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To investigate the protein-sparing effect of α-lipoic acid (LA), experimental fish (initial body weight: 18·99 (sd 1·82) g) were fed on a 0, 600 or 1200 mg/kg α-LA diet for 56 d, and hepatocytes were treated with 20 μm compound C, the inhibitor of AMP kinase α (AMPKα), treated for 30 min before α-LA treatment for 24 h. LA significantly decreased lipid content of the whole body and other tissues (P<0·05), and it also promoted protein deposition in vivo (P<0·05). Further, dietary LA significantly decreased the TAG content of serum and increased the NEFA content of serum (P<0·05); however, there were no significant differences among all groups in the hepatopancreas and muscle (P>0·05). Consistent with results from the experiment in vitro, LA activated phosphorylation of AMPKα and notably increased the protein content of adipose TAG lipase in intraperitoneal fat, hepatopancreas and muscle in vivo (P<0·05). Meanwhile, LA significantly up-regulated the mRNA expression of genes involved in fatty acid β-oxidation in the same three areas, and LA also obviously down-regulated the mRNA expression of genes involved in amino acid catabolism in muscle (P<0·05). Besides, it was observed that LA significantly activated the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway in muscle of experimental fish (P<0·05). LA could promote lipolysis and fatty acid β-oxidation via increasing energy supply from lipid catabolism, and then, it could economise on the protein from energy production to increase protein deposition in grass carp. Besides, LA might directly promote protein synthesis through activating the mTOR pathway.
The present study examines the characteristics of clay minerals in shale gas reservoirs and their influence on reservoir properties based on X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. These analyses were combined with optical microscopy observations and core and well-log data to investigate the genesis, distribution characteristics, main controlling factors and pore features of clay minerals of the Lower Silurian Longmaxi Formation in the East Sichuan area, China. The clay mineral assemblage consists of illite + mixed-layer illite-smectite (I-S) + chlorite. This assemblage includes three sources of clay minerals: detrital, authigenic and diagenetic minerals. The lower section of the Longmaxi Formation in the Jiaoshiba area has sealing ability which resulted in abnormal high pressures during hydrocarbon generation which inhibited illitization. Therefore, an anomalous transformation sequence is present in which the mixed-layer I-S content increases with depth. This anomalous transformation sequence can be used to infer the existence of abnormal high pressures. The detrital components of the formation also affect the clay-minerals content indirectly, especially the abundance of K-feldspar. The transformation of mixed-layer I-S to illite is limited due to the limited availability of K+, which determines the extent of transformation. Three types of pores were observed in the shale reservoir rocks of the Longmaxi Formation: interparticle (interP) pores, intraparticle (intraP) pores and organic-matter pores. The clay-mineral content controls the development of intraP pores, which are dominated by pores within clay particles. For a given clay mineral content, smectite and mixed-layer I-S were more conducive to the development of shale-gas reservoirs than other clay minerals.
An effective multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for the simultaneous detection of three major pathogens, Nosema bombycis Nägeli (Microsporidia: Nosematidae), Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (Baculoviridae: genus Alphabaculovirus) (NPV), and Bombyx mori densovirus (Parvoviridae: genus Iteravirus) (DNV), in silkworms (Bombyx mori (Linnaeus); Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) was developed in this study. Polymerase chain reaction and real-time PCR tests and basic local alignment search tool searches revealed that the primers and probes used in this study had high specificities for their target species. The ability of each primer/probe set to detect pure pathogen DNA was determined using a plasmid dilution panel, in which under optimal conditions the multiplex real-time PCR assay showed high efficiency in the detection of three mixed target plasmids with a detection limit of 8.5×103 copies for N. bombycis and Bombyx mori NPV (BmNPV) and 8.5×104 copies for Bombyx mori DNV (BmDNV). When the ability to detect these three pathogens was examined in artificially inoculated silkworms, our method presented a number of advantages over traditional microscopy, including specificity, sensitivity, and high-throughput capabilities. Under the optimal volume ratio for the three primer/probe sets (3:2:2=N. bombycis:BmNPV:BmDNV), the multiplex real-time PCR assay showed early detection of BmNPV and BmDNV by day 1 post inoculation using DNA templates of the three pathogens in various combinations from individually infected silkworms; the early detection of N. bombycis was possible by day 3 post inoculation using the DNA isolated from the midgut of N. bombycis-infected silkworms.
Maritime anomaly detection is a key technique in intelligent vessel traffic surveillance systems and implementation of maritime situational awareness. In this paper, we propose a method which combines vessel trajectory clustering and Naïve Bayes classifier to detect anomalous vessel behaviour in the maritime surveillance system. A similarity measurement between vessel trajectories is designed based on the spatial and directional characteristics of Automatic Identification System (AIS) data, then the method of hierarchical and k-medoids clustering are applied to model and learn the typical vessel sailing pattern within harbour waters. The Naïve Bayes classifier of vessel behaviour is built to classify and detect anomalous vessel behaviour. The proposed method has been tested and validated on the vessel trajectories from AIS data within the waters of Xiamen Bay and Chengsanjiao, China. The results indicate that the proposed method is effective and helpful, thus enhancing maritime situational awareness in coastal waters.
In this paper, we proposed a simple approach to analyse the efficiency and propulsive characteristics of the high-altitude propeller in accordance to the Vortex Lattice Lifting line Method (VLM) theory, which is commonly used in preliminary design and parametric studies of propeller propulsion. The Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) method was used to obtain aerofoil aerodynamic data. The optimal pitch angle and propeller blade chord length (along the radial direction) can be calculated using the information from the database. The propeller wake model sees helical slipstreams applied to both lightly and moderately loaded propellers. The proposed method is capable of identifying the optimal efficiency through varying the number of propeller blades, radius and the rotational speed. The relationship between the optimal efficiency and design parameters is then established. This method was verified using CFD calculations.
The high-energy oscillating electric current pulse (ECP) technology was introduced to relieve the residual stresses in the small AISI 1045 steel specimens treated by the pulsed-laser surface irradiation. The high-energy oscillating ECP stress relief experiments were conducted to study the effectiveness of the high-energy oscillating ECP technology. In addition, the electroplasticity framework was developed based on the thermal activation theory to reveal the mechanism of the high-energy oscillating ECP stress relief. The results show that the high-energy oscillating ECP stress relief has good effects on eliminating the residual stress. Furthermore, the residual stress relieving mechanism of the high-energy oscillating ECP stress relief can be attributed to the electric softening effect and the dynamic stress effect. The findings confirm that the significant effects of high-energy oscillating ECP on metal plasticity and provide a basis to understand the underlying mechanism of the high-energy oscillating ECP stress relief.
The high-frequency vibration technology was introduced to relieve the quenched residual stress in the Cr12MoV steel based on the high-frequency vibration system that mainly consisted of an electromagnetic vibrator and an amplitude boost unit. The high-frequency vibratory stress relief (VSR) experiments were conducted to study the effectiveness of the high-frequency vibration technology. In addition, the high-frequency vibration plasticity model was developed based on the thermal activation theory to reveal the mechanism of the high-frequency VSR. The results show that the high-frequency VSR has good effects on eliminating residual stress, while the surface hardness for the Cr12MoV steel remains almost the same. Moreover, there are no changes in the grain size of the Cr12MoV steel during the high-frequency VSR, while the dislocation density for the Cr12MoV steel during the high-frequency VSR decreases by 27.21%. The decrease of dislocation density in the Cr12MoV steel is the essence of residual stress relaxation. The findings confirm the significant effects of high-frequency vibration on metal plasticity and provide a basis to understand the underlying mechanism of the high-frequency VSR.
The hydrogen concentration and composition of garnets in the ultrahigh pressure eclogites at Shuanghe, eastern Dabieshan, were investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and electron microprobe analysis. The OH absorption bands can be divided into four groups: (1) 3635–3655 cm–1; (2) 3600–3630 cm–1; (3) 3540–3580 cm–1; and (4) 3400–3450 cm–1 and the water content ranges from 45 to 2529 ppm. Based on the behaviour of the OH absorption band and the relationship between water content and the composition of garnets, the samples can be divided into two classes: samples with >400 ppm H2O and samples with ≤400 ppm H2O. The water content of the former shows an obvious positive correlation with Ca atoms and a negative correlation with the Si, Mg and Fe2+ atoms per 12 anions, whereas the water content of the latter shows no obvious linear correlation with cations. It is concluded that the major mechanism of hydroxyl incorporation in garnets with >400 ppm H2O is by the coupled substitution 4H +Z□ → □+ZSi in the tetrahedral site, and that several mechanisms are responsible for OH incorporation in garnets with ≤400 ppm H2O.
There is an ongoing relationship between host plants and herbivores. The nutrient substances and secondary compounds found in the host plant can not only impact the growth and development process of herbivores, but, more importantly, may also affect their survival and reproductive fitness. Vitellogenesis is the core process of reproductive regulation and is generally considered as a reliable indicator for evaluating the degree of ovarian development in females. Vitellogenin (Vg) plays a critical role in the synthesis and secretion of yolk protein. In this study, the full-length cDNA of the Vg gene in an alien invasive species, the nipa palm hispid beetle Octodonta nipae Maulik (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) (OnVg) was cloned and, the effect of host plant on the OnVg expression level and ovarian development was investigated. The results revealed that the OnVg was highly and exclusively expressed in adult females, but barely detectable in larvae, pupae and adult males. The relative expression level of OnVg and egg hatchability were much higher in females fed on Phoenix canariensis (their preferred host) than those fed on Phoenix roebelenii. A positive correlation relationship between OnVg expression and egg hatchability was also detected. Additionally, the anatomy of the female reproductive system showed that the ovaries of individuals fed on P. canariensis were considerably more developed than in females fed on P. roebelenii. The results may be applicable to many pest management situations through reproductive disturbance by alternating host plant species or varieties or by reproductive regulation through vitellogenesis mediated by specific endocrine hormones.
The relationship between hydrophobicity and the protective effect of whey protein hydrolysates (WPHs) against oxidative stress was studied. Whey protein was first hydrolysed by pepsin and trypsin to obtain WPHs. After absorbed by macroporous adsorption resin DA201-C, three fractions named as M20, M40, and M60 were eluted by various concentrations of ethanol. The hydrophobicity showed a trend of increase from M20 to M60. Antioxidant ability test in vitro indicated that all the three components of WPHs displayed reasonably good antioxidant ability. Moreover, with the increase of hydrophobicity, antioxidant ability of WPHs improved significantly. Then rat pheochromocytoma line 12 (PC12) cells oxidative model was built to evaluate the suppression of oxidative stress of three components on PC12 cells induced by H2O2. Morphological alterations, cell viability, apoptosis rate, and intracellular antioxidase system tests all indicated that WPHs exert significant protection on PC cells against H2O2-induced damage. Among them, M60 had the highest protective effect by increasing 19·3% cell survival and reducing 28·6% cell apoptosis. These results suggested hydrophobicity of WPHs was contributing to the antioxidant ability and the protective effect against oxidative damage.
The New Vacuum Solar Telescope (NVST) is a new generation ground-based solar facility of China. One of the post-focus instruments is the multi-channel high-resolution imaging system, which is designed to simultaneously observe the dynamic gas motion in the solar photosphere and chromosphere. Since October of 2010 it has been operational in the NVST and some necessary updates were performed in past 2 years. Here we first give a general introduction of this system, and then we exhibit one near-limb observation of solar filaments obtained using this system. By this communication, we would like to show the potential ability to perform the high resolution observation of solar filaments (prominences) using the multi-channel imaging system in the NVST.
Vanadium oxides thin films with variable oxidation states have attracted great attention due to their unique electrical, optical properties and many important applications in microelectronics, infrared optical devices, and energy harvest systems. However, to fabricate vanadium oxide thin films with controllable phases and desired transport properties is still a challenge by using a chemical solution deposition (CSD) technique. In this paper, we report that vanadium oxide thin films with well controlled phases such as rhombohedral V2O3 and monoclinic VO2 could be synthesized on Al2O3 (0001) substrates using a CSD technique ---- polymer assisted deposition (PAD). Both V2O3 and VO2 thin films can be well controlled with good epitaxial quality by optimizing the fabrication parameters. The electrical resistivity changes 3∼4 orders of magnitude at metal insulator transition for both epitaxial V2O3 and VO2 thin films. The correlation between the physical properties and the microstructures of the films will be discussed.
Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is a technique commonly used in clinical and research settings. In mouse oocytes, conventional ICSI has a poor survival rate caused by a high level of lysis. Cytochalasin B (CB) is a toxic microfilament-inhibiting agent that is known to relax the cytoskeleton and enhance the flexibility of oocytes. CB has been used widely in nuclear transfer experiments to improve the success rate of the micromanipulation, however information describing the use of CB in ICSI is limited. Here, we demonstrated that the addition of 5 μg/ml CB to the manipulation medium of ICSI procedure significantly improved the survival rate of the ICSI embryos (80.74% vs. 89.50%, p < 0.05), and that there was no harm for the in vitro or in vivo development. The birth rates and birth weights were not significantly different between the CB-treated and -untreated groups. Interestingly, the microfilaments of the ICSI embryos were almost undetectable immediately after CB treatment; however, they gradually re-appeared and had fully recovered to the normal level 2 h later. Moreover, CB did not disturb spindle rotation, second polar body formation or pronuclei migration, and had no effect on the microtubules. We thus conclude that ICSI manipulation in CB-containing medium results in significantly improved survival rate of mouse ICSI embryos, and that short-term treatment with CB during ICSI manipulation does not have adverse effects on the development of ICSI embryos.
We have demonstrated and studied polymeric solid-state dye lasers (SSDLs) fabricated by three-dimensional (3D) polystyrene colloidal crystals and tert-butyl roadamine B (t-Bu RhB) doped Poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) films with different film thickness. The sandwich-typed resonator cavities with different active layer thickness display single-mode lasing oscillations in the reflection bandgap of the colloidal crystals. The lasing thresholds could be optimized by changing the thickness of t-Bu RhB doped PMMA films, which is as low as 7.43 W/cm2. Adjusting active layer thickness would provide an opportunity to accelerate the development of fabricating polymeric SSDLs with low threshold.
A useful procedure is described to rapidly obtain Bragg-reflection intensities from the FULLPROF suite, and the Bragg intensities can then be input into the GEST and the PECKCRYST programs for crystal-structure determination of small molecules. An example on using the new procedure for the structure determination from powder diffraction determination of hydrochlorothiazide (C7H8ClN3O4S2) is presented, and the powder-structure results obtained by the PECKCRYST program are in good agreement with previously reported single-crystal results.
A pair of degenerate primers was designed based on a conserved domain of GA 20-oxidase reported in other plants. The full-length (1179 bp) carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L. cv. Master) GA 20-oxidase cDNA (named Dc20ox) was cloned by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). BLAST analysis revealed that the deduced amino acid sequence had high homology (66–75%) with the GA 20-oxidase sequences from other plants. An RNAi vector (pART400) was constructed from a 400 bp fragment representing a highly conserved region of GA 20-oxidase.
The expression of the YUCAA1 gene and the amount of endogenous indole acetic acid (IAA) in rice (Oryza sativa subsp. japonica) plants and rice suspension cells infected by Rice stripe virus (RSV) were investigated by real-time reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and high-performance liquid chromatography, respectively. The results showed that the expression of the YUCAA1 gene and the amount of endogenous IAA increased at various times (16, 32, 48 and 64 h) after infection of rice suspension cells by RSV. In rice plants infected with RSV, the expression of the YUCAA1 gene and the amount of endogenous IAA increased, in comparison with healthy rice plants, at 4–8 days after infection, and decreased at 12 and 16 days. These results indicated that RSV infection could regulate auxin biosynthesis in rice. Additionally, the expression of the RSV gene CP increased 2.9 times in rice plants after they were treated with a KPSC buffer to deplete the endogenous auxins, and decreased 45% after treatment with 30 μmol/l IAA. All of these results suggest that auxin may play a role in RSV replication in rice plants.
The Dabie orogenic belt is characterized by the presence of large volumes of intrusive and volcanic rocks that formed in Late Mesozoic times. Most of the intrusive bodies are I-type granites but it is still unclear whether there are contemporary A-type granites. Here, we report the first unambiguous discovery of A-type granite from Baiyashan in the North Dabie tectonic belt. The crystallization age of the body has been fixed as 120.4 ± 1.2 Ma using U–Pb analysis of zircons by LA-ICPMS. The Baiyashan granite is enriched in Si, K, Na, Rb and REE, has elevated FeOtot/(FeOtot + MgO) and Ga/Al ratios, and is depleted in Mg, Ca, Mn, Ba, Sr, P and Ti. The REE composition shows highly fractionated patterns with (La/Yb)N = 6.95–16.68 and Eu*/Eu = 0.33–0.59. Its crystallization age, field relationships, petrographic and geochemical data show beyond doubt that the Baiyashan granite is an Early Cretaceous A-type granite. Sr–Nd isotope systematics are characterized by a high ISr of 0.708–0.714 and a low ɛNd of −7.5 to −19.4, with TDM2 = 1.5–2.5 Ga, and these data indicate that the magmas were dominantly sourced from partial melting of middle to lower crustal intermediate-felsic igneous rocks and mingling with mafic to intermediate magmas, during rift-related magmatism associated with subduction of the Palaeo-Pacific Plate beneath Eastern China in Early Cretaceous times.