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Risk factors and prevalence of pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) diseases were retrospectively evaluated in 1208 suspected pulmonary TB patients seeking care at the Affiliated Hospital of Hangzhou Normal University between July 2018 and December 2018. Further analysis of 390 culture-positive cases demonstrated that 358 (358/390, 91.8%) were infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), 24 (24/390, 6.2%) with NTM and eight (8/390, 2.0%) with both MTB and NTM. M. intracellulare was the most prevalent NTM isolated (16/24, 66.7%), followed by M. abscessus (3/24), M. kansasii (2/24), M. avium (1/24), M. szulgai (1/24) and M. fortuitum (1/24). The difference between NTM and TB case rates for the ⩾65-year-old age group significantly exceeded the difference for the reference group (patients aged 25–44 years) (OR (95% CI): 4.63 (1.03–20.90)). Pulmonary NTM diseases incidence positively correlated with prior TB history (OR (95% CI): 12.92 (3.24–31.82)). Moreover, pulmonary NTM patients were significantly more likely to exhibit underlying bronchiectasis than pulmonary TB patients (OR (95% CI): 18.89 (7.54–47.88)). In conclusion, approximately one-tenth of culture-positive suspected pulmonary TB patients are infected with NTM (most frequently M. intracellulare) in Zhejiang Province, China. The elderly and those with bronchiectasis or a history of TB are at the greatest risk of contracting pulmonary NTM disease.
In traditional Simultaneous Localisation and Mapping (SLAM) algorithms based on Extended Kalman Filtering (EKF-SLAM), the uncertainty of state estimation will increase rapidly with the development of the exploration process and the increase of map area. Likewise, the computational complexity of the EKF-SLAM is proportional to the square of the number of feature points contained in the state variables in a single filtering process. A new SLAM algorithm combining the local submaps and the body-fixed coordinates of the rover is presented in this paper. The algorithm can reduce the computational complexity and enhance computational speed in consideration of the processing capability of the onboard computer. Due to the introduction of local submaps, the algorithm represented in this paper is able to reduce the number of feature points contained in the state variables in each single filtering process. Therefore, the algorithm could reduce the computational complexity and improve the computational speed. In addition, rover body-fixed SLAM could improve the navigation accuracy of a rover and decrease the cumulative linearization error by coordinates transformation during the update process, which is shown in the simulation results.
While assessing the environmental impact of nuclear power plants, researchers have focused their attention on radiocarbon (14C) owing to its high mobility in the environment and important radiological impact on human beings. The 10 MW high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTR-10) is the first pebble-bed gas-cooled test reactor in China that adopted helium as primary coolant and graphite spheres containing tristructural-isotropic (TRISO) coated particles as fuel elements. A series of experiments on the 14C source terms in HTR-10 was conducted: (1) measurement of the specific activity and distribution of typical nuclides in the irradiated graphite spheres from the core, (2) measurement of the activity concentration of 14C in the primary coolant, and (3) measurement of the amount of 14C discharged in the effluent from the stack. All experimental data on 14C available for HTR-10 were summarized and analyzed using theoretical calculations. A sensitivity study on the total porosity, open porosity, and percentage of closed pores that became open after irradiating the matrix graphite was performed to illustrate their effects on the activity concentration of 14C in the primary coolant and activity amount of 14C in various deduction routes.
The research of high-performance flexible supercapacitors is urgent due to the rapid development of wearable and portable electronics. The key challenge is the preparation of flexible electrodes with high areal capacitance since electrodes are the most important part of supercapacitors. Compared to those conventional electrodes loading with typical flexible substrates such as textile, PET, paper et al, free-standing electrodes have many advantages such as more efficient capacity contribution, solidly embedded active materials and thinner thickness. Herein, we have successfully fabricated a novel sandwich-like structure free-standing MoO3-rGO (reduced graphene oxide) composite film electrode for flexible supercapacitors using simple vacuum filtration method followed by HI reduction process. The obtained MoO3-rGO composite film electrode shows excellent electrochemical performance, whose areal specific capacitance reaches 8972 mF·cm-2 (1.5 mA·cm-2). Here, MoO3 provides pseudocapacitance and rGO provides double-layer capacitance. After cycling for 2000 cycles, the capacity retention is 86.7%, showing good cycle stability. Besides, the as-prepared composite film has good flexibility and will not break easily during following bending, rolling, folding or twisting steps. This study has been approved to be an important step for the high-performance electrode design for free-standing flexible supercapacitors.
Annexin A2 (ANXA2) is reported to be associated with cancer development. To investigate the roles ANXA2 plays during the development of cancer, the RNAi method was used to inhibit the ANXA2 expression in caco2 (human colorectal cancer cell line) and SMMC7721 (human hepatocarcinoma cell line) cells. The results showed that when the expression of ANXA2 was efficiently inhibited, the growth and motility of both cell lines were significantly decreased, and the development of the motility relevant microstructures, such as pseudopodia, filopodia, and the polymerization of microfilaments and microtubules were obviously inhibited. The cancer cell apoptosis was enhanced without obvious significance. The possible regulating pathway in the process was also predicted and discussed. Our results suggested that ANXA2 plays important roles in maintaining the malignancy of colorectal and hepatic cancer by enhancing the cell proliferation, motility, and development of the motility associated microstructures of cancer cells based on a possible complicated signal pathway.
Novel NiMoO4-integrated electrode materials were successfully prepared by solvothermal method using Na2MoO4·2H2O and NiSO4·6H2O as main raw materials, water, and ethanol as solvents. The morphology, phase, and structure of the as-prepared materials were characterized by SEM, XRD, Raman, and FT-IR. The electrochemical properties of the materials in supercapacitors were investigated by cyclic voltammetry, constant current charge–discharge, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques. The effects of volume ratio of water to ethanol (W/E) in solvent on the properties of the product were studied. The results show that the pure phase monoclinic crystal NiMoO4 product can be obtained when the W/E is 2:1. The diameter and length are 0.1–0.3 µm and approximately 3 µm, respectively. As an active material for supercapacitor, the NiMoO4 nanorods material delivered a discharge specific capacitance of 672, 498, and 396 F/g at a current density of 4, 7, and 10 A/g, respectively. The discharge specific capacitance slightly decreased from 815 to 588 F/g with a retention of 72% after 1000 cycles at a current density of 1 A/g. With these superior capacitance properties, the novel NiMoO4 integrated electrode materials could be considered as promising material for supercapacitors.
Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3 (BNT)-based lead-free materials are important for piezoelectric actuator, and several researchers have studied the effect of B-site complex ion doping on strain in (Bi0.5Na0.5)TiO3–SrTiO3. In this work, a paraelectric perovskite Sr(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O3 (SZN) with B-site complex structure was introduced into 0.80(Bi0.5Na0.5)TiO3–0.20SrTiO3 (BNTST) to investigate the phase structure and electrical properties as well as the field-induced strain behavior. The results showed that SZN substitution decreases the rhombohedrality 90-γ and induces the transition from dominant ferroelectric to nonergodic relaxor by shifting its TF-R to lower temperatures. Moreover, the field-induced ferroelectric domains cannot remain stable at room temperature when SZN substitution is large than 1.0 mol%. These behaviors induced the transition between nonergodic relaxor and ergodic relaxor, which contributed to its large strain and related properties. In this work, this material gave the largest bipolar strain of 0.43% and large normalized unipolar strain of 505 pm/V at the SZN content of 2 mol% under 8 kV/mm, and showed good temperature stability up to 100 °C. The above encouraging results may be helpful for further investigation of BNTST-based ternary systems in search of a potential Pb-free piezoelectric material.
Composite materials include various components with different structures, which cooperatively increase their properties and extend their application. In this study, the graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) guest material was assembled into the porous of the SiO2 aerogel, which was prepared during the gel process. By this way, the g-C3N4 could be absolutely encapsulated into the porous of the disordered porous SiO2 aerogel. The prepared g-C3N4/SiO2 composite had a loose porous structure and exhibited the much higher photocatalytic activity to the photodegradation of rhodamine B (RhB) under visible light. The disordered porous structure enhanced photocatalytic activity, and the degradation rate reached to 96.42% in 90 min under the irradiation of visible light, which could be attributed to its high surface area and effective electron–hole separation rate. The catalyst had the much higher stability and could be easily recycled utilization. The prepared composites could be applied to degrade organic pollutants in wastewater.
Clozapine treatment increases the risk of agranulocytosis, but findings on the epidemiology of agranulocytosis have been inconsistent. This meta-analysis examined the prevalence of agranulocytosis and related death in clozapine-treated patients.
A literature search in the international (PubMed, PsycINFO, and EMBASE) and Chinese (WanFang, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Sinomed) databases was conducted. Prevalence estimates of agranulocytosis and related death in clozapine-treated patients were synthesized with the Comprehensive Meta-Analysis program using the random-effects model.
Thirty-six studies with 260 948 clozapine-treated patients published between 1984 and 2018 were included in the meta-analysis. The overall prevalence of agranulocytosis and death caused by agranulocytosis were 0.4% (95% CI 0.3–0.6%) and 0.05% (95% CI 0.03–0.09%), respectively. The prevalence of agranulocytosis was moderated by sample size, study quality, year of publication, and that of data collection.
The prevalence of clozapine-associated agranulocytosis is low. Agranulocytosis-related death appears rare.
The feasibility of non-destructive detection and classification of in-shell insect-infested almonds was examined by using multispectral imaging (MSI) technology combined with chemometrics. Differentiation of reflectance spectral data between intact and insect-infested almonds was attempted by using analytical approaches based on principal component analysis and support vector machines, classification accuracy rates as high as 99.1% in the calibration set and 97.5% in the prediction set were achieved. Meanwhile, the in-shell almonds were categorized into three classes (intact, slightly infested and severely infested) based on the degree of damage caused by insect infestation and were characterized quantitatively by the analysis of shell/kernel weight ratio. A three-class model for the identification of intact, slightly infested and severely infested almonds yielded acceptable classification performance (95.6% accuracy in the calibration set and 93.3% in the prediction set). These results revealed that MSI technology combined with chemometrics may be a promising approach for the non-destructive detection of hidden insect damage in almonds and could be used for industrial applications.
The U genome of Aegilops umbellulata is an important basic genome of genus Aegilops. Direct gene transfer from Ae. umbellulata into wheat is feasible but not easy. Triticum turgidum–Ae. umbellulata amphidiploids can act as bridges to circumvent obstacles involving direct gene transfer. Seven T. turgidum–Ae. umbellulata amphidiploids were produced via unreduced gametes for spontaneous doubling of chromosomes of triploid T. turgidum–Ae. umbellulata F1 hybrid plants. Seven pairs of U chromosomes of Ae. umbellulata were distinguished by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) probes pSc119.2/(AAC)5 and pTa71. Polymorphic FISH signals were detected in three (1U, 6U and 7U) of seven U chromosomes of four Ae. umbellulata accessions. The chromosomes of the tetraploid wheat parents could be differentiated by probes pSc119.2 and pTa535, and identical FISH signals were observed among the three accessions. All the parental chromosomes of the amphidiploids could be precisely identified by probe combinations pSc119.2/pTa535 and pTa71/(AAC)5. The T. turgidum–Ae. umbellulata amphidiploids possess valuable traits for wheat improvement, such as strong tillering ability, stripe rust resistance and seed size-related traits. These materials can be used as media in gene transfers from Ae. umbellulata into wheat.
Nanoscale magnetization modulation by electric field enables the construction of low-power spintronic devices for information storage applications and, etc. Electric field-induced ion migration can introduce desired changes in the material's stoichiometry, defect profile, and lattice structure, which in turn provides a versatile and convenient means to modify the materials’ chemical-physical properties at the nanoscale and in situ. In this review, we provide a brief overview on the recent study on nanoscale magnetization modulation driven by electric field-induced migration of ionic species either within the switching material or from external sources. The formation of magnetic conductive filaments that exhibit magnetoresistance behaviors in resistive switching memory via foreign metal ion migration and redox activities is also discussed. Combining the magnetoresistance and quantized conductance switching of the magnetic nanopoint contact structure may provide a future high-performance device for non-von Neumann computing architectures.
This study aim to derive and validate a simple and well-performing risk calculator (RC) for predicting psychosis in individual patients at clinical high risk (CHR).
From the ongoing ShangHai-At-Risk-for-Psychosis (SHARP) program, 417 CHR cases were identified based on the Structured Interview for Prodromal Symptoms (SIPS), of whom 349 had at least 1-year follow-up assessment. Of these 349 cases, 83 converted to psychosis. Logistic regression was used to build a multivariate model to predict conversion. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) was used to test the effectiveness of the SIPS-RC. Second, an independent sample of 100 CHR subjects was recruited based on an identical baseline and follow-up procedures to validate the performance of the SIPS-RC.
Four predictors (each based on a subset of SIPS-based items) were used to construct the SIPS-RC: (1) functional decline; (2) positive symptoms (unusual thoughts, suspiciousness); (3) negative symptoms (social anhedonia, expression of emotion, ideational richness); and (4) general symptoms (dysphoric mood). The SIPS-RC showed moderate discrimination of subsequent transition to psychosis with an AUC of 0.744 (p < 0.001). A risk estimate of 25% or higher had around 75% accuracy for predicting psychosis. The personalized risk generated by the SIPS-RC provided a solid estimate of conversion outcomes in the independent validation sample, with an AUC of 0.804 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.662–0.951].
The SIPS-RC, which is simple and easy to use, can perform in the same manner as the NAPLS-2 RC in the Chinese clinical population. Such a tool may be used by clinicians to counsel appropriately their patients about clinical monitor v. potential treatment options.
Northeastern China is a region of high tick abundance, multiple tick-borne pathogens and likely human infections. The spectrum of diseases caused by tick-borne pathogens has not been objectively evaluated in this region for clinical management and for comparison with other regions globally where tick-transmitted diseases are common. Based on clinical symptoms, PCR, indirect immunofluorescent assay and (or) blood smear, we identified and described tick-borne diseases from patients with recent tick bite seen at Mudanjiang Forestry Central Hospital. From May 2010 to September 2011, 42% (75/180) of patients were diagnosed with a specific tick-borne disease, including Lyme borreliosis, tick-borne encephalitis, human granulocytic anaplasmosis, human babesiosis and spotted fever group rickettsiosis. When we compared clinical and laboratory features to identify factors that might discriminate tick-transmitted infections from those lacking that evidence, we revealed that erythema migrans and neurological manifestations were statistically significantly differently presented between those with and without documented aetiologies (P < 0.001, P = 0.003). Twelve patients (6.7%, 12/180) were co-infected with two tick-borne pathogens. We demonstrated the poor ability of clinicians to identify the specific tick-borne disease. In addition, it is necessary to develop specific laboratory assays for optimal diagnosis of tick-borne diseases.
We analyzed research themes in the field of disaster medicine in China to provide references for researchers to understand the research status and developing trends of this field.
Published journal articles were retrieved. A social network analysis was conducted to visualize the relations of high-frequency key words. A cluster analysis was used to classify key words. A strategic diagram analysis was conducted to visualize clusters across the entire research field.
We retrieved 3,079 articles, from which 1,749 articles and 8,284 key words were identified after screening. High-frequency key words were classified into 6 clusters. “Medical rescue” had the highest degree and betweenness centralities. Cluster 4 was located in Quadrant I of the strategic diagrams.
“Medical rescue” is the core key word, and it serves a pivotal “bridge” function. “Emergencies” and similar terms are key words with special statuses. “Natural disaster medical rescue” and “fundamental theories of disaster medicine” constitute the primary and secondary core themes, respectively. “On-site emergency treatment techniques” is a marginalized theme. The other themes are emerging themes that offer considerable scope for future development. Generally, the scope and depth of investigations in this field should be improved. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2019;13:405-409)
The phase stability, equilibrium lattice parameters, mechanical properties, and chemical bonding of M2B and M2B0.75C0.25 (M = Fe, Cr, W, Mo, Mn) were studied using first-principles calculations within density functional theory. These compounds are thermodynamic stability structures, and the M2B0.75C0.25 stability is worse than that of M2B. The equilibrium lattice parameters are consistent with other available experimental and theoretical data. Stress–strain and Voigt–Reuss–Hill approximations were used to estimate the elastic constants (Cij) and moduli (B, G, E), respectively. The bulk modulus and the ductility increased by adding an appropriate amount of C to the M2B. The compound hardness was studied using a theoretical method based on the work of Tian. The chemical bonding of these compounds was estimated using the Mulliken population analysis and density of states, and the results indicate that the bonding behaviors of these compounds are combinations of metallic and covalent bonds.
An interplanetary autonomous navigation network, named the Internet of Spacecraft (IoS), is proposed in this paper to enable a Solar System-wide autonomous navigation capability for spacecraft. This network consists of two types of spacecraft, namely host and client spacecraft. The former provide the absolute reference for the whole network, and the latter determine their positions by communicating with the host spacecraft or other client spacecraft. To investigate the performance of IoS, a detailed application scheme that supports a flight from Earth to Mars is developed and analysed. IoS is not a simple extension of the navigation constellation. It is independent of the ground tracking system and the configuration of the network is flexible in that any spacecraft-installed identical device can be added to it. Moreover, client spacecraft whose positions have been determined can also be regarded as host spacecraft and provide further navigation information to others. This paper aims to provide technical support for future deep space exploration.
Introduction: Resource allocation planning (RAP) for emergency medical services (EMS) systems determines optimal resources for patient needs in order to minimize morbidity and mortality. The British Columbia Emergency Health Services developed a new RAP using an evidenced informed methodology, statistical analysis of outcomes and with further clinical input from EMS physicians, paramedics and allied EMS providers. The revised RAP was implemented on a pan provincial basis in fall of 2013. It is unknown how the modifications will affect outcomes of EMS cases. Population-based analysis was used to determine the effect of a comprehensive RAP changes by comparing 24-hour mortality before and after province-wide implementation of the revised RAP. Methods: The primary outcome, 24-hour mortality, was obtained through linked provincial health administrative data. All adult cases with evaluable outcome data were included in the analysis. A pre and post methodology was used to evaluate the effect of post-RAP revision (post-RAP-revision) on 24-hour mortality compared to pre-RAP revision (pre-RAP-revision). Multivariable logistic regression was used to adjust for variations in other significant factors associated with 24-hour mortality. The interrupted time series (ITS) estimated any immediate changes in the level or trend of outcome after the start of the revised RAP implementation (fall of 2013), while simultaneously controlling for pre-existing trends. Results: The cohort is comprised of 562,546 cases (April 2012 March 2015). In the multivariate model, adjusted for age, sex, urban/metro region, season, day hour, and MPDS determinant, the probability of dying within 24 hours of EMS call was 7% lower in the post-RAP-revision cohort (OR=0.936; 95% CI: 0.886 - 0.989; P=0.018). A sub-group analysis of immediately life-threatening cases demonstrated similar effect (OR=0.890; 95% CI: 0.808 - 0.981; P=0.019) Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that a comprehensive, evidence informed reconstruction of a provincial EMS RAP is feasible. Despite considerable change in crew level response and resource allocation, there was significant decrease in 24 hour mortality in a large pan-provincial population based patient cohort.
This research paper addresses the hypothesis that RagD is a key signalling factor that regulates amino acid (AA) mediated-casein synthesis and cell proliferation in cow mammary epithelial cells (CMECs). The expression of RagD was analysed at different times during pregnancy and lactation in bovine mammary tissue from dairy cows. We showed that expression of RagD at lactation period was higher (P < 0·05) than that at pregnancy period. When CMECs were treated with methionine (Met) or lysine (Lys), expression of RagD, β-casein (CSN2), mTOR and p-mTOR, and cell proliferation were increased. Further, when CMECs were treated to overexpress RagD, expression of CSN2, mTOR and p-mTOR, and cell proliferation were up-regulated. Furthermore, the increase in expression of CSN2, mTOR and p-mTOR, and cell proliferation in response to Met or Lys supply was inhibited by inhibiting RagD, and those effects were reversed in the overexpression model. When CMECs were treated with RagD overexpression together with mTOR inhibition or conversely with RagD inhibition together with mTOR overexpression, results showed that the increase in expression of CSN2 and cell proliferation in response to RagD overexpression was prevented by inhibiting mTOR, and those effects were reversed by overexpressing mTOR. The interaction of RagD with subunit proteins of mTORC1 was analysed, and the result showed that RagD interacted with Raptor. CMECs were treated with Raptor inhibition, and the result showed that the increase in expression of mTOR and p-mTOR in response to RagD overexpression was inhibited by inhibiting Raptor.
In conclusion, our study showed that RagD is an important activation factor of mTORC1 in CMECs, activating AA-mediated casein synthesis and cell proliferation, potentially acting via Raptor.