0·073 mm (P< 0·001) in the lutein and combination groups at month 12, respectively. The change in CAIMT was inversely associated with the increase in serum lutein concentrations (P< 0·05) in both the active treatment groups and with that in serum lycopene concentrations (β = − 0·342, P= 0·031) in the combination group. Lutein and lycopene supplementation significantly increased the serum concentrations of lutein and lycopene with a decrease in CAIMT being associated with both concentrations. In addition, the combination of lutein and lycopene supplementation was more effective than lutein alone for protection against the development of CAIMT in Chinese subjects with subclinical atherosclerosis, and further studies are needed to confirm whether synergistic effects of lutein and lycopene exist.
A joint diagnostic system was established for the diagnosis of laser-driven shock wave experiments. The system has high temporal resolution (time resolution ~12 ps) and high spatial resolution (spatial resolution ~7 μm) and fits for diagnostics of the experiment with small sample size and short time physical process. The joint diagnostic system was applied for shock wave measurement on the Shenguang-II laser facility. The passive shock breakout signal and active diagnostic signal were simultaneously obtained. The temporal measurement reliability of the system was verified using a multi-layered target. The experimental results show that the two measurement results were consistent.
Several divergent sympatry mtDNA lineages have been described in redlip mullet Liza haematocheilus, and this high inter-lineage divergence raises questions about the taxonomic status of L. haematocheilus lineages in the north-western Pacific. In this study, the amplified fragment length polymorphism technique was employed to examine genetic structure of L. haematocheilus and estimate the level of independence of the different mtDNA lineages in the north-western Pacific. A total of 186 bands were amplified from 91 individuals among 8 populations by 4 primer combinations and the percentage of polymorphic bands was 91.74%. The Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean tree based on Nei genetic distance revealed two clusters (North Clade and South Clade). Molecular variance analysis and pairwise FST supported the separation of north and south populations of L. haematocheilus in the north-western Pacific. The incongruence between nuclear groups and mitochondrial lineages suggests the three distinct lineages do not represent cryptic species and the presence of divergent mitochondrial lineages in the same sample is a result of secondary contact after an extended period of isolation. The Pleistocene isolation and biological characteristics of species may be responsible for the genetic differentiation of L. haematocheilus.
Cytosol Ca2+ overload plays a vital role in ischemic neuronal damage, which is largely contributed by the Ca2+ influx through L-type voltage-gated calcium channels (L-VGCCs) and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) type glutamate receptors. In this article, L-VGCCs were activated by depolarization to investigate the cross-talk between NMDA receptors and L-VGCCs.
Depolarization was induced by 20 minutes incubation of 75 mM KCl in cultured rat cortical neuron. Apoptosis-like neuronal death was detected by DAPI staining. Tyrosine phosphorylation of NMDA receptor subunit 2A (NR2A), interactions of Src and NR2A were detected by immunoblot and immunoprecipitation.
Depolarization induced cortical neuron apoptosis-like cell death after 24 hours of restoration. The apoptosis was partially inhibited by 5 mM EGTA, 100 μM Cd2+, 10 μM nimodipine, 100 μM genistein, 20 μM MK-801, 2 μM PP2 and combined treatment of nimodipine and MK-801. NR2A tyrosine phosphorylation increased after depolarization, and the increase was inhibited by the drugs listed above. Moreover, non-receptor tyrosine kinase Src bound with NR2A after depolarization and restoration. The binding was also inhibited by the drugs listed above.
The results indicated that depolarization-induced neuronal death might be due to extracellular Ca2+ influx through L-VGCCs and subsequently Src activationmediated NR2A tyrosine phosphorylation.
In this work, we shall be concerned with the following forced Rayleigh type equation: Under certain assumptions, some criteria for guaranteeing the existence, uniqueness and asymptotic stability (in the Lyapunov sense) of periodic solutions of this equation are presented by applying the Manásevich–Mawhin continuation theorem, Floquet theory, Lyapunov stability theory and some analysis techniques. Moreover, an example is provided to demonstrate the applications of our results.
Interferon, an important cytokine, is an immunomodulator and possesses antiviral and anti-tumour activity. In vitro, it can be administrated in the treatment of diseases alone or with genetically engineered vaccine to enhance the immune effect of the latter. The recombinant transferring vector pSY681–ChIFN-γ was obtained in this study by inserting the chicken type II interferon (ChIFN-γ) gene into the Fowlpox virus (FPV) transferring vector pSY681. The resulting plasmid was then transfected into chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF) cell cultures pre-infected with the parental FPV S-FPV-017. Finally, the recombinant Fowlpox virus (rFPV) expressing ChIFN-γ (rFPV–ChIFN-γ) was produced by homologous recombination with the FPV gene in CEF. rFPV-positive plaques were verified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), restriction analysis and indirect immunofluorescence assays. The rFPV–ChIFN-γ supernatants, cultured in CEF for 72 h and inoculated into rat fibroblasts (L929), had an inhibitory effect on the replication of Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) with an antiviral titre of 2048 U/ml.
Growth and development of 207 children (49% males; mean age 5.4 years [SD 0.2], range 4 to 7.3 years whose mothers received iodine during pregnancy, and children who received iodine first in their 2nd year, were examined in 1996; 192 children (49% males; mean age 6.5 years[SD 0.2], range 5.8 to 6.9 years) whose mothers received iodine while pregnant were seen in 1998. Children were from the southern part of China's Xinjiang Province which has the lowest levels of iodine in water and soil ever recorded. Head circumference but not height was improved for those who received iodine during pregnancy (compared with those receiving iodine at age 2) and for those supplemented before the end of the 2nd trimester (relative to those supplemented during the 3rd trimester). Iodine before the 3rd trimester predicted higher psychomotor test scores for children relative to those provided iodine later in pregnancy or at 2 years. Results from the test for cognitive development resulted in trend only differences between those children supplemented during pregnancy versus later. The results address the question of when maternal iodine supplements should begin in public health programs world wide. Findings may be relevant to the treatment of maternal and newborn thyroid deficiency in industrialized countries, particularly for those infants delivered before the end of the second trimester.
Three-dimensional temperature (T)–pressure (P)–composition (X) phase diagrams of binary carbon-hydrogen (C–H) and carbon-oxygen (C–O) systems for activated low pressure diamond growth have been calculated. Based on an approximation of linear combination between C–H and C–O systems, a projective ternary carbonhydrogen-oxygen (C–H–O) phase diagram has also been obtained. There is always a diamond growth region in each of these phase diagrams. Once a supply of external activating energy stops, the diamond growth region will not exist. Nearly all of the reliable experimental data reported in the literature drop into the possible diamond growth region of the calculated projective ternary C–H–O phase diagram under the conditions of 0.01–100 kPa and above 700 K.
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