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To assess the association between total alcohol intake, specific alcoholic beverages and sleep quality in a community-based cohort.
A cross-sectional study.
The Kailuan community, China.
Included were 11 905 participants who were free of a history of CVD, cancer, Parkinson’s disease, dementia and head injury in or prior to 2012. Alcohol consumption (amount and frequency intake) and alcoholic beverage type were collected in 2006 (baseline) and 2012. Participants were grouped into non-, light- (women: 0–0·4 serving/d; men: 0–0·9 serving/d), moderate- (women: 0·5–1·0 serving/d; men: 1·0–2·0 servings/d) and heavy- (women: >1·0 servings/d; men: >2·0 servings/d) drinkers. Overall sleep quality was measured in 2012 and included four sleep parameters (insomnia, daytime sleepiness, sleep duration, snoring/obstructive sleep apnoea).
We observed a dose–response association between higher alcohol consumption in 2006 and worse sleep quality in 2012 (Ptrend < 0·001), after adjusting for age, sex, socio-economic status, smoking status, physical activity, obesity, plasma lipid profiles, diabetes and hypertension. A similar association was observed when alcohol consumption in 2012 was used as exposure. Alcohol was associated with higher odds of having short sleep duration (adjusted OR for heavy- v. non-drinkers = 1·31; 95 % CI: 1·09, 1·57) and snoring (adjusted OR for heavy- v. non-drinkers: 1·38; 95 % CI: 1·22, 1·57). Consumption of hard liquor, but not beer or wine, was significantly associated with poor sleep quality.
Higher alcohol consumption was associated with poorer sleep quality and higher odds of having snoring and short sleep duration.
Cotton fibre yield and quality are markedly influenced by drought and high-temperature stress. We examined the traits of the leaf stomata in 39 cotton genotypes subjected to exogenous phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) signalling, electrolyte leakage under 40°C thermal stress, and relative GhHsfA, GhbZIP and GhHSP70 expression levels under two treatments. Stomatal density and area ranged from 66 to 182/mm2 and 663 to 1305 μm2, respectively. Under exogenous ABA signalling, the changes in stomatal aperture (ΔSAp) were in the range of 2.5–31.2%; ΔSAp and relative GhHsfA, GhbZIP and GhHSP70 expression levels were significantly correlated, respectively. Electrolyte leakage increased unequally among cotton genotypes after heat stress. The changes in electrolyte leakage (ΔEL) and relative GhHsfA, GhbZIP and GhHSP70 expression levels were very strongly correlated, respectively. Their relative expression levels could be used as references for the rapid identification of stress-tolerant cotton strains. Cluster analysis of the 39 cotton genotypes indicated that Xinluzao36, Shiyang1, shinong98-7 and Zhongmiansuo293 are heat- and drought-resistant. We integrated both analysis of physiological parameters and molecular methods to identify cotton varieties with the drought and heat tolerance, in order to provide a reference for the selection of materials and methods for the research and production of cotton.
Thermal conductivity behaviors are one of the most important evaluations of carbon fiber-reinforced carbon matrix (C/C) composites in the field of thermal protective structures. In order to deepen the understanding of the thermal conductivity behaviors of C/C composites, the out-of-plane thermal conductivity of C/C composites is studied by considering voids and the fiber volume fractions. The representative volume element (RVE) models of microscale and mesoscale are proposed. The parameters of the RVE models are captured by X-ray micro-computed tomography. The carbon matrix equivalent models and fiber volume fraction models along the z-direction were established. The effects of the porosity and fiber volume fraction along the z-direction on the thermal conductivity were analyzed. The proposed model was validated by experimental results at room temperature. Further, the numerical methods developed in this study can provide guidance for predicting the thermal conductivity of C/C composites with complex structures.
The Tarim Basin is the major source of aeolian dust in the northern hemisphere. Glacial activity in the mountains, transportation by rivers and homogenization by wind are believed to be responsible for dust production within the basin. However, the major source(s) and homogenization process(es) are not clear. Moreover, provenance studies on fine fractions have never been conducted. Here, we measured electron spin resonance (ESR) signal intensity and the crystallinity index of quartz in fine (< 16 μm) and coarse (> 64 μm) fractions of river sediments, dry lake sediments and mountain loess to examine the process(es) that produce aeolian dust. The result suggests that the coarse fraction of the river sediment was derived from the bedrock in the drainage area. The ESR signal intensity and crystallinity index of the fine fraction of river sediments from the Tian Shan Mountains and mountainous rivers in the westernmost Kunlun and Pamir mountains are also similar to the coarse fraction, suggesting the same sources. However, the ESR signal intensity and crystallinity index of the fine fraction of river sediments from the Kunlun Mountains are different from the coarse fraction and converge towards values close to the average for the fine fraction of river sediments and mountain loess. Convergence of the ESR and crystallinity index values for the fine fraction of river sediments from the Kunlun Mountains can be explained by contamination of the river sediments by aeolian dust. The convergent values resulted from the homogenization of fine detrital material by repeated recycling within the basin.
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak in Wuhan, China, spread rapidly throughout China and gradually to some countries abroad. How is the development of an epidemic controlled? Early diagnosis is one of the important contents in prevention and control. COVID-19 patients with early mild pneumonia often lack typical evidence to make a definitive diagnosis. Based on the analysis of the cases of 4 patients, this article finds that early diagnosis requires a combination of epidemiology, clinical manifestations, imaging, and etiology, with particular emphasis on epidemiology history and chest computed tomography (CT) manifestations.
Connexin 43 (CX43) is a component of gap junctions. The lack of functional CX43 induces oxidative stress, autophagy, and apoptosis in somatic cells. However, the role of CX43 in the early development of porcine embryos is still unknown. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the role of CX43, and its underlying molecular mechanisms, on the developmental competence of early porcine embryos. We performed CX43 knockdown by microinjecting dsRNA into parthenogenetically activated porcine parthenotes. The blastocyst development rate and the total number of cells in the blastocysts were significantly reduced by CX43 knockdown. Results from FITC-dextran assays showed that CX43 knockdown significantly increased membrane permeability. ZO-1 protein was obliterated in CX43 knockdown blastocysts. Mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP production were significantly reduced following CX43 knockdown. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were significantly increased in the CX43 knockdown group compared to those in control embryos. Moreover, CX43 knockdown induced autophagy and apoptosis. Our findings indicate that CX43 is essential for the development and preimplantation of porcine embryos and maintains mitochondrial function, cell junction structure, and cell homeostasis by regulating membrane permeability, ROS generation, autophagy, and apoptosis in early embryos.
The Chinese white pine beetle Dendroctonus armandi (Coleoptera: Scolytinae) typically displays bivoltinism at altitudes below 1700 m in the Qinling Mountains, China. The periods of host colonization and larval overwintering are two important phases in the life cycle of bark beetles, as it is during these periods that they have to contend with host plant defences and periods of intense cold, respectively. Although during different seasons, the females and males of Chinese white pine beetles show varying tolerances to host plant terpenoids, the sex ratio and survival physiology condition of the two beetle generations are unknown. We investigated the sex ratio of individuals, and also examined the body mass, energy stores, and detoxication enzymes of males and females in each of the two generations in order to determine the overall population stability of each generation. We identified a female-biased sex ratio among adults in both generations. Furthermore, patterns of body mass, energy stores, and detoxication enzymes were found to differ between the two sexes and two seasons. Compared with the males, the females have a larger body mass and higher amounts of stored lipids, which are assumed to be adaptations designed to overcome host resistance and facilitate subsequent oviposition.
This paper presents new LA-ICP-MS zircon U–Pb chronology, whole-rock geochemical and zircon Hf isotopic data for the felsic lavas of the Huili Group from the southwestern Yangtze Block. LA-ICP-MS zircon U–Pb dating shows that these rocks were emplaced in Late Mesoproterozoic time (∼1028 to 1019 Ma). Relative to typical I-type and S-type granitoids, all the samples are characterized by low Sr and Eu, and high high-field-strength element contents, high TFeO/MgO, enriched rare earth element compositions and negative Eu anomalies, indicating that they share the geochemical signatures of A-type granitoid. They can be further divided into two groups: Group I and Group II. Group I are A1-type felsic rocks and were produced by fractional crystallization of alkaline basaltic magmas. The Group II felsic lavas belong to the A2-type and were derived by partial melting of a crustal source with mixing of mantle-derived magmas. Both Group I and Group II felsic lavas may erupt in a continental back-arc setting. The coexistence of A1- and A2-type rocks in the southwestern Yangtze Block suggests that they can occur in the same tectonic setting.
Heavy metal contamination in the paddy soils of China is a serious concern because of its health risk through transfer in food chains. A field experiment was conducted in 2014–2015 to investigate the long-term effects of different biochar amendments on cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (As) immobilisation in a contaminated paddy field in southern China. Two types of biochar, a rice-straw-derived biochar (RB) and a coconut-by-product-derived biochar (CB), were amended separately to determine their impacts on rice yield and their efficacy in reducing Cd and As in rice. The two-year field experiment showed that biochar amendments significantly improved the rice yields and that CB is superior to RB, especially in the first growth season. Using a large amount of biochar amendment (22.5tha–1) significantly increased soil pH and total organic carbon, and concomitantly decreased the Cd content in rice grains over the four growth seasons, regardless of biochar type and application rate. Arsenic levels in rice were similar to the control, and results from this study suggest that there was a sustainable effect of biochar on Cd sequestration in soil and reduction of Cd accumulation in rice for at least two years. Biochar amendment in soil could be considered as a sustainable, reliable and cost-effective option to remediate heavy metal contamination in paddy fields for long periods.
We provide novel evidence that hedge fund performance is persistent following weak hedge fund markets but is not persistent following strong markets. Specifically, we construct two performance measures, RET_DOWN and RET_UP, conditioned on the level of overall hedge fund sector returns. After adjusting for risks, funds in the highest RET_DOWN quintile outperform funds in the lowest quintile by approximately 7% in the subsequent year, whereas funds with better RET_UP do not outperform subsequently. The RET_DOWN measure can predict future fund performance over a horizon as long as 3 years, for both winners and losers and for funds with few share restrictions.
To determine the prevalence of Cryptosporidium in dairy cattle in Guangdong Province, South China, 1440 fecal samples were collected from 10 farms and screened for Cryptosporidium with PCR. The overall prevalence of Cryptosporidium was 4.38% (63/1440), and the infection rates in preweaned calves, postweaned calves, heifers and adults were 6.4% (19/297), 6.19% (33/533), 1.48% (4/271) and 2.06% (7/339), respectively. Three Cryptosporidium species, Cryptosporidium andersoni (n = 33), Cryptosporidium bovis (n = 22) and Cryptosporidium ryanae (n = 8) were detected by DNA sequence analysis of the 63 positive samples, and C. andersoni was identified as the most common species on the dairy cattle farms. In preweaned calves, C. bovis was the most prevalent species (9/19, 47.4%). In contrast, C. andersoni was the predominant species (19/33, 57.6%) in postweaned calves and the only species found in heifers and adults. The zoonotic species Cryptosporidium parvum was not detected in this study. Twenty-four C. andersoni isolates were successfully classified into three multilocus sequence typing (MLST) subtypes. MLST subtype A4,A4,A4,A1 was the predominant subtype, and MLST subtype A2,A5,A2,A1, previously found in sheep, was detected in cattle for the first time. A linkage disequilibrium analysis showed that the C. andersoni isolates had a clonal genetic population structure. However, further molecular studies are required to better understand the epidemiology of Cryptosporidium in Guangdong.
MicroRNA (miR)-29b plays a crucial role during somatic cell reprogramming. The aim of the current study was to explore the effects of miR-29b on the developmental competence of bovine somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos, as well as the underlying mechanisms of action. The expression level of miR-29b was lower in bovine SCNT embryos at the pronuclear, 8-cell, and blastocyst stages compared with in vitro fertilized embryos. In addition, miR-29b regulates the expression of DNA methyltransferases (Dnmt3a/3b and Dnmt1) in bovine SCNT embryos. We further investigated SCNT embryo developmental competence and found that miR-29b overexpression during bovine SCNT embryonic development does not improve developmental potency and downregulation inhibits developmental potency. Nevertheless, the quality of bovine SCNT embryos at the blastocyst stage improved significantly. The expression of pluripotency factors and cellular proliferation were significantly higher in blastocysts from the miR-29b overexpression group than the control and downregulation groups. In addition, outgrowth potential in blastocysts after miR-29b overexpression was also significantly greater in the miR-29b overexpression group than in the control and downregulation groups. Taken together, these results demonstrated that miR-29b plays an important role in bovine SCNT embryo development.
The Safety Level Approach (SLA) is a structured application of risk-based methodologies for the International Maritime Organization's (IMO's) rule-making process. When the SLA is applied, safety goals have to be provided. In order to set appropriate levels for safety goals, it is necessary to measure the tolerance degree of the current safety level. Based on the consistency with individual risk criteria and the principle of continuous improvement, this paper proposes an approach to establish the societal risk criteria, which can be used for setting safety goals in the context of the IMO's SLA. Furthermore, by defining dynamic factors to express risk aversion, a method for tolerance measurement of the current societal risk is developed. Finally, a case study into the societal risk evaluation of cruise ships and Roll-On Roll-Off (RO-RO) passenger ships is conducted.
The surface hardening of Cu is an effective way to keep good electrical conductivity and increase chemical inertness. Here, Cr and Zr are introduced into Cu films to stabilize N and increase the film hardness. CuN-based alloy films are prepared on single-crystal Si(100) substrates using magnetron sputtering. Cu(Cr, N) films are mainly composed of Cu and Cr2N nanocrystals while Cu and Zr2N nanocrystals compose Cu(Zr, N) films. The thermal stability of the ternary films comes from the strong interaction between Cr (or Zr) and N which is contributing to the generation of stable nitrides. In terms of resistivity and hardness, the Cu(Cr, N) and Cu(Zr, N) films prepared at the N2/Ar ratio of 1/10 show preferable properties. Especially, the Cu86.1Zr6.1N7.8 film exhibits the highest hardness (∼4.7 GPa) and lowest resistivity (63.6 μΩ·cm). The chemical inertness of Cu film can also be improved by adding Cr–N and Zr–N. These ternary films are expected to apply for Cu surface nitrogenization.
Worldwide 350 million people suffer from major depression, with the majority of cases occurring in low- and middle-income countries. We examined the patterns, correlates and care-seeking behaviour of adults suffering from major depressive episode (MDE) in China.
A nationwide study recruited 512 891 adults aged 30–79 years from 10 provinces across China during 2004–2008. The 12-month prevalence of MDE was assessed by the Modified Composite International Diagnostic Interview-short form. Logistic regression yielded adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of MDE associated with socio-economic, lifestyle and health-related factors and major stressful life events.
Overall, 0.7% of participants had MDE and a further 2.4% had major depressive symptoms. Stressful life events were strongly associated with MDE [adjusted OR 14.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 13.7–15.7], with a dose–response relationship with the number of such events experienced. Family conflict had the highest OR for MDE (18.9, 95% CI 16.8–21.2) among the 10 stressful life events. The risk of MDE was also positively associated with rural residency (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.4–1.7), low income (OR 2.3, 95% CI 2.1–2.4), living alone (OR 2.6, 95% CI 2.3–3.0), smoking (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.3–1.6) and certain other mental disorders (e.g. anxiety, phobia). Similar, albeit weaker, associations were observed with depressive symptoms. Among those with MDE, about 15% sought medical help or took psychiatric medication, 15% reported having suicidal ideation and 6% reported attempting suicide.
Among Chinese adults, the patterns and correlates of MDE were generally consistent with those observed in the West. The low rates of seeking professional help and treatment highlight the great gap in mental health services in China.
There are six strains of the complete genomic sequences of black queen cell virus (BQCV) published in the GenBank, including South Africa (AF183905), South Korea (JX149531), Hungary 10 (EF517515), Poland 4 (EF517519), Poland 5 (EF517520) and Poland 6 (EF517521). Based on the six BQCV strains published in the GenBank, ten pairs of primers were designed in the present study using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction to obtain the first complete genome sequence of a BQCV strain in China, called the BQCV China-JL1 strain (KP119603). A phylogenetic tree was then built to analyse their genetic relationships. The BQCV China-JL1 strain showed 86–93% similarity with the six strains published in the GenBank. The BQCV China-JL1 strain consisted of 8358 nucleotides (nt). The 5′-proximal open reading frame (ORF1) initiated at nt position 546 and terminated at nt position 4676, ORF3 initiated at nt position 4891 and terminated at nt position 5433, and the 3′-proximal ORF (ORF2) was located between nt positions 5750 and 8203.
Zeolite–zeolite composite composed of alumina-rich hierarchically porous ZSM-5 cores and high-silicon MFI shells was prepared by a hydrothermal synthesis procedure, in which a commercial ZSM-5 zeolite with a SiO2/Al2O3 of 36 was treated by an alkaline solution and then used as a supporter for epitaxial growth of a polycrystalline Silicalite-1 zeolite shell (denoted as MMZsa). Acid sites associated with framework Al on exterior surfaces of ZSM-5 zeolite cores are therefore passivated in different degrees by the epitaxial MFI zeolite shell. The structural, crystalline, and textural properties of the as-synthesized samples were characterized by x-ray powder diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), N2 adsorption-desorption, in situ IR spectra of pyridine and NH3-TPD. Aluminum species were observed to transfer from the alumina-rich cores to the high-silica shells. The adjustable thickness and SiO2/Al2O3 ratio of the shell offer the as-synthesized composite a potential and high-efficiency catalyst for methanol conversion into gasoline and diesel. As compared with the commercial ZSM-5 zeolite, the composite catalyst exhibits excellent catalytic performances with a longer catalytic life as well as a higher conversion and a slightly higher yield of diesel oil.
To investigate the potential influence of dietary Se intake on mortality among Chinese populations.
We prospectively evaluated all-cause, CVD and cancer mortality risks associated with dietary Se intake in participants of the Shanghai Women’s Health Study (SWHS) and the Shanghai Men’s Health study (SMHS). Dietary Se intake was assessed by validated FFQ during in-person interviews. Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % CI.
Urban city in China.
Chinese adults (n 133 957).
During an average follow-up of 13·90 years in the SWHS and 8·37 years in the SMHS, 5749 women and 4217 men died. The mean estimated dietary Se intake was 45·48 μg/d for women and 51·34 μg/d for men, respectively. Dietary Se intake was inversely associated with all-cause mortality and CVD mortality in both women and men, with respective HR for the highest compared with the lowest quintile being 0·79 (95 % CI 0·71, 0·88; Ptrend<0·0001) and 0·80 (95 % CI 0·66, 0·98; Ptrend=0·0268) for women, and 0·79 (95 % CI 0·70, 0·89; Ptrend=0·0001) and 0·66 (95 % CI 0·54, 0·82; Ptrend=0·0002) for men. No significant associations were observed for cancer mortality in both women and men. Results were similar in subgroup and sensitivity analyses.
Dietary Se intake was inversely associated with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in both sexes, but not cancer mortality.