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Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is typically used for analysis of relatively flat surfaces with topographic features smaller than the height of the AFM tip. On flat surfaces, it is relatively easy to find the object of interest and deconvolute imaging artifacts resulting from the finite size of the AFM tip. In contrast, AFM imaging of three-dimensional objects much larger than the AFM tip height is rarely attempted although it could provide topographic information that is not readily available from two-dimensional imaging, such as scanning electron microscopy. In this paper, we report AFM measurements of a vertically-mounted razor blade, which is taller and sharper than the AFM tip. In this case, the AFM height data, except for the data collected around the cutting edge of the blade, reflect the shape of the AFM tip. The height data around the apex area are effectively the convolution of the AFM tip and the blade cutting edge. Based on computer simulations mimicking an AFM tip scanning across a round sample, a simple algorithm is proposed to deconvolute the AFM height data of an object taller and sharper than the AFM tip and estimate its effective curvature.
The study of interactions between a high-power laser and atoms has been one of the fundamental and interesting topics in strong field physics for decades. Based on a nonperturbative model, ten years ago, we developed a set of programs to facilitate the study of interactions between a circularly polarized laser and atomic hydrogen. These programs included only contribution from the bound states of the hydrogen atom. However, as the laser intensity increases, contribution from continuum states to the excitation and ionization processes becomes larger and can no longer be neglected. Furthermore, because the original code is not able to add this contribution directly due to its many disadvantages, a major upgrade of the code is required before including the contribution from continuum states in future. In this paper, first we deduce some important formulas for contribution of continuum states and present modifications and tests for the upgraded code in detail. Second we show some comparisons among new results, old results from the original codes and the available experimental data. Overall the new result agrees with experimental data well. Last we present our calculation of above-threshold ionization (ATI) rate and compare it with a pertuba-tive calculation. The comparison shows that our nonperturbative calculation can also produce ATI peak suppression.
Previous studies have found that proficiency in a second language affects how the meanings of words are accessed. Support for this hypothesis is based on data from explicit memory tasks with bilingual participants who know two languages that are relatively similar phonologically and orthographically (e.g., Dutch–English, French–English). The present study tested this hypothesis with Chinese–English bilinguals using an implicit memory task – the cross-language repetition priming paradigm. Consistent with the result of Zeelenberg, R. and Pecher, D. (2003), we obtained reliable effects of long-term cross-language repetition priming using a conceptual implicit memory task. Overall, the four experiments support the Revised Hierarchical Model as they demonstrate that low fluency bilinguals can only access the conceptual representation of the second language via the lexical representation of the first language.