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Image stitching is important for the perception and manipulation of undersea robots. In spite of a well-developed technique, it is still challenging for undersea images because of their inevitable appearance ambiguity caused by the limited light in the undersea environment, and local disturbance caused by moving objects, ocean current, etc. To get a clean and stable background panorama in the undersea environment, this paper proposes an undersea image-stitching method by introducing graph-based registration and blending procedures. Specifically, in the registration procedure, matching the features in each undersea image pair is formulated and solved by graph matching, to incorporate the structural information between features. In the blending procedure, an energy function on the indirect graph Markov random field is proposed, which takes both image consistency and neighboring consistency into consideration. Coincidentally, both graph matching and energy minimization can be mathematically formulated by integer quadratic programming problems with different constraints; the recently proposed graduated nonconvexity and concavity procedure is used to optimize both problems. Experiments on both synthetic images and real-world undersea images witness the effectiveness of the proposed method.
This paper presents new LA-ICP-MS zircon U–Pb chronology, whole-rock geochemical and zircon Hf isotopic data for the felsic lavas of the Huili Group from the southwestern Yangtze Block. LA-ICP-MS zircon U–Pb dating shows that these rocks were emplaced in Late Mesoproterozoic time (∼1028 to 1019 Ma). Relative to typical I-type and S-type granitoids, all the samples are characterized by low Sr and Eu, and high high-field-strength element contents, high TFeO/MgO, enriched rare earth element compositions and negative Eu anomalies, indicating that they share the geochemical signatures of A-type granitoid. They can be further divided into two groups: Group I and Group II. Group I are A1-type felsic rocks and were produced by fractional crystallization of alkaline basaltic magmas. The Group II felsic lavas belong to the A2-type and were derived by partial melting of a crustal source with mixing of mantle-derived magmas. Both Group I and Group II felsic lavas may erupt in a continental back-arc setting. The coexistence of A1- and A2-type rocks in the southwestern Yangtze Block suggests that they can occur in the same tectonic setting.
Data on dietary patterns in relation to the risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in a middle-aged Chinese population are sparse. The present study was performed to determine the major dietary patterns among a population aged 45–59 years and to evaluate their associations with MetS risk in China.
Cross-sectional examination of the association between dietary patterns and MetS. Face-to-face interviews were used to assess dietary intake using a validated semi-quantitative FFQ. OR and 95 % CI for MetS were calculated across quartiles of dietary pattern scores using multivariate logistic regression analysis models.
City of Linyi, Shandong Province, China.
Adults (n 1918) aged 45–59 years.
Three major dietary patterns were identified: traditional Chinese, animal food and high-energy. After adjustment for potential confounders, individuals in the highest quartile of the traditional Chinese pattern had a reduced risk of MetS relative to the lowest quartile (OR=0·72, 95 % CI 0·596, 0·952; P<0·05). Compared with those in the lowest quartile, individuals in the highest quartile of the animal food pattern had a greater risk of MetS (OR=1·28; 95 % CI 1·103, 1·697; P<0·05). No significant association was observed between the high-energy pattern and risk of MetS.
These findings indicate that the traditional Chinese pattern was associated with a reduced risk, while the animal food pattern was associated with increased risk of MetS. Given the cross-sectional nature of our study, further prospective studies are warranted to confirm these findings.
Disaster can strike people in any community at any time anywhere in the world. Disasters occur with high frequency, take on multiple forms, and exert wide influence, typically causing property damage, injuries, and death. As the world’s largest developing country, China incurs great costs when a disaster hits. After the Wenchuan earthquake in 2008, the Chinese government focused its attention on the construction of an emergency response system, the creation of disaster prevention and mitigation systems, and the development of a disaster medicine program. Here, we describe the current status of disaster medicine in China, focusing on the following four aspects: the Emergency Management System, Education & Training, Rescue Practices, and Research. We also discuss the future of disaster medicine in China. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018;12:157–165)
We apply a recently developed filtering approach, i.e. filter-space technique (FST), to study the scale-to-scale transport of kinetic energy, thermal energy, and enstrophy in two-dimensional (2D) Rayleigh–Taylor (RT) turbulence. Although the scaling laws of the energy cascades in 2D RT systems follow the Bolgiano–Obukhov (BO59) scenario due to buoyancy forces, the kinetic energy is still found to be, on average, dynamically transferred to large scales by an inverse cascade, while both the mean thermal energy and the mean enstrophy move towards small scales by forward cascades. In particular, there is a reasonably extended range over which the transfer rate of thermal energy is scale-independent and equals the corresponding thermal dissipation rate at different times. This range functions similarly to the inertial range for the kinetic energy in the homogeneous and isotropic turbulence. Our results further show that at small scales the fluctuations of the three instantaneous local fluxes are highly asymmetrically distributed and there is a strong correlation between any two fluxes. These small-scale features are signatures of the mixing and dissipation of fluids with steep temperature gradients at the fluid interfaces.
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of lutein and lycopene supplementation on carotid artery intima–media thickness (CAIMT) in subjects with subclinical atherosclerosis. A total of 144 subjects aged 45–68 years were recruited from local communities. All the subjects were randomly assigned to receive 20 mg lutein/d (n 48), 20 mg lutein/d+20 mg lycopene/d (n 48) or placebo (n 48) for 12 months. CAIMT was measured using Doppler ultrasonography at baseline and after 12 months, and serum lutein and lycopene concentrations were determined using HPLC. Serum lutein concentrations increased significantly from 0·34 to 1·96 μmol/l in the lutein group (P< 0·001) and from 0·35 to 1·66 μmol/l in the combination group (P< 0·001). Similarly, serum lycopene concentrations increased significantly from 0·18 to 0·71 μmol/l in the combination group at month 12 (P< 0·001), whereas no significant change was observed in the placebo group. The mean values of CAIMT decreased significantly by 0·035 mm (P= 0·042) and 0·073 mm (P< 0·001) in the lutein and combination groups at month 12, respectively. The change in CAIMT was inversely associated with the increase in serum lutein concentrations (P< 0·05) in both the active treatment groups and with that in serum lycopene concentrations (β = − 0·342, P= 0·031) in the combination group. Lutein and lycopene supplementation significantly increased the serum concentrations of lutein and lycopene with a decrease in CAIMT being associated with both concentrations. In addition, the combination of lutein and lycopene supplementation was more effective than lutein alone for protection against the development of CAIMT in Chinese subjects with subclinical atherosclerosis, and further studies are needed to confirm whether synergistic effects of lutein and lycopene exist.
Cytosol Ca2+ overload plays a vital role in ischemic neuronal damage, which is largely contributed by the Ca2+ influx through L-type voltage-gated calcium channels (L-VGCCs) and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) type glutamate receptors. In this article, L-VGCCs were activated by depolarization to investigate the cross-talk between NMDA receptors and L-VGCCs.
Depolarization was induced by 20 minutes incubation of 75 mM KCl in cultured rat cortical neuron. Apoptosis-like neuronal death was detected by DAPI staining. Tyrosine phosphorylation of NMDA receptor subunit 2A (NR2A), interactions of Src and NR2A were detected by immunoblot and immunoprecipitation.
Depolarization induced cortical neuron apoptosis-like cell death after 24 hours of restoration. The apoptosis was partially inhibited by 5 mM EGTA, 100 μM Cd2+, 10 μM nimodipine, 100 μM genistein, 20 μM MK-801, 2 μM PP2 and combined treatment of nimodipine and MK-801. NR2A tyrosine phosphorylation increased after depolarization, and the increase was inhibited by the drugs listed above. Moreover, non-receptor tyrosine kinase Src bound with NR2A after depolarization and restoration. The binding was also inhibited by the drugs listed above.
The results indicated that depolarization-induced neuronal death might be due to extracellular Ca2+ influx through L-VGCCs and subsequently Src activationmediated NR2A tyrosine phosphorylation.
Differential thermal analysis, as the main means of measurement, was used to prepare bulk MgB2 samples and monitor the sintering reaction process. Combined with microstructure observation by scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction analysis, the formation process of MgB2 phase at the temperature before Mg melting was summarized. Additionally, a new kinetic analysis (a variant on the Flynn–Wall–Ozawa) method under nonisothermal conditions was used to determine that the reaction between Mg and B powders involves random nucleation followed by an instantaneous growth of nuclei (Avrami–Erofeev equation, n = 2), which can properly explain the in situ formation process of bulk MgB2 at the temperature before Mg melting. The value of activation energy E and the function of conversion f(α) are obtained independently, and thereby the determination of mechanism function is not affected by the value of E. The values of E decrease from 175.418 to 160.395 kJ mol−1 with the increase of the conversion degrees (α) from 0.1 to 0.8. However, as the conversion degrees approach 0.9, the value of E increases to 222.647 kJ mol−1, and the corresponding pre-exponential factor A is about three orders of magnitude larger than the previous ones.
The black muntjac (Muntiacus crinifrons) is a critically endangered mammalian species, confined to a narrow region of south-eastern China. In the present study, the homogeneous ear fibroblast cells of a black muntjac were respectively cultured in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) (low glucose), DMEM (high glucose) and RPMI-1640. The population doubling time of subcultured cells was not significantly different between the three different media, but cell growth was greater in DMEM (low glucose). The interspecies embryos were reconstructed using the fibroblasts of black muntjac as donors and enucleated goat or rabbit oocytes as recipients and their blastocyst rates were 0 and 11.5%, respectively. The results demonstrated that the two cytoplasts could support reprogramming of the ear fibroblasts of black muntjac, but the developmental potential of the reconstructed embryos was different.
Interferon, an important cytokine, is an immunomodulator and possesses antiviral and anti-tumour activity. In vitro, it can be administrated in the treatment of diseases alone or with genetically engineered vaccine to enhance the immune effect of the latter. The recombinant transferring vector pSY681–ChIFN-γ was obtained in this study by inserting the chicken type II interferon (ChIFN-γ) gene into the Fowlpox virus (FPV) transferring vector pSY681. The resulting plasmid was then transfected into chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF) cell cultures pre-infected with the parental FPV S-FPV-017. Finally, the recombinant Fowlpox virus (rFPV) expressing ChIFN-γ (rFPV–ChIFN-γ) was produced by homologous recombination with the FPV gene in CEF. rFPV-positive plaques were verified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), restriction analysis and indirect immunofluorescence assays. The rFPV–ChIFN-γ supernatants, cultured in CEF for 72 h and inoculated into rat fibroblasts (L929), had an inhibitory effect on the replication of Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) with an antiviral titre of 2048 U/ml.
Three-dimensional temperature (T)–pressure (P)–composition (X) phase diagrams of binary carbon-hydrogen (C–H) and carbon-oxygen (C–O) systems for activated low pressure diamond growth have been calculated. Based on an approximation of linear combination between C–H and C–O systems, a projective ternary carbonhydrogen-oxygen (C–H–O) phase diagram has also been obtained. There is always a diamond growth region in each of these phase diagrams. Once a supply of external activating energy stops, the diamond growth region will not exist. Nearly all of the reliable experimental data reported in the literature drop into the possible diamond growth region of the calculated projective ternary C–H–O phase diagram under the conditions of 0.01–100 kPa and above 700 K.
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