To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
This paper presents new LA-ICP-MS zircon U–Pb chronology, whole-rock geochemical and zircon Hf isotopic data for the felsic lavas of the Huili Group from the southwestern Yangtze Block. LA-ICP-MS zircon U–Pb dating shows that these rocks were emplaced in Late Mesoproterozoic time (∼1028 to 1019 Ma). Relative to typical I-type and S-type granitoids, all the samples are characterized by low Sr and Eu, and high high-field-strength element contents, high TFeO/MgO, enriched rare earth element compositions and negative Eu anomalies, indicating that they share the geochemical signatures of A-type granitoid. They can be further divided into two groups: Group I and Group II. Group I are A1-type felsic rocks and were produced by fractional crystallization of alkaline basaltic magmas. The Group II felsic lavas belong to the A2-type and were derived by partial melting of a crustal source with mixing of mantle-derived magmas. Both Group I and Group II felsic lavas may erupt in a continental back-arc setting. The coexistence of A1- and A2-type rocks in the southwestern Yangtze Block suggests that they can occur in the same tectonic setting.
The present study was undertaken to investigate the antiparasitic activity of extracellular products of Streptomyces albus. Bioactivity-guided isolation of chloroform extracts affording a compound showing potent activity. The structure of the compound was elucidated as salinomycin (SAL) by EI-MS, 1H NMR and 13C NMR. In vitro test showed that SAL has potent anti-parasitic efficacy against theronts of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis with 10 min, 1, 2, 3 and 4 h (effective concentration) EC50 (95% confidence intervals) of 2.12 (2.22–2.02), 1.93 (1.98–1.88), 1.42 (1.47–1.37), 1.35 (1.41–1.31) and 1.11 (1.21–1.01) mg L−1. In vitro antiparasitic assays revealed that SAL could be 100% effective against I. multifiliis encysted tomonts at a concentration of 8.0 mg L−1. In vivo test demonstrated that the number of I. multifiliis trophonts on Erythroculter ilishaeformis treated with SAL was markedly lower than that of control group at 10 days after exposed to theronts (P < 0.05). In the control group, 80% mortality was observed owing to heavy I. multifiliis infection at 10 days. On the other hand, only 30.0% mortality was recorded in the group treated with 8.0 mg L−1 SAL. The median lethal dose (LD50) of SAL for E. ilishaeformis was 32.9 mg L−1.
Fever-associated seizures or epilepsy (FASE) is primarily characterised by the occurrence of a seizure or epilepsy usually accompanied by a fever. It is common in infants and children, and generally includes febrile seizures (FS), febrile seizures plus (FS+), Dravet syndrome (DS) and genetic epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFSP). The aetiology of FASE is unclear. Genetic factors may play crucial roles in FASE. Mutations in certain genes may cause a wide spectrum of phenotypical overlap ranging from isolated FS, FS+ and GEFSP to DS. Synapse-associated proteins, postsynaptic GABAA receptor, and sodium channels play important roles in synaptic transmission. Mutations in these genes may involve in the pathogenesis of FASE. Elevated temperature promotes synaptic vesicle (SV) recycling and enlarges SV size, which may enhance synaptic transmission and contribute to FASE occurring. This review provides an overview of the loci, genes, underlying pathogenesis and the fever-inducing effect of FASE. It may provide a more comprehensive understanding of pathogenesis and contribute to the clinical diagnosis of FASE.
A combination of dimensional analysis and finite element modeling was invoked to characterize the indentation behavior of transversely isotropic thin films on substrate materials. Through indentation simulations of over 13,500 combinations of properties for the thin film system, functional relationships that connect the indentation responses of the thin films with the elastic and plastic properties of the thin films were obtained. The forward algorithms that predict the indentation response characteristics from known material properties and the reverse algorithms that predict the material properties from known indentation responses were verified to be very accurate. Thus, the viability of using the indentation method to determine the elastic and plastic properties of transversely isotropic thin films on substrate materials was demonstrated.
Both lay beliefs and research findings suggest that people tend to avoid conflicts if interpersonal harmony is highly valued. Counter to this widely accepted convention, we adopt the perspective of motivated social cognition to argue that conflict avoidance is subject to the joint effect of the need for epistemic security (need for closure) and the motivation to prevent losses (prevention focus). Such effect is mediated by negative anticipation towards the consequences of confronting conflicts. Results across three studies indicated that individuals with relatively high need for closure and high prevention focus show the strongest conflict avoidance tendency due to their heightened negative anticipation. However, with low need for closure, the negative anticipation and conflict avoidance tendency of high prevention-focused individuals are weakened or even disappear. This research offers a novel theory about the mechanism of conflict avoidance. The findings about the debiasing role of low need for closure also provide rich implications for conflict resolutions.
In this study, the effects of Sm on the microstructure and corrosion resistance of hot-extruded AZ61 magnesium alloys were investigated by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that uniformly dispersed Al2Sm particles with size of ∼2 μm were discovered in the hot-extruded AZ61 magnesium alloy sample modified with 1.0 wt% Sm, which promoted dynamic recrystallization grain growth during the hot-extruded process, gradually increasing the grain of the alloy as Sm content increased. The morphology of the corroded surface and the corrosion rate of the hot-extruded AZ61 magnesium alloy both were significantly improved after Sm addition. The alloy sample modified with 2.0 wt% Sm after immersion in 3.5 wt% NaCl solution for 12 h showed minimum corrosion rate value, 3.1 mg/cm2 day, which is only 3.7% of the corrosion rate of unmodified alloy (82 mg/cm2 day).
Previous studies have reported that the first polar body (PB1) morphology reflects embryo development competence, but the effects of PB1 on porcine embryo development remain unknown. This study aims to determine whether the ability of porcine embryo development is related to oocytes’ PB1 in vitro. The distribution of type II cortical granules (CGs) of porcine matured oocytes in grade B PB1 is significantly greater compared with those in grades A and C PB1 (71.43% versus 52.46% and 50%; P < 0.05). The ratio of porcine parthenogenetic blastocysts and the mean cell number in each blastocyst in the group with grade B PB1 is significantly greater than that with grades A and C PB1 (30.81% vs. 19.02% and 15.15%; P < 0.05) and (36.67 versus 24.67, 28.67; P < 0.05), and no significant differences are found in the embryo cleavage for all groups (79.75%, 84.30%, and 78.18% in grades A, B, and C PB1; P > 0.05). The acetylation level of porcine embryos in the group with grade B PB1 is significantly greater compared with those in the other groups (P < 0.05), and is almost 2.5 times higher than that in grade A. Therefore, porcine oocytes with PB1 in grade B are more competitive in cytoplasmic maturation and further embryo development in vitro.
Carnitine has been reported to improve growth performance and reduce body lipid content in fish. Thus, we hypothesised that carnitine supplementation can improve growth performance and reduce lipid content in the liver and muscle of yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco), a commonly cultured freshwater fish in inland China, and tested this hypothesis in the present study. Diets containing l-carnitine at three different concentrations of 47 mg/kg (control, without extra carnitine addition), 331 mg/kg (low carnitine) and 3495 mg/kg (high carnitine) diet were fed to yellow catfish for 8 weeks. The low-carnitine diet significantly improved weight gain (WG) and reduced the feed conversion ratio (FCR). In contrast, the high-carnitine diet did not affect WG and FCR. Compared with the control diet, the low-carnitine and high-carnitine diets increased lipid and carnitine contents in the liver and muscle. The increased lipid content in the liver could be attributed to the up-regulation of the mRNA levels of SREBP, PPARγ, fatty acid synthase (FAS) and ACCa and the increased activities of lipogenic enzymes (such as FAS, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase and malic enzyme) and to the down-regulation of the mRNA levels of the lipolytic gene CPT1A. The increased lipid content in muscle could be attributed to the down-regulation of the mRNA levels of the lipolytic genes CPT1A and ATGL and the increased activity of lipoprotein lipase. In conclusion, in contrast to our hypothesis, dietary carnitine supplementation increased body lipid content in yellow catfish.
Using first-principles density functional theory, we investigated the chemical bonding and electronic structure of the metal-organic-framework with individual structural element OFe4(CO2Ph)6. The calculations showed that there is no obvious structural difference between OFe4(CO2Ph)6 and OZn4(CO2Ph)6. The analysis of electronic structure and chemical bonding reveals that the Fe-O has mainly ionic interaction and partial covalent interaction while O-C, H-C and C-C exhibit mainly covalent interactions. The finding in this paper may shed light on the synthesis of MOF-5 materials with other metal centers.
Pulsed thermography has been proven to be a fast and effective method to detect fluid ingress in aircraft honeycomb structure; however, water and hydraulic oil may have similar appearance in the thermal image sequence. It is meaningful to identify what kind of liquid ingress it is for aircraft maintenance. In this study, honeycomb specimens with glass fiber and aluminum skin are injected different kinds of liquids: water and oil. Pulsed thermography is adopted; a recognition method is proposed to first get the reference curve by linear fitting the beginning of the logarithmic curve, and then an algorithm based on the thermal contrast between liquid and reference is used to recognize what kind of fluid it is by calculating their thermal properties. It is verified with the results of theory and the finite element simulation.
Effects of Ti and Si particle sizes on phase transformations of Ti–Si–Cu system were explored through differential thermal analysis (DTA), x-ray diffraction (XRD), and field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). For TiSiCu system, fine Ti easily dissolves into Si–Cu liquid to form Ti–Si–Cu liquid at ∼795 °C, which further participates into the reaction of β-Ti and Si to yield abundant quantity of Ti5Si3 at ∼917 °C. For TiSiCu system, nonetheless, the reaction of coarse Ti with Si–Cu liquid involves more difficulty in forming the ternary liquid , which is the causal factor for the delay in the formation of Ti5Si3 to ∼948 °C. For TiSiCu system, coarse Si results in the formation of insufficient Si–Cu liquid initially, whereas Ti–Cu liquid forms at ∼960 °C instead, which further reacts with coarse Si to form Ti–Si–Cu liquid, and then Ti5Si3is precipitated from the liquid.
Transparent and high preferential c-axis-oriented ZnO thin films doped with SiO2 have been prepared by sol–gel method using zinc nitrate and tetraethylorthosilicate as precursors, absolute ethanol as solvent, and diethanolamine as sol stabilizer. Thin film deposition was performed by spin coating technique at a spinning speed of 2000 rpm/sec on glass substrate followed by calcinations at 500 °C. The structural characteristics of the samples were analyzed by x-ray diffractometer and atomic force microscope. The optical properties were studied by an ultraviolet–visible spectrophotometer. The results show that all the prepared ZnO thin films have a compact hexagonal wurtzite structure. With the change in the amount of SiO2 dopants, the intensity of (002) peak, particle size, surface root mean square roughness, thickness, transmittance, absorbance, and the optical band gap of the ZnO–SiO2 thin films were changed as well.
The solid solubilities of 15 common alloying elements in the L12-type intermetallic compound Ni3Si have been determined at 900°C, and their substitution mode has been deduced from the direction of solubility lobe of the compound. It is shown that the alloying behavior in Ni3Si is determined by both size and electronic factors, i.e, the substitution mode is governed by electronic configuration and solubility by the both. The solubilities of alloying elements can be explained on the two dimensional map proposed by Alonso and Simozar.
Four isotherms of Ni-Si-X (X = Fe,Cr, Co,Cu) have been obtained. They are very similar in structure.
Iodine-doped CdS (I-CdS) with controllable morphologies, pure hexagonal phase, and enhanced photocatalytic activity was synthesized via a mild hydrothermal process with polyvinylpyrrolidone-iodine (PVP-I) acting as the template-directing reagent and iodine source. The morphologies of the as-prepared samples could be adjusted from irregular cone-shaped particles to uneven microspheres, further to smooth microspheres, while the crystal phases were also transformed from mixed cubic and hexagonal phases to pure hexagonal phase upon increasing the molar ratio of PVP-I to Cd2+ from 0 to 2. The iodine doping could result in red shift of the absorption edges and band gap narrowing of the I-CdS samples. Importantly, a critical point of 0.5 of molar ratio of PVP-I to Cd2+ for iodine doping was found to be necessary for obtaining a pure hexagonal phase that facilitates the improving of photocatalytic activity on the degradation of Rhodamine B in aqueous solution under visible light irradiation.
In this paper, the BaTiO3 nanoceramics have been fabricated by pressureless sintering for the first time. High purity BaTiO3 powders in nano-size of 50∼80nm synthesized by wet chemical method were used to fabricate nanoceramics. The addition of an appropriate amount of Nb2O5 and Co3O4 was found to suppress the grain growth, which is normally encountered in the conventional pressless sintering. The effects of Nb2O5 and Co3O4 on the phase structure, microstructure and dielectric properties of the sintered ceramics were investigated. The BaTiO3 ceramics with the average grain size less than 100nm were achieved after sintering below 1220°C with dielectric constant up to 2000 at room temperature, which is of cubic structure and meets the requirement of X7R specification.
Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection causes eosinophilic meningitis in humans. Baicalein is a flavonoid originally isolated from the roots of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi. In this study we evaluated the efficacy of the combination of albendazole and baicalein for treating eosinophilic meningitis in BALB/c mice. Therapeutic efficacy included the survival time, body weight, neurological function, leucocyte and eosinophil counts, eotaxin concentration, matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) activity, larval recovery and histopathological examination. The results showed that the combination of albendazole and baicalein was more effective than either drug administered singly. Combination therapy increased the survival time, decreased body weight loss, neurological dysfunction, leucocyte response, eotaxin concentration and MMP-9 activity. Our results suggest that the combination of albendazole and baicalein may exhibit synergistic beneficial effects in the treatment of eosinophilic meningitis induced by A. cantonensis.
Various α-GaOOH nanorods were synthesized through a microwave-assisted method at 80 °C. In the synthesis, Ga(NO3)3 was used as the gallium source, and urea, L-cysteine, and EDTA disodium salt were used as the additives. The thermal decomposition of the as-prepared α-GaOOH nanorods could selectively produce α-, β-, and ε-Ga2O3 nanorods. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and cathodoluminescence were used to characterize the resulting samples. On the basis of characterization results, the possible growth mechanisms of these various GaOOH nanorods were proposed. This study provides a controllable method to prepare various gallium oxyhydroxide and gallium oxide nanorods.