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Metabolic-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) has been proposed to replace the term non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in 2020. The association between micronutrients and MAFLD has not been reported. Therefore, this study aims to explore the association between micronutrients intake and MAFLD. This was a cross-section study based on the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). The dietary intake of copper, zinc, iron, and selenium was evaluated using the 24-h dietary recall interview. Logistic regression analysis was used to explore the association between micronutrients and MAFLD, and the results were shown as odds ratio (OR) with 95 % confidence intervals (CIs). A total of 5976 participants were finally included for analysis, with 3437 participants in the MAFLD group. After adjusting potential confounders, copper intake at quartile Q3 (OR = 0⋅68, 95 % CI 0⋅50, 0⋅93) and Q4 (OR = 0⋅60, 95 % CI 0⋅45, 0⋅80) was found to be associated with lower odds of MAFLD. Iron intake at Q2 (OR = 0⋅64, 95 % CI 0⋅45, 0⋅92) and Q3 (OR = 0⋅61, 95 % CI 0⋅41, 0⋅91) was associated with the lower odds of MAFLD. Our findings found that high intake of copper and adequate intake of iron were associated with MAFLD, which may provide guidance for the management of MAFLD.
The discharged capillary plasma channel has been extensively studied as a high-gradient particle acceleration and transmission medium. A novel measurement method of plasma channel density profiles has been employed, where the role of plasma channels guiding the advantages of lasers has shown strong appeal. Here, we have studied the high-order transverse plasma density profile distribution using a channel-guided laser, and made detailed measurements of its evolution under various parameters. The paraxial wave equation in a plasma channel with high-order density profile components is analyzed, and the approximate propagation process based on the Gaussian profile laser is obtained on this basis, which agrees well with the simulation under phase conditions. In the experiments, by measuring the integrated transverse laser intensities at the outlet of the channels, the radial quartic density profiles of the plasma channels have been obtained. By precisely synchronizing the detection laser pulses and the plasma channels at various moments, the reconstructed density profile shows an evolution from the radial quartic profile to the quasi-parabolic profile, and the high-order component is indicated as an exponential decline tendency over time. Factors affecting the evolution rate were investigated by varying the incentive source and capillary parameters. It can be found that the discharge voltages and currents are positive factors quickening the evolution, while the electron-ion heating, capillary radii and pressures are negative ones. One plausible explanation is that quartic profile contributions may be linked to plasma heating. This work helps one to understand the mechanisms of the formation, the evolutions of the guiding channel electron-density profiles and their dependences on the external controllable parameters. It provides support and reflection for physical research on discharged capillary plasma and optimizing plasma channels in various applications.
Polydatin is an active polyphenol displaying multifaceted benefits. Recently, growing studies have noticed its potential therapeutic effects on bone and joint disorders (BJDs). Therefore, this article reviews recent in vivo and in vitro progress on the protective role of polydatin against BJDs. An insight into the underlying mechanisms is also presented. It was found that polydatin could promote osteogenesis in vitro, and symptom improvements have been disclosed with animal models of osteoporosis, osteosarcoma, osteoarthritis and rheumatic arthritis. These beneficial effects obtained in laboratory could be mainly attributed to the bone metabolism-regulating, anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, apoptosis-regulating and autophagy-regulating functions of polydatin. However, studies on human subjects with BJDs that can lead to early identification of the clinical efficacy and adverse effects of polydatin have not been reported yet. Accordingly, this review serves as a starting point for pursuing clinical trials. Additionally, future emphasis should also be devoted to the low bioavailability and prompt metabolism nature of polydatin. In summary, well-designed clinical trials of polydatin in patients with BJD are in demand, and its pharmacokinetic nature must be taken into account.
Microtubule-severing proteins (MTSPs) play important roles in mitosis and interphase. However, to the best of our knowledge, no previous studies have evaluated the role of MTSPs in female meiosis in mammals. It was found that FIGNL1, a member of MTSPs, was predominantly expressed in mouse oocytes and distributed at the spindle poles during meiosis in the present study. FIGNL1 was co-localized and interacted with γ-tubulin, an important component of the microtubule tissue centre (MTOC). Fignl1 knockdown by specific small interfering RNA caused spindle defects characterized by an abnormal length:width ratio and decreased microtubule density, which consequently led to aberrant chromosome arrangement, oocyte maturation and fertilization obstacles. In conclusion, the present results suggested that FIGNL1 may be an essential factor in oocyte maturation by influencing the meiosis process via the formation of spindles.
Spectral observations with high temporal and frequency resolution are of great significance for studying the fine structures of solar radio bursts. In addition, it is helpful to understand the physical processes of solar eruptions. In this paper, we present the design of a system to observe solar radio bursts with high temporal and frequency resolutions at frequencies of 25–110 MHz. To reduce the impact of analog devices and improve the system flexibility, we employ various digital signal processing methods to achieve the function of analog devices, such as polarisation synthesis and beamforming. The resourceful field programmable gate array is used to process radio signals. The system has a frequency resolution of
30 kHz and a temporal resolution of up to 0.2 ms. The left/right circular polarisation signals can be simultaneously observed. At present, the system has been installed at Chashan Solar Observatory operated by the Institute of Space Science, Shandong University. The system is running well, multiple bursts have been observed, and relevant data have been obtained.
A new enantiornithine, Musivavis amabilis n. gen. n. sp., is reported from the Lower Cretaceous Jehol Biota in western Liaoning, China. The new taxon is similar to the bohaiornithids in the robust subconical teeth, bluntly expanded omal ends of the furcula, caudolaterally oriented lateral trabeculae with triangular distal ends of the sternum, and a robust second pedal digit. Yet it differs from members of Bohaiornithidae in several features recalling other enantiornithine lineages, such as the acuminate rostral ramus of maxilla, the shape of the coracoid lateral margin, the presence of craniolateral processes on the sternum, the proportions of the manual phalanges, and the unspecialized third pedal ungual phalanx. A comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of Mesozoic birds shows that homoplasy significantly affects the reconstruction of enantiornithine relationships. When all phylogenetic characters are considered of equal weight, Musivavis is reconstructed in a lineage related to a radiation of large-bodied enantiornithines including Bohaiornithidae and Pengornithidae. Alternative scenarios based on progressive downweighting of the homoplastic characters support more basal placements of the pengornithids among Enantiornithes, but do not alter the affinity of Musivavis as a member of the “bohaiornithid-grade” group.
DNA methylation is one of the most important epigenetic modifications in breast cancer (BC) development, and long-term dietary habits can alter DNA methylation. Cadherin-4 (CDH4, a member of the cadherin family) encodes Ca2+-dependent cell–cell adhesion glycoproteins. We conducted a case–control study (380 newly diagnosed BC and 439 cancer-free controls) to explore the relationship of CDH4 methylation in peripheral blood leukocyte DNA (PBL DNA), as well as its combined and interactive effects with dietary factors on BC risk. A case-only study (335 newly diagnosed BC) was conducted to analyse the association between CDH4 methylation in breast tissue DNA and dietary factors. CDH4 methylation was detected using quantitative methylation-specific PCR. Unconditional logistic regressions were used to analyse the association of CDH4 methylation in PBL DNA and BC risk. Cross-over analysis and unconditional logistic regression were used to calculate the combined and interactive effects between CDH4 methylation in PBL DNA and dietary factors in BC. CDH4 hypermethylation was significantly associated with increased BC risk in PBL DNA (ORadjusted (ORadj) = 2·70, (95 % CI 1·90, 3·83), P < 0·001). CDH4 hypermethylation also showed significant combined effects with the consumption of vegetables (ORadj = 4·33, (95 % CI 2·63, 7·10)), allium vegetables (ORadj = 7·00, (95 % CI 4·17, 11·77)), fish (ORadj = 7·92, (95 % CI 3·79, 16·53)), milk (ORadj = 6·30, (95 % CI 3·41, 11·66)), overnight food (ORadj = 4·63, (95 % CI 2·69, 7·99)), pork (ORadj = 5·59, (95 % CI 2·94, 10·62)) and physical activity (ORadj = 4·72, (95 % CI 2·87, 7·76)). Moreover, consuming milk was significantly related with decreased risk of CDH4 methylation (OR = 0·61, (95 % CI 0·38, 0·99)) in breast tissue. Our findings may provide direct guidance on the dietary intake for specific methylated carriers to decrease their risk for developing BC.
During the last few decades, the lake-terminating glaciers in the Himalaya have receded faster than the land-terminating glaciers as proglacial lakes have exacerbated the mass loss of their host glaciers. Monitoring the impacts of glacier recession and dynamics on lake extent and water volume provides an approach to assess the mass interplay between glaciers and proglacial lakes. We describe the recession of Longbasaba Glacier and estimate the mass wastage and its contribution to the water volume of its proglacial lake. The results show that the glacier area has decreased by 3% during 1988–2018, with a more variable recession prior to 2008 than in the last decade. Longbasaba Lake has expanded by 164% in area and 237% in water volume, primarily as a result of meltwater inflow produced from surface lowering of the glacier. Over the periods 1988–2000 and 2000–18, the mass loss contributed by glacier thinning has decreased from 81 to 61% of the total mass loss, accompanied by a nearly doubled contribution from terminus retreat. With the current rate of retreat, Longbasaba glacier is expected to terminate in its proglacial lake for another four decades. The hazard risk of this lake is expected to continue to increase in the near future because of the projected continued glacier mass loss and related lake expansion.
Generating designs via machine learning has been an on-going challenge in computer-aided design. Recently, deep learning methods have been applied to randomly generate images in fashion, furniture and product design. However, such deep generative methods usually require a large number of training images and human aspects are not taken into account in the design process. In this work, we seek a way to involve human cognitive factors through brain activity indicated by electroencephalographic measurements (EEG) in the generative process. We propose a neuroscience-inspired design with a machine learning method where EEG is used to capture preferred design features. Such signals are used as a condition in generative adversarial networks (GAN). First, we employ a recurrent neural network Long Short-Term Memory as an encoder to extract EEG features from raw EEG signals; this data are recorded from subjects viewing several categories of images from ImageNet. Second, we train a GAN model conditioned on the encoded EEG features to generate design images. Third, we use the model to generate design images from a subject’s EEG measured brain activity. To verify our proposed generative design method, we present a case study, in which the subjects imagine the products they prefer, and the corresponding EEG signals are recorded and reconstructed by our model for evaluation. The results indicate that a generated product image with preference EEG signals gains more preference than those generated without EEG signals. Overall, we propose a neuroscience-inspired artificial intelligence design method for generating a design taking into account human preference. The method could help improve communication between designers and clients where clients might not be able to express design requests clearly.
This article explores the syntax of compound pronouns (e.g. someone, nothing). Several theories of these formatives have been proposed previously (e.g. Kishimoto 2000; Blöhdorn 2009), but most of them fail to account for the fact that compound pronouns behave simultaneously like compounds and phrases. By presenting corpus data of some special coordination and modification patterns of compound pronouns, I argue that they should instead be analysed as compound phrases: constructions which are morphologically compounds, but syntactically phrases. Both features play important roles in determining how compound phrases are modified. Moreover, I propose a modification paradigm based on Larson & Marušič (2004), which classifies common postmodifiers at different levels. Finally, I examine the syntactic behaviour of less frequently used nominal compound pronouns such as nobody, which are supplementary to the phrasal ones.
Toxoplasma gondii rhoptry protein TgROP18 is a polymorphic virulence effector that targets immunity-related GTPases (IRGs) in rodents. Given that IRGs are uniquely diversified in rodents and not in other T. gondii intermediate hosts, the role of TgROP18 in manipulating non-rodent cells is unclear. Here we show that in human cells TgROP18I interacts with the interferon-gamma-inducible protein N-myc and STAT interactor (NMI) and that this is a property that is unique to the type I TgROP18 allele. Specifically, when expressed ectopically in mammalian cells only TgROP18I co-immunoprecipitates with NMI in IFN-γ-treated cells, while TgROP18II does not. In parasites expressing TgROP18I or TgROP18II, NMI only co-immunoprecipitates with TgROP18I and this is associated with allele-specific immunolocalization of NMI on the parasitophorous vacuolar membrane (PVM). We also found that TgROP18I reduces NMI association with IFN-γ-activated sequences (GAS) in the IRF1 gene promoter. Finally, we determined that polymorphisms in the C-terminal kinase domain of TgROP18I are required for allele-specific effects on NMI. Together, these data further define new host pathway targeted by TgROP18I and provide the first function driven by allelic differences in the highly polymorphic ROP18 locus.
Based on attachment theory and a social-cognitive model of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), this study examined the roles of parent–child communication, perceived parental depression, and intrusive rumination in the association between insecure attachment to parents and PTSD among adolescents following the Jiuzhaigou earthquake. In this study, 620 adolescents were recruited to complete self-report questionnaires. The results showed that the direct association between anxious attachment and PTSD was significant, but that between avoidant attachment and PTSD was non-significant. In addition, both anxious and avoidant attachment had indirect associations with PTSD via the mediating effects of parent–child communication openness and problems, perceived parental depression, and intrusive rumination. However, the specific paths between anxious and avoidant attachment and PTSD were different. The findings indicated that insecure attachment among adolescents following the earthquake was predictive for their PTSD, and the mechanisms underlying the association between anxious attachment and PTSD and the association between avoidant attachment and PTSD were distinct. To alleviate PTSD, more attention should be paid to improving the quality of parent–child communication for adolescents with avoidant attachment to parents, and to reducing negative cognition in adolescents with anxious attachment.
In this paper, CNTs reinforced foam aluminum matrix composites with small pore diameter were prepared by powder metallurgy method. When the mass fraction of CNTs was 0.75%, the tensile strength, flexural strength and compressive yield strength of the materials were 3.4 times, 2.4 times and 2.4 times of pure foam aluminum, respectively, reaching the maximum value, which obviously improved the mechanical properties of aluminum foam. The tensile property model of foam aluminum matrix composites was built to predict the properties of the composites, and the effects of defects and reinforcement on the mechanical properties of the composites were compared. The results show that the tensile fitting is consistent with the measured results when the mass fraction of CNTs is less than 0.75%, but the weakening effect of defects on the strength of aluminum foam is much greater than the enhancement of CNTs. With the increase of CNTs mass fraction, the damping loss factor of foam aluminum composites increases, dislocation damping and grain boundary damping play a role in advance, and the damping peak moves to the low temperature region.
A solution to the problem of Gaussian beam scattering by a circular perfect electric conductor coated with eccentrically anisotropic media is presented. The incident Gaussian beam source is expanded as an approximate expression in the simple form with Taylor's series. The transmitted field in the anisotropically coated region is expressed as an infinite summation of Eigen plane waves with different polar angles. The unknown coefficients of the scattered fields are obtained with the aid of the boundary conditions. The addition theorem for cylindrical functions is applied to transfer from the local coordinates to the global ones. The infinite series can be truncated under the prerequisite of achieving the solution convergence. Only the case of transverse-electric polarization is discussed. The similar formulation of transverse-magnetic polarization can be obtained by adopting a similar method. Some numerical results are presented and discussed. The result is in agreement with that available as expected when the eccentric geometry comes to the concentric one.
Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is a prevalent mental disorder diagnosed in childhood and adolescence. Theories regarding brain development and SAD suggest a close link between neurodevelopmental dysfunction at the adolescent juncture and SAD, but direct evidence is rare. This study aims to examine brain structural abnormalities in adolescents with SAD.
High-resolution T1-weighted images were obtained from 31 adolescents with SAD (15–17 years) and 42 matching healthy controls (HC). We evaluated symptom severity with the Social Anxiety Scale for Children (SASC) and the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED). We used voxel-based morphometry analysis to detect regional gray matter volume abnormalities and structural co-variance analysis to investigate inter-regional coordination patterns.
We found significantly higher gray matter volume in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and the insula in adolescents with SAD compared to HC. We also observed significant co-variance of the gray matter volume between the OFC and amygdala, and the OFC and insula in HC, but these co-variance relationships diminished in SAD.
These findings provide the first evidence that the brain structural deficits in adolescents with SAD are not only in the core regions of the fronto-limbic system, but also represented by the diminished coordination in the development of these regions. The delayed and unsynchronized development pattern of the fronto-limbic system supports SAD as an adolescent-sensitive developmental mental disorder.
Aiming at the influence of coupling coefficient variation on the output voltage of a high-power LCC-S topology inductively coupled power transfer (ICPT) system, a synchronous three-phase triple-parallel Buck converter is used as the voltage adjustment unit. The control method for the three-phase current sharing of synchronous three-phase triple-parallel Buck converter and the constant voltage output ICPT system under the coupling coefficient variation is studied. Firstly, the hybrid model consisting of the circuit averaging model of the three-phase triple-parallel Buck converter and the generalized state-space average model for the LCC-S type ICPT system is established. Then, the control methods for three-phase current sharing of the synchronous three-phase triple-parallel Buck converter and constant voltage output of ICPT system are studied to achieve the multi-objective integrated control of the system. Finally, a 3.3 kW wireless charging system platform is built, the experimental results have verified the effectiveness of the proposed modeling and control method, and demonstrated the stability of the ICPT system.
English vocabulary has expanded over centuries by ‘borrowing’ lexical items from other languages (Katamba, 2005; Durkin, 2014). Compared with European languages, non-European languages are never major sources of word borrowing in English, with Chinese staying even more peripheral. Scholars have recorded no more than a few hundred English words of Chinese origin. This, however, does not make it easier to study the etymology and semantics of Chinese loanwords. The complication arises from the various source dialects from which Chinese words were borrowed (Mandarin, Cantonese, Amoy, Hokkien, etc.) and also from transcription processes, in which Chinese logograms are ‘romanised’ into phonetic representations so as to be readable for English speakers. It is a procedure easily affected by the transcribers' own cognition and the transcription systems employed, and the arbitrariness of the above variables contributes much to the fact that the orthography of Chinese loanwords, especially those entering the English language early, are prone to changes. This article aims to shed some light on how the ways of transcription may affect the spelling of Chinese loanwords.