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Novel NiMoO4-integrated electrode materials were successfully prepared by solvothermal method using Na2MoO4·2H2O and NiSO4·6H2O as main raw materials, water, and ethanol as solvents. The morphology, phase, and structure of the as-prepared materials were characterized by SEM, XRD, Raman, and FT-IR. The electrochemical properties of the materials in supercapacitors were investigated by cyclic voltammetry, constant current charge–discharge, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques. The effects of volume ratio of water to ethanol (W/E) in solvent on the properties of the product were studied. The results show that the pure phase monoclinic crystal NiMoO4 product can be obtained when the W/E is 2:1. The diameter and length are 0.1–0.3 µm and approximately 3 µm, respectively. As an active material for supercapacitor, the NiMoO4 nanorods material delivered a discharge specific capacitance of 672, 498, and 396 F/g at a current density of 4, 7, and 10 A/g, respectively. The discharge specific capacitance slightly decreased from 815 to 588 F/g with a retention of 72% after 1000 cycles at a current density of 1 A/g. With these superior capacitance properties, the novel NiMoO4 integrated electrode materials could be considered as promising material for supercapacitors.
The Luziyuan Pb–Zn skarn deposit, located in the Baoshan–Narong–Dongzhi block metallogenic belt in SW China, is hosted by marble and slate in the upper Cambrian Shahechang Formation. Three skarn zones have been identified from the surface (1495 m above sea level (asl)) to a depth of 1220 m asl: zone 1 consists of chlorite–actinolite–calcite–quartz, zone 2 of rhodonite–actinolite–fluorite–quartz–calcite, and zone 3 contains garnet–rhodonite–actinolite–fluorite–quartz–calcite. The deposit formed in four distinct mineralization stages: an early anhydrous skarn (garnet, rhodonite and bustamite) stage (Stage 1), a hydrous skarn (actinolite and chlorite) stage (Stage 2), an early quartz (coarse barren quartz veins) stage (Stage 3) and a late sulphide-forming (fine sulphide-bearing quartz veins) stage (Stage 4). The Stage 1 skarn-forming fluid temperature was at least 500 °C according to the geothermometer with rhodonite/bustamite trace elements measured by laser ablation – inductively coupled plasma – mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). A decrease in ore fluid temperatures with time is consistent with the decreases in the δ18Ofluid and δDfluid values from Stage 3 to 4. This trend suggests that the ore fluid was mainly derived from magmatic water and mixed with large amounts of meteoric water during mineralization. The δ34S values of Stage 4 chalcopyrite, sphalerite and galena are similar to those of an Ordovician gypsum layer, and together with the high-salinity fluids in Stage 4 indicate the dissolution of evaporites in the Luziyuan region. Overall, the results of this study suggest that the Luziyuan deposit is a distal Pb–Zn skarn deposit that formed in response to multi-stage alteration associated with a combination of magmatic water and meteoric water.
In this study, we propose a high order well-balanced weighted compact nonlinear (WCN) scheme for the gas dynamic equations under gravitational fields. The proposed scheme is an extension of the high order WCN schemes developed in (S. Zhang, S. Jiang, C.-W Shu, J. Comput. Phys. 227 (2008) 7294-7321). For the purpose of maintaining the exact steady state solution, the well-balanced technique in (Y. Xing, C.-W Shu, J. Sci. Comput. 54 (2013) 645-662) is employed to split the source term into two terms. The proposed scheme can maintain the isothermal equilibrium solution exactly, genuine high order accuracy and resolve small perturbations of the hydrostatic balance state on the coarse meshes. Furthermore, in order to capture the strong discontinuities and large gradients, the fifth-order upwind weighted nonlinear interpolations together with the fourth/sixth order cell-centered compact schemes with local characteristic projections are used to construct different WCN schemes. Several representative one- and two-dimensional examples are simulated to demonstrate the good performance of the proposed schemes.
Two-dimensional scattering of a Gaussian beam by a homogeneous gyrotropic circular cylinder is presented. The incident Gaussian beam source is expanded as an approximate expression with Taylor's series. The transmitted field in the homogeneous gyrotropic cylinder is expressed in terms of the series of wave functions based on the integral equation. The unknown coefficients of the scattered fields are obtained with the aid of the boundary conditions of continuous tangential electric and magnetic fields. Some numerical results are presented and discussed. The result is in agreement with that available as expected when the Gaussian beam degenerates to a plane wave incidence case.
In this study, a numerical framework of the high order well-balanced weighted compact nonlinear (WCN) schemes is proposed for the shallow water equations based on the work in [S. Zhang, S. Jiang, C.-W Shu, J. Comput. Phys. 227 (2008) 7294-7321]. We employ a special splitting technique for the source term proposed in [Y. Xing, C.-W Shu, J. Comput. Phys. 208 (2005) 206-227] to maintain the exact C-property, which can be proved theoretically. In the meantime, the genuine high order accuracy of the numerical scheme can be observed successfully, and small perturbation of the stationary state can be resolved and evolved well. In order to capture the strong discontinuities and large gradients, the fifth-order upwind weighted nonlinear interpolations together with the fourth/sixth order cell-centered compact scheme are used to construct different WCN schemes. In addition, the local characteristic projections are considered to further restrain the potential numerical oscillations. A variety of representative one- and two-dimensional examples are tested to demonstrate the good performance of the proposed schemes.
With increasing output of petroleum coke, the value-added exploitation of petroleum coke has become a tough problem. Preparing porous carbons is a traditional way to the value-added exploitation of petroleum coke. Here, we used a facile and efficient hard-templating strategy to synthesize mesoporous carbon with high surface area from petroleum coke. N2 adsorption analyses show that the BET specific area and pore volume of the carbons can reach up to 864 m2/g and 1.37 cm3/g, respectively. To utilize the abundant mesopores of the carbons, anthraquinone-modified mesoporous carbon was tested as an electrode material for supercapacitor applications. Electrochemical measurements demonstrated that the specific capacitance reached up to 366 F/g at the current density of 1 A/g, indicating a promising prospect of using this carbon in electrochemical energy-storage field. More importantly, the strategy used in this work can be easily modified to prepare other nano-carbon materials from petroleum coke.
Controlling the spatial arrangement of biomaterials and living cells provides the foundation for fabricating complex biological systems. Such level of spatial resolution (less than 10 µm) is difficult to be obtained through conventional cell processing techniques, which lack the precision, reproducibility, automation, and speed required for the rapid fabrication of engineered tissue constructs. Recently, laser-assisted biofabrication techniques are being intensively developed with the use of computer-aided processes for patterning and assembling both living and nonliving materials with prescribed 2D or 3D organization. In this review, we discuss laser-assisted fabrication methods, including laser tweezers, multi-photon polymerization, laser-induced forward transfer (LIFT), matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE), and laser ablation as well as their applications in biological science and biomedical engineering. These advanced technologies enable the precise manipulation of in vitro cellular microenvironments and the ability to engineer functional tissue constructs with high complexity and heterogeneity, which serve in regenerative medicine, pharmacology, and basic cell biology studies.
The NaLa(MoO4)2:Yb3+/Er3+ phosphor is synthesized through hydrothermal method with the further calcinations. The intense green upconversion (UC) emission is observed when it is excited by 980 nm pump power. Then we investigate the mechanism of UC emission based on the power dependent upconversion luminescence (UCL) spectra. Temperature sensing performance based on the Stark levels (2H11/2/4S3/2) of Er3+ is estimated through investigating temperature-dependent UCL spectra from 298 K to 573 K. And the maximum value of sensor sensitivity based on FIR is approximately 0.00474 K−1. Moreover, the variations of UCL intensities from 2H11/2/4S3/2 → 4I15/2 transitions have been monitored with increasing pump power, which suggests that the pump energy can be absorbed by sample and heat it. In addition, the internal temperature of materials can be estimated by FIR technique. All the experimental results indicate that the phosphor has good potential in optical temperature sensing and optical heating.
To explore the 3-tiered treatment model for medical treatment after an earthquake.
Based on the practices of the national emergency medical rescue services in the Lushan earthquake zone, the 3-tiered treatment classification approach was retrospectively reviewed.
Medical rescue teams assembled and reported quickly to the disaster areas after the earthquake. The number of injured people had reached 25,176 as of April 30; of these, 18,611 people were treated as outpatients, 6565 were hospitalized, and 977 were seriously or severely injured.
The 3-tiered treatment model was the main approach used by rescue services after the Lushan earthquake. Primary and secondary treatments were of the highest importance and formed the basis of the Lushan model of earthquake rescue and treatment. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018; 12: 301–304)
For wheeled mobile robots moving in rough terrains or uncertain environments, driving failure will be encountered when trafficability failure occurs. Continuous mobility of mobile robots with special ability for overcoming driving failure on rough terrain has rarely been considered. This study was conducted using a four-wheel-steering and four-wheel-driving mobile robot equipped with a binocular visual system. First, quasi-static force analysis is carried out to understand the effects of different driving-failure modes on the mobile robot while moving on rough terrain. Secondly, to make the best of the rest of the driving force, robot configuration transformation is employed to select the optimal configuration that can overcome the driving failure. Thirdly, sliding mode control based on back-stepping is adopted to enable the robot achieve continuous trajectory tracking with visual feedback. Finally, the efficacy of the presented approach is verified by simulations and experiments.
In this work, we concern with the numerical comparison between different kinds of design points in least square (LS) approach on polynomial spaces. Such a topic is motivated by uncertainty quantification (UQ). Three kinds of design points are considered, which are the Sparse Grid (SG) points, the Monte Carlo (MC) points and the Quasi Monte Carlo (QMC) points. We focus on three aspects during the comparison: (i) the convergence properties; (ii) the stability, i.e. the properties of the resulting condition number of the design matrix; (iii) the robustness when numerical noises are present in function values. Several classical high dimensional functions together with a random ODE model are tested. It is shown numerically that (i) neither the MC sampling nor the QMC sampling introduce the low convergence rate, namely, the approach achieves high order convergence rate for all cases provided that the underlying functions admit certain regularity and enough design points are used; (ii)The use of SG points admits better convergence properties only for very low dimensional problems (say d ≤ 2); (iii)The QMC points, being deterministic, seem to be a good choice for higher dimensional problems not only for better convergence properties but also in the stability point of view.
Vanadium oxides thin films with variable oxidation states have attracted great attention due to their unique electrical, optical properties and many important applications in microelectronics, infrared optical devices, and energy harvest systems. However, to fabricate vanadium oxide thin films with controllable phases and desired transport properties is still a challenge by using a chemical solution deposition (CSD) technique. In this paper, we report that vanadium oxide thin films with well controlled phases such as rhombohedral V2O3 and monoclinic VO2 could be synthesized on Al2O3 (0001) substrates using a CSD technique ---- polymer assisted deposition (PAD). Both V2O3 and VO2 thin films can be well controlled with good epitaxial quality by optimizing the fabrication parameters. The electrical resistivity changes 3∼4 orders of magnitude at metal insulator transition for both epitaxial V2O3 and VO2 thin films. The correlation between the physical properties and the microstructures of the films will be discussed.
The important task of evaluating the impact of random parameters on the output of stochastic ordinary differential equations (SODE) can be computationally very demanding, in particular for problems with a high-dimensional parameter space. In this work we consider this problem in some detail and demonstrate that by combining several techniques one can dramatically reduce the overall cost without impacting the predictive accuracy of the output of interests. We discuss how the combination of ANOVA expansions, different sparse grid techniques, and the total sensitivity index (TSI) as a pre-selective mechanism enables the modeling of problems with hundred of parameters. We demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of this approach on a number of challenging test cases drawn from engineering and science.
5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2A (5-HT2A) participates in diverse psychiatric disorders by regulating the activity of serotonin. Some previous studies have also suggested that the receptor is involved in cognitive abilities of disease groups. We hypothesize that some functional genetic variants in 5-HT2A have certain specific influences on cognitive abilities in a normal population.
To confirm this hypothesis, two polymorphisms (rs6313 and rs4941573) in 5-HT2A were selected, and a population-based study was performed in a young healthy Chinese Han cohort.
The results indicated that the rs6313 and rs4941573 were associated with touching blocks and mental rotation-3D error ratio in males, and the rs4941573 was associated with visuo-spatial working memory in the whole cohort.
All the findings suggest that 5-HT2A participates in human spatial cognitive abilities and spatial working memory.
This paper proposed a novel three degree of freedom (DOF) parallel manipulator—two translations and one rotation. The mobility study and inverse kinematic analysis are conducted, and a CAD model is presented showing the design features. The optimization techniques based on artificial intelligence approaches are investigated to improve the system stiffness of the proposed 3-DOF parallel manipulator. Genetic algorithms and artificial neural networks are implemented as the intelligent optimization methods for the stiffness synthesis. The mean value and the standard deviation of the global stiffness distribution are proposed as the design indices. Both the single objective and multi-objective optimization issues are addressed. The effectiveness of this methodology is validated with Matlab.
Few psychosocial interventions have been developed in China that are
suitable for use in the community.
To evaluate the effectiveness of the Chinese version of the Community
Re-Entry Module (CRM; a module of a standardised, structured social
skills training programme devised at the University of California, Los
Angeles) for patients with schizophrenia compared with standard group
Patients with schizophrenia (n=103) were randomly
allocated to CRM or psychoeducation groups and followed up for 24 months.
Outcome measures included social functioning, psychiatric symptoms,
insight, re-employment, relapse and re-hospitalisation rates.
The CRM group significantly improved in terms of social functioning,
insight and psychiatric symptoms compared with the psychoeducation group;
the re-employment rate was significantly higher and relapse and
rehospitalisation rates were significantly lower in the CRM group.
The findings support the feasibility and effectiveness of CRM as a
psychosocial intervention for Chinese patients with schizophrenia in the
The Arabidopsis homeotic gene AP2 is essential for floral meristem development and organ specification. In this study, we report the isolation and sequence comparison of the AP2 homologue of Brassica rapa (BAP2). The results showed that the BAP2 DNA sequence was 2138 bp in length and contained nine introns. It shared 90% identity with AP2 in the coding region. The putative BAP2 polypeptide contained a nuclear localization signal (NLS) sequence and two copies of highly conserved AP2 domain, suggesting that BAP2 may function similarly to AP2. Two nucleotide variations were detected in DNA sequences from wild-type and apetalous B. rapa plants at the BAP2 locus, while the putative polypeptides were identical. We propose that BAP2 is not likely to be responsible for the apetalous mutation in B. rapa.
Three Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) isolates (HB-1(sh)/2002, HB-2(sh)/2002 and JX-1/2002) were obtained from pig farms in Hebei and Jiangxi provinces, China. The complete ORF5 gene of the isolates was amplified using RT-PCR and sequenced. It was shown that ORF5 genes of all isolates encoded 200 amino acids. Comparing ORF5 genes of the three isolates and published sequences for five other PRRSV isolates in China, variation analysis showed that all of the isolates were of the American genotype, with 88.2–99.0% amino acid identity. ORF5 genes among BJ-4, S1 and J1 had higher similarity, sharing 98–99% identity of the deduced amino acids. HB-1(sh)/2002, HB-2(sh)/2002 and JX-1/2002 and CH-1a presented 92–96% identity among their ORF5 genes. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that these isolates could be divided into two subgroups based on the genetic distance of their ORF5 gene: the first subgroup comprised BJ-4, S1 and J1 and was closer to VR2332 and vaccine strains; the second included HB-1(sh)/2002, HB-2(sh)/2002, JX-1/2002 and CH-1a.
This paper attempts to evaluate the clinical usefulness of CYFRA 21-1 as a serum tumour marker in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC).
The serum concentration of CYFRA 21-1 was measured utilizing a new electrochemiluminescent immunoassay (ECLIA) in 142 patients with HNSCC before and after treatment, 68 patients with benign tumours of the head and neck, and 50 healthy controls.
Serum levels of CYFRA 21-1 in patients with HNSCC were significantly higher than those of benign tumours and healthy controls (p < 0.001). The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of CYFRA 21-1 for HNSCC were 62 per cent and 100 per cent, respectively. The positive rates of CYFRA 21-1 increased with progression of HNSCC, serum CYFRA 21-1 levels were related to the tumour stage expressed by primary tumour (T) and nodal status (N) (p < 0.001), but not related to patient age, gender, smoking and drinking habit, or histopathological grade (p > 0.05). Post-treatment levels of CYFRA 21-1 in HNSCC decreased significantly (p < 0.001). Among 38 patients with clinical or radiological evidence of a recurrence during follow-up, 78.9 per cent (30 of 38) showed an increase in CYFRA 21-1.
The analytical ECLIA performance for serum CYFRA 21-1 provides a new means of clinical assessment for HNSCC. The results of ECLIA suggest that the serum marker CYFRA 21-1 is valuable not only for diagnosis but also for close monitoring of patients with HNSCC.