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The integration of oscillating water column (OWC) wave energy converters into a coastal structure (breakwater, jetty, pier, etc.) or, more generally, their installation along the coast is an effective way to increase the accessibility of wave power exploitation. In this paper, a theoretical model is developed based on the linear potential flow theory and eigenfunction matching method to evaluate the hydrodynamic performance of an array of OWCs installed along a vertical straight coast. The chamber of each OWC consists of a hollow vertical circular cylinder, which is half embedded in the wall. The OWC chambers in the theoretical model may have different sizes, i.e. different values of the radius, wall thickness and submergence. At the top of each chamber, a Wells turbine is installed to extract power. The effects of the Wells turbine together with the air compressibility are taken into account as a linear power take-off system. The hydrodynamic and wave power extraction performance of the multiple coast-integrated OWCs is compared with that of a single offshore/coast-integrated OWC and of multiple offshore OWCs. More specifically, we analyse the role of the incident wave direction, chamber size (i.e. radius, wall thickness and submergence), spacing between OWCs and number of OWCs by means of the present theoretical model. It is shown that wave power extraction from the coast-integrated OWCs for a certain range of wave conditions can be significantly enhanced due to both the constructive array effect and the constructive coast effect.
Three-dimensional graphene (3D-GN)/Cu/Fe3O4 composite support materials were synthesized by a modified chemical reduction method using graphene oxide precursor. A 3D-GN/Cu/Fe3O4 biosensor was prepared by coating the electrode with laccase. The electrochemical properties of the biosensor were investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry using potassium ferricyanide, phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) solution, and bisphenol A (BPA) solution. The current response of 3D-GN/Cu/Fe3O4 biosensors presents a remarkable sensitivity based on CV. The linear range of BPA is 7.2–18 μM using differential pulse voltammetry in PBS solution (pH = 4.0). A linear fitting equation of the laccase biosensor was observed for the current response as a function of BPA concentration. The detection limit was decreased to 1.7 μM. The detection approach herein turns out to be highly sensitive, has a wide linear range, and exhibits excellent stability.
The plane wall jet (PWJ) is a wall-bounded flow in which a wall shear layer develops in the presence of extremely energetic flow structures of the outer free-shear layer. The structure of a PWJ, developing in still air, was studied with the focus on the large scales in the flow. Wall-normal hot-wire anemometry (HWA) measurements along with double-frame particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements (wall-normal–streamwise plane) were carried out at streamwise distances up to
is the slot width of the PWJ exit. The nominal PWJ Reynolds number based on exit parameters was
. Comparisons with a zero-pressure-gradient boundary layer (ZPGBL) at nominally matched friction Reynolds number
were also carried out as appropriate, to highlight key features of the PWJ structure. Consistent with previous work, the PWJ showed a dependence of the peak turbulent stresses on the jet exit Reynolds number. The turbulent production showed a peak corresponding to the near-wall cycle similar to the peak seen in the ZPGBL. However, another turbulent production peak was observed in the outer free-shear layer that was an order of magnitude larger than the inner one. Along with the change in sign of the viscous and Reynolds shear stresses, the PWJ was shown to have a region of very low turbulent production between these two peaks. The dissipation rate increased over the PWJ layer with a peak also in the outer region. Visualizations of the flow and two-point correlations reveal that the most energetic large-scale structures within a PWJ are vortical motions in the wall-normal–streamwise plane similar to those structures seen in free-shear layers. These structures are referred to as J (for jet) type structures. In addition two-point correlations reveal the existence of large-scale structures in the wall region which have a signature similar to those structures seen in canonical boundary layers. These structures are referred to as W (for wall) type structures. Instantaneous PIV realizations and flow visualizations reveal that these W type large-scale features are consistent with the paradigm of hairpin vortex packets in the wall region. The J type structures were seen to intrude well into the wall region while the W type structures were also seen to extend into the outer shear layer. Further, these large-scale structures were shown to modulate the amplitude of the finer scales of the flow.
Signal-in-space (SIS) continuity and availability are important indicators of performance assessment for Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSSs). The BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) Open Service Performance Standard (BDS-OS-PS-1.0) has been released, and the corresponding public performance indicators have been provided, but the actual SIS performance is uncertain to users. SIS continuity and availability are primarily related to unscheduled outages (failures). Therefore, based on the existing failure classification system and actual operation modes, four types of failure modes are first analysed: long-term failure related to satellite service period, maintenance failure related to satellite manoeuvring, short-term failure associated with random repairable anomalies and equivalent failure corresponding to a combination of the above three types of failures. Second, based on the failure classification and selected precise and broadcast ephemerides from 2015–2016, the Mean Time Between Failure (MTBF) and Mean Time To Repair (MTTR) of each failure type are obtained using appropriate detection methods. Finally, using a corresponding assessment model, the SIS continuity and availability of BeiDou are calculated for individual and equivalent failure cases, and these are compared with the provided index in the BDS Open Service Performance Standard.
Laser interaction with an ultra-thin pre-structured target is investigated with the help of both two-dimensional and three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. With the existence of a periodic structure on the target surface, the laser seems to penetrate through the target at its fundamental frequency even if the plasma density of the target is much higher than the laser’s relativistically critical density. The particle-in-cell simulations show that the transmitted laser energy behind the pre-structured target is increased by about two orders of magnitude compared to that behind the flat target. Theoretical analyses show that the transmitted energy behind the pre-structured target is actually re-emitted by electron ‘islands’ formed by the surface plasma waves on the target surfaces. In other words, the radiation with the fundamental frequency is actually ‘surface emission’ on the target rear surface. Besides the intensity of the component with the fundamental frequency, the intensity of the high-order harmonics behind the pre-structured target is also much enhanced compared to that behind the flat target. The enhancement of the high-order harmonics is also related to the surface plasma waves generated on the target surfaces.
In traditional Simultaneous Localisation and Mapping (SLAM) algorithms based on Extended Kalman Filtering (EKF-SLAM), the uncertainty of state estimation will increase rapidly with the development of the exploration process and the increase of map area. Likewise, the computational complexity of the EKF-SLAM is proportional to the square of the number of feature points contained in the state variables in a single filtering process. A new SLAM algorithm combining the local submaps and the body-fixed coordinates of the rover is presented in this paper. The algorithm can reduce the computational complexity and enhance computational speed in consideration of the processing capability of the onboard computer. Due to the introduction of local submaps, the algorithm represented in this paper is able to reduce the number of feature points contained in the state variables in each single filtering process. Therefore, the algorithm could reduce the computational complexity and improve the computational speed. In addition, rover body-fixed SLAM could improve the navigation accuracy of a rover and decrease the cumulative linearization error by coordinates transformation during the update process, which is shown in the simulation results.
Annexin A2 (ANXA2) is reported to be associated with cancer development. To investigate the roles ANXA2 plays during the development of cancer, the RNAi method was used to inhibit the ANXA2 expression in caco2 (human colorectal cancer cell line) and SMMC7721 (human hepatocarcinoma cell line) cells. The results showed that when the expression of ANXA2 was efficiently inhibited, the growth and motility of both cell lines were significantly decreased, and the development of the motility relevant microstructures, such as pseudopodia, filopodia, and the polymerization of microfilaments and microtubules were obviously inhibited. The cancer cell apoptosis was enhanced without obvious significance. The possible regulating pathway in the process was also predicted and discussed. Our results suggested that ANXA2 plays important roles in maintaining the malignancy of colorectal and hepatic cancer by enhancing the cell proliferation, motility, and development of the motility associated microstructures of cancer cells based on a possible complicated signal pathway.
Novel NiMoO4-integrated electrode materials were successfully prepared by solvothermal method using Na2MoO4·2H2O and NiSO4·6H2O as main raw materials, water, and ethanol as solvents. The morphology, phase, and structure of the as-prepared materials were characterized by SEM, XRD, Raman, and FT-IR. The electrochemical properties of the materials in supercapacitors were investigated by cyclic voltammetry, constant current charge–discharge, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques. The effects of volume ratio of water to ethanol (W/E) in solvent on the properties of the product were studied. The results show that the pure phase monoclinic crystal NiMoO4 product can be obtained when the W/E is 2:1. The diameter and length are 0.1–0.3 µm and approximately 3 µm, respectively. As an active material for supercapacitor, the NiMoO4 nanorods material delivered a discharge specific capacitance of 672, 498, and 396 F/g at a current density of 4, 7, and 10 A/g, respectively. The discharge specific capacitance slightly decreased from 815 to 588 F/g with a retention of 72% after 1000 cycles at a current density of 1 A/g. With these superior capacitance properties, the novel NiMoO4 integrated electrode materials could be considered as promising material for supercapacitors.
Optimizing the dietary calcium (Ca) level is essential to maximize the eggshell quality, egg production and bone formation in poultry. This study aimed to establish the Ca requirements of egg-type duck breeders from 23 to 57 weeks of age on egg production, eggshell, incubation, tibial, plasma and ovary-related indices, as well as the expression of matrix protein-related genes. Totally, 450 Longyan duck breeders aged 21 weeks of age were allotted randomly into five treatments, each with six replicates of 15 individually caged birds. The data collection started from 23 weeks of age and continued over the following 35 weeks. The five groups corresponded to five dietary treatments containing either 2.8%, 3.2%, 3.6%, 4.0% or 4.4% Ca. The tested dietary Ca levels increased (linear, P <0.01) egg production and egg mass, and linearly improved (P <0.01) the feed conversion ratio (FCR). Increasing the dietary Ca levels from 2.8% to 4.4% increased (P <0.01) the eggshell thickness and eggshell content. The tested Ca levels showed a quadratic effect on eggshell thickness and ovarian weight (P <0.01); the highest values were obtained with the Ca levels 4.0% and 3.6%, respectively. Dietary Ca levels affected the small yellow follicles (SYF) number and SYF weight/ovarian weight, and the linear response (P <0.01) was significant vis-à-vis SYF number. In addition, dietary Ca levels increased (P <0.05) the tibial dry weight, breaking strength, mineral density and ash content. Plasma and tibial phosphorus concentration exhibited a quadratic (P <0.01) response to dietary Ca levels. Plasma calcitonin concentration linearly (P <0.01) increased as dietary Ca levels increased. The relative expression of carbonic anhydrase 2 in the uterus rose (P <0.01) with the increment of dietary Ca levels, and the highest value was obtained with 3.2% Ca. In conclusion, Longyan duck breeders fed a diet with 4.0% Ca had superior eggshell and tibial quality, while those fed a diet with 3.6% Ca had the heaviest ovarian weights. The regression model indicated that the dietary Ca levels 3.86%, 3.48% and 4.00% are optimal levels to obtain maximum eggshell thickness, ovarian weight and tibial mineral density, respectively.
The Weihe Basin is an intracontinental rift basin in central China that provides an ideal location for studying the interactions between regional tectonics and monsoonal climate change. In this paper, we present detrital zircon U–Pb ages from sediments from Core LYH drilled in the northern margin of the basin. We use these to illuminate changing sediment transport processes, provenance and palaeo-environments during the Quaternary. The sediments are dominated by zircon age groups of 100–400 Ma and 400–550 Ma, and three secondary age peaks at 700–1100 Ma, 1700–2100 Ma and 2400–2600 Ma. Multidimensional scaling plots support the conclusion that the Central Loess Plateau and the Luo River are the dominant sources of sediments to the core site. Before c. 1.06 Ma, the Qinling Mountains and the Wei River, as well as the Yellow River, had minor influence on the sedimentation at the core site. These results are consistent with the existence of a palaeolake prior to 1.06 Ma, which allowed sediments supplied to the south and east edge of the basin to be reworked to the northern side of the Weihe Basin. Subsequently, the Luo River has provided a steady source of sediments to the northern Weihe Basin.
Cryptorchidism, characterized by the presence of one (unilateral) or both (bilateral) undescended testes, is a common male urogenital defect. Cryptorchidism can lead to male infertility, testicular cancer being the most extreme clinical symptom, as well as psychological issues of the inflicted individual. Despite this, both knowledge about the aetiology of cryptorchidism and the mechanism for cryptorchidism-induced male infertility remain limited. In this present study, by using an artificial cryptorchid mouse model, we investigated the effects of surgery-induced cryptorchidism on spermatogenic cells and seminiferous epithelial cycles. We found that surgery-induced cryptorchidism led to a reduced testicular weight, aberrant seminiferous epithelial cycles and impaired spermatogenesis characterized by degenerating spermatogenic cells. We also observed multinucleated giant cells after surgery-induced cryptorchidism. Transmission electron microscopy, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL) and western blot assays demonstrated cryptorchidism-induced apoptosis of spermatogenic cells. Moreover, we identified the occurrence of autophagy in germ cells after surgery-induced cryptorchidism. Interestingly, apoptosis and autophagy were synchronous, suggestive of their synergetic roles in promoting germ cell death. Our results provide novel insights into the cryptorchidism-induced male infertility, thereby contributing to the development of male contraceptive strategies as well as treatment options for male infertility caused by cryptorchidism.
Conventional methods for determination of trace drug residues are either time consuming or labor intensive or require large specialized instruments, which hamper their practical applications in field analysis. Here, we present a rapid and quantitative surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) detection method coupled with a portable Raman spectrometer for determination of trace drug residues on fish surface. Graphene oxide (GO) decorated popcorn-like Ag nanoparticles (NPs) on Cu plate (GO/AgNPs/Cu) were fabricated by a facile approach and directly employed as a robust SERS detection substrate. For practical SERS detections, trace-level residues of crystal violet (10−8 M, 4.1 ng/g) and malachite green (10−8 M, 3.6 ng/g) could be readily detected by simply swabbing the contaminated fish scale surface with the SERS substrate. Importantly, SERS detection was quantitatively realized in the broad linear concentrations. Compared with lab-based Raman spectrometer with large footprints, our method has potential applications in practical rapid, accurate, and on-site SERS determination.
In this work, carbon nanotubes (CNTs)-templated binuclear metallophthalocyanines (MTAPcCF3)2C (M = Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn) assemblies (MTAPcCF3)2C–COOH–CNTs are designed and obtained. Whereafter, the structure and morphology of target products are analyzed by many means such as infrared, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. The electrocatalytic performances of lithium-thionyl chloride battery catalyzed by (MTAPcCF3)2C–COOH–CNTs were carried out. The result shows that all catalysts can improve the battery performance including the discharge time and the initial voltage. The catalytic performance of (MTAPcCF3)2C–COOH–CNTs is ordered following the central metal: Mn > Fe > Ni > Co > Cu > Zn. The cell capacity catalyzed by optimal catalyst (MnTAPcCF3)2C–COOH–CNTs can expand to 28.08 mAˑh, with increase by 142.07%, and the (MnTAPcCF3)2C–COOH–CNTs can extend the discharge time to 551.6 s. Besides, the reaction mechanism is presented on the basis of cyclic voltammetry measurements.
In this paper, a new path-loss model for electromagnetic wave in an indoor multipath environment is proposed based on matching coefficient, polarization matching factor, and normalized field intensity direction function. This model is called the Friis-extension (Friis-EXT) model, because it operates as the Friis model under certain conditions. In addition, in the modeling process of the path-loss in an indoor environment, the reflective surfaces in the environment and form of the antenna are considered. Afterwards, the path-loss data in an indoor corridor environment are measured, and the maximum error between the theoretical value and the measured data is <7.5 dB. Finally, the Friis-EXT model is compared with some other traditional models, and the results show that the Friis-EXT model is the best one that matches the measurement data.
This paper proposes a new radar cross section (RCS) reduced microstrip antenna incorporating 475 square slots on the patch. The proposed antenna achieves wideband RCS reduction with radiation performance sustained. The modified and reference antenna are simulated and analyzed in radiating and scattering mode, respectively. Prototypes of two antennas are fabricated and measured. Compared with the reference antenna, the simulated result shows the modified antenna RCS reduced in the frequency range 1.1–2.6 GHz, which contains the in-band and out-of-band frequency band simultaneously. And the maximum RCS reduction is 7.6dB at the frequency of 1.19GHz. Besides, the modified antenna can achieve the antenna RCS reduction in the case of oblique incidence. The prototypes of two antennas are fabricated and measured, and the accuracy of the simulation is proved by the measured result. Due to its advantages of simplicity, wideband RCS reduced, broad-angle RCS reduced, the method in this paper is suitable for wideband antenna RCS reduction in space-limited environment.
Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common infectious disease caused by a group of viruses. The causative viruses have changed over time, and there is a need for a more effective protective vaccine. In this study, we investigated the profiles of human enteroviruses that caused HFMD outbreaks in Nanjing in 2015, with the goal of guiding the future prevention and treatment of HFMD.
Specimens were collected from 1097 patients admitted to our hospital and diagnosed with HFMD. Enteroviruses in the specimens were identified by real-time polymerase chain reaction and epidemiological patterns were analyzed with the clinical data.
Among the 1097 clinically diagnosed HFMD cases, 916 cases were confirmed by laboratory tests. The results showed that the main infectious virus was coxsackievirus A6 (CVA6) (41.75%), followed by enterovirus 71 (EV71) (27.48%), coxsackievirus A16 (7.43%), coxsackievirus A10 (6.84%), and others (16.51%). Further investigation indicated that CVA6 caused mild cases of HFMD, while EV71 caused severe cases. More enterovirus positive cases were reported from rural areas than from urban areas.
CA6 and EV71 were the chief pathogenic viruses of HFMD cases in the present study. Schools, childcare centers, and families from rural areas should be the major targets for prevention and awareness of HFMD. This study will provide information useful in the prevention and management of HFMD and the development of relevant vaccines for HFMD in the future. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2019;13:740–744).
be the irreducible Hermitian symmetric domain of type
. There exists a canonical Hermitian variation of real Hodge structure
of Calabi–Yau type over
. This short note concerns the problem of giving motivic realizations for
. Namely, we specify a descent of
and ask whether the
can be realized as sub-variation of rational Hodge structure of those coming from families of algebraic varieties. When
, we give a motivic realization for
, we show that the unique irreducible factor of Calabi–Yau type in
can be realized motivically.
Heavy metal contamination in the paddy soils of China is a serious concern because of its health risk through transfer in food chains. A field experiment was conducted in 2014–2015 to investigate the long-term effects of different biochar amendments on cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (As) immobilisation in a contaminated paddy field in southern China. Two types of biochar, a rice-straw-derived biochar (RB) and a coconut-by-product-derived biochar (CB), were amended separately to determine their impacts on rice yield and their efficacy in reducing Cd and As in rice. The two-year field experiment showed that biochar amendments significantly improved the rice yields and that CB is superior to RB, especially in the first growth season. Using a large amount of biochar amendment (22.5tha–1) significantly increased soil pH and total organic carbon, and concomitantly decreased the Cd content in rice grains over the four growth seasons, regardless of biochar type and application rate. Arsenic levels in rice were similar to the control, and results from this study suggest that there was a sustainable effect of biochar on Cd sequestration in soil and reduction of Cd accumulation in rice for at least two years. Biochar amendment in soil could be considered as a sustainable, reliable and cost-effective option to remediate heavy metal contamination in paddy fields for long periods.
Muscle fibre types can transform from slow-twitch (slow myosin heavy chain (MyHC)) to fast-twitch (fast MyHC) or vice versa. Leucine plays a vital effect in the development of skeletal muscle. However, the role of leucine in porcine myofibre type transformation and its mechanism are still unclear. In this study, effects of leucine and microRNA-27a (miR-27a) on the transformation of porcine myofibre type were investigated in vitro. We found that leucine increased slow MyHC protein level and decreased fast MyHC protein level, increased the levels of phospho-protein kinase B (Akt)/Akt and phospho-forkhead box 1 (FoxO1)/FoxO1 and decreased the FoxO1 protein level. However, blocking the Akt/FoxO1 signalling pathway by wortmannin attenuated the role of leucine in porcine myofibre type transformation. Over-expression of miR-27a decreased slow MyHC protein level and increased fast MyHC protein level, whereas inhibition of miR-27a had an opposite effect. We also found that expression of miR-27a was down-regulated following leucine treatment. Moreover, over-expression of miR-27a repressed transformation from fast MyHC to slow MyHC caused by leucine, suggesting that miR-27a is interdicted by leucine and then contributes to porcine muscle fibre type transformation. Our finding provided the first evidence that leucine promotes porcine myofibre type transformation from fast MyHC to slow MyHC via the Akt/FoxO1 signalling pathway and miR-27a.
The immobilization of cytochrome c (cyt c) on tea polyphenol functionalized and reduced graphene oxide (TPG) was carried out by a simple adsorption process. Intriguingly, TPG with large surface area exhibited excellent adsorption behaviors and good biocompatibility. The adsorbed materials were characterized by various methods including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). And the effects of adsorption behavior of cyt c were discussed in detail. The results showed the adsorption behavior was dependent on the pH value and showed a high adsorption capacity as high as 1.414 × 104 mg/g and was friendly to normal cells (mouse fibroblast cell line, L929). In conclusion, we proposed the introduction of TPG as novel material and used the adsorption method to immobilize cyt c, which would provide a novel material and simple method for the enrichment of protein.