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No risk assessment tools for the efficacy of folic acid treatment for hyperhomocysteinaemia (HHcy) have been developed. We aimed to use two common genetic risk score (GRS) methods to construct prediction models for the efficacy of folic acid therapy on HHcy, and the best gene–environment prediction model was screened out. A prospective cohort study enrolling 638 HHcy patients was performed. We used a logistic regression model to estimate the associations of two GRS methods with the efficacy. Performances were compared using area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). The simple count genetic risk score (SC-GRS) and weighted genetic risk score (wGRS) were found to be independently associated with the efficacy of folic acid treatment for HHcy. Using the SC-GRS, per risk allele increased with a 1·46-fold increased failure risk (P < 0·001) after adjustment for traditional risk factors, including age, sex, BMI, smoking, alcohol consumption, history of diabetes, history of hypertension, history of hyperlipidaemia, history of stroke and history of CHD. When used the wGRS, the association was strengthened (OR = 2·08, P < 0·001). Addition of the SC-GRS and wGRS to the traditional risk model significantly improved the predictive ability by AUC (0·859). A precise gene–environment predictive model with good performance was developed for predicting the treatment failure rate of folic acid therapy for HHcy.
While legal scholarship seeks mainly to assess the impact of climate change litigation (CCL) on the regulatory state and on climate change policy in common law countries, the potential influence of government climate policy on the judicial practices of jurisdictions with different legal traditions attracts much less attention. This article fills the gaps by exploring how courts in China, an authoritarian country with a civil law tradition, react to government climate policies and how this judicial response might affect relevant legal rules and eventually contribute to climate regulation. An empirical analysis of 177 Chinese judicial cases reveals that CCL in China consists mostly of contract-based civil actions steered by the government's low-carbon policies. Moreover, although the prospects of CCL against public authorities in China remain very bleak, there is scope for the emergence of tort-based CCL, backed by government policies. In this respect, recent tort-based public interest litigation on air pollution in China may serve as a substitute or, more promisingly, a gateway to the emergence of a tort-based branch of Chinese CCL.
Multi-functions devices attract much attention due to their great potential and large demands in wearable electronics. Besides some studies of integrated different functional devices as one, there is a novel strategy to fabricate multi-functions devices, that using one device to achieve two or more functions. Herein, we report the temperature sensing and energy storage multi-functions device based on graphene supercapacitor. By measuring the change of leakage current of supercapacitor, the obtained device could detect the environmental temperature. Integrating the planar-structure supercapacitor on one flexible printed circuit board with electronic components together, the obtain device presents perfect mechanical stability that no noticeable difference of both capacitance and leakage current under any bending status. Importantly, the temperature sensing function exhibits a high accuracy of 1 °C with a high resolution of 0.0588 °C. This work demonstrates the feasibility of the strategy of one device achieve two functions: using one supercapacitor to achieve temperature sensing and energy storage dual function simultaneously.
Low-pressure regional aureoles with steep metamorphic field gradients are critical to understanding progressive metamorphism in high-temperature metasedimentary rocks. Delicately layered pelitic and psammitic metasedimentary rocks at Mt Stafford, central Australia, record a greenschist- to granulite-facies Palaeoproterozoic regional aureole, associated with S-type granite plutons, reflecting metamorphism in the range 500–800 °C and at ∼3 kbar. The rocks experienced minimal deformation during metamorphism and partial melting. Partial melting textures evolve progressively along the steep metamorphic field gradient from the incipient stages of melting marked by cuspate grains with low dihedral angles, to melt proportions sufficient to form diatexite with schollen. Phase equilibria modelling in the NCKFMASHTO system for pelitic, semi-pelitic and high- and low-ferromagnesian psammitic samples quantitatively illustrates the dependence of partial melting on rock composition and water volume. Pelitic compositions are more fertile than psammitic compositions when the water content in the rocks is low, especially during the early stages of melting. The whole-rock ferromagnesian component additionally influences melt fertility, with ferromagnesian-rich psammite being more fertile than psammite with a lower ferromagnesian component. Subtle variations in free water content can result in obvious changes in melt volume but limited variation in melt composition. Distinct melting histories of pelitic and psammitic rocks inferred from field relationships may be partially attributed to potential differences in water volume retained to super-solidus conditions. Melt composition is more dependent on the rock composition than the variation in water content.
A series of CoCrFeNiMox (x = 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0, and 1.2) high-entropy alloys were designed to develop a eutectic high-entropy alloy system and to acquire a superfine eutectic structure. The results show that for the CoCrFeNiMox alloys, with the increase of Mo content from 0.2 to 1.2, the microstructures shift from a typical dendrite structure to a hypoeutectic microstructure (x = 0.6), and then to a fully eutectic microstructure (x = 0.8) with a lamellar spacing only 110 nm, and finally culminate in the hypereutectic structure (x = 1.0, x = 1.2). The XRD results show that CoCrFeNiMox alloys have a single FCC phase when x is 0.2 or 0.4. When Mo content is over 0.6, it begins to separate Cr9Mo21Ni20 intermetallic compounds. The hardness of the CoCrFeNiMox alloys is increasing significantly from 172.8 to 763.7 HV with the increase of Mo content. Meanwhile, the fracture strength increased but the ductility decreases. Among these alloys, the CoCrFeNiMo0.6 alloy shows excellent integrated mechanical properties of compressive fracture strength and strain, which are 2051 Mpa and 23%, respectively.
The Da Vinci surgical system is classified as a type “A” medical device in China; the procurement plan of which is regulated by the National Health and Family Planning Commission (NHFP). Between 2010 to 2015, there were thirty-four Da Vinci surgical robots purchased, and installed in thirty tertiary public hospitals across the country. In order to generate context-specific evidence and support further capital funding decisions, the NHFP commissioned a Health Technology Assessment (HTA) of Da Vinci surgical robots, with a focus on real use of the technology in those tertiary public hospitals.
Nine hospitals were selected to collect real word data between 2013 to 2015. Using a cross-sectional survey, data of all robotic surgical cases were collected and described. The unit costs of the robotic surgery were estimated from activity based costing. We also collected cases of prostatectomy (427 versus 421) and hysterectomy (247 versus 105) using the robotic system and laparoscope respectively, and then compared hospital fees and effectiveness during hospitalization. Simulation of the budget impact on health insurance in Shanghai City over the next 5 years was also performed.
A full HTA was conducted based on real data from nine public hospitals in the central and eastern region. Based on a systematic review methodology, we appraised evidence on safety, effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the Da Vinci surgical robot. Data on technology use, clinical management, and pricing and payment were collected through a cross-sectional survey and interviews of hospital managers, surgeons and nurses. We designed a cohort study on cost-effectiveness of Da Vinci-assisted prostatectomy and hysterectomy, comparing Da Vinci-assisted and laparoscopic prostatectomy (427 vs 421) and Da Vinci-assisted and laparoscopic hysterectomy (247 versus 105). Ethics and inequity issues were discussed based on patient interviews. A budget impact analysis was performed based on scenario mapping of promoting Da Vinci-assisted prostatectomy in Shanghai City over a 5-year timeline.
Due to a lack of evidence on long-term clinical effectiveness and high impact on public finances, the Da Vinci robotic robot should not be procured in large numbers in China. For equipment purchasing the government should strengthen regulations and require the public hospitals to collect more evidence.
Numerous systematic reviews of prospective studies on the association of stroke risk with the consumption of various food groups have been published. A review of the evidence across the existing systematic reviews and meta-analyses of prospective studies was conducted to provide an overview of the range and validity of the reported associations of food groups with stroke risk.
The PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane Library databases were searched for articles published up to September 2015 to identify systematic reviews of prospective studies.
A total of eighteen studies published from 2008 to 2015 were eligible for analysis. Overall, thirteen specific foods were studied for an association with stroke outcome, including nuts, legumes, fruits and vegetables, refined grains, whole grains, dairy products, eggs, chocolate, red and/or processed meat, fish, tea, sugar-sweetened beverages and coffee. Whereas a high consumption of nuts, fruits, vegetables, dairy foods, fish and tea, and moderate consumption of coffee and chocolate demonstrated a protective effect, a high consumption of red and/or processed meat was associated with increased stroke risk. Refined grain, sugar-sweetened beverage, legume, egg and whole grain intake showed no effect on stroke outcome.
The current overview provided a high level of evidence to support the beneficial effect of specific foods on stroke outcome. Clinicians and policy makers could inform clinical practice and policy based on this overview.
In recent years, hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) has been increasingly recognized as a critical challenge to disease control and prevention in China. Previous studies have found that meteorological factors such as mean temperature and relative humidity were associated with HFMD. However, little is known about whether the diurnal temperature range (DTR) has any impact on HFMD. This study aimed to quantify the impact of DTR on childhood HFMD in 18 cities in Sichuan Province. A distributed lag non-linear model was adopted to explore the temporal lagged association of daily temperature with age-, gender- and pathogen-specific HFMD. A total of 290 123 HFMD cases aged 0–14 years were reported in the 18 cities in Sichuan Province. The DTR–HFMD relationships were non-linear in all subgroups. Children aged 6–14 years and male children were more vulnerable to the temperature changes. Large DTR had the higher risk estimates of HFMD incidence in cases of EV71 infection, while small DTR had the higher risk estimates of HFMD incidence in cases of CV-A16 infection. Our study suggested that DTR played an important role in the transmission of HFMD with non-linear and delayed effects.
Glacier albedo controls the surface energy budget, the variability of which affects the glacier surface melt rate and, in turn, impacts the mass balance of the glacier. During 2013 and 2014, spatial and temporal variations of albedo were investigated using 18 Landsat images of Urumqi Glacier No. 1. Factors influencing these spatiotemporal profiles were analyzed. An established retrieval process, including geolocation, radiometric calibration, atmospheric, topographic, and anisotropic correction and narrow- to broadband conversion, was applied for the first time to Landsat-8 images. Differences between Landsat image derived albedo values and albedo values measured using a handheld spectroradiometer ranged from −0.024 to 0.049. Spatial and temporal variations of surface albedo were significant, especially in the ablation area. The variability of the values of ice albedo ranged from 0.06 to 0.44 due to topographic effects and light-absorbing impurities. The results suggest that this retrieval method can be used to investigate the spatial and temporal variability of surface albedo from Landsat-8 images on mountain glaciers. Moreover, as constant albedo values for ice and snow cannot be assumed, the distribution of albedo was not completely dependent on altitude under conditions of more intense ablation, and by reason of light-absorbing impurities during the melt season.
System architecture is important for the design of complex mechatronic systems because it acts as an intermediator between conceptual design and detail design. An explicit and exact system modeling language is imperative for successful architecture design. However, some deficiencies remain, such as the lack of geometry elements, hybrid behavior description, and specific association semantics for existing architecture modeling languages. In this study, a Systems Modeling Language extension for mechatronic system architecture modeling called ArchME is proposed. The requirements for the mechatronic System Modeling Language are analyzed, and the metamodels are defined. Then, the modeling elements are determined. Finally, the profiles based on the systems modeling language are defined to support the modeling of function, behavior, structure, and their association. This enables system designers to model the system architecture and facilitates communication between different stakeholders. A case study is provided to demonstrate the modeling capability of ArchME.
The earliest known skeletal metazoan, Cloudina, was widespread in the late Neoproterozoic. We report here on phosphatized specimens of Cloudina sp. from dolomites of the Dengying Formation, 30 m below the first Cambrian skeletal fauna, in the Lijiagou section, Shaanxi Province, China. The specimens exhibit new details of shell morphology and fine structure that offer insights concerning the mechanism of shell accretion and the selective pressures influencing skeletogenesis in metazaons.
Cloudina formed curved to sinous tubular shells 0.2-8 mm in diameter and up to 4 cm in length. They consist of numerous thin (5-10 μm) calcareous layers, each in the form of a slightly flaring tube. New layers were deposited above and to one side of the previous layer, giving rise to a series of eccentrically nested shell laminae. Some of the phosphatized layers exhibit tight folding or wrinkling that may have been primary (imparting additional strength) or secondary (related to plastic deformation of organic-rich shell material). Pore space existed between terminal thin flanges, but concentric ridges may have served to strengthen the free standing portions of shell layers. SEM and cathodoluminescence of polished thin sections also reveal that each shell layer may itself have been constructed of an organized layering of organic matrix and carbonate, suggesting a fairly sophisticated biologic control over shell formation. The presence of circular holes, the size of which correlates positively with tube diameter, moreover, strongly suggests that one function of the shell was to protect the Cloudina organism from predatorial and/or parasitic attack.
The taxonomic status of Cloudina remains problematic. Rare specimens of the Lijiagou Cloudina which show two younger tubes growing within an older single tube suggest that the organism was capable of asexual reproduction by longitudinal fission. Such a latent tendency is not compatible with previously proposed affinities with polychaete worms.
Disclosing the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) to a patient is controversial. There is significant stigma associated with a diagnosis of AD or dementia in China, but the attitude of the society toward disclosure of such a diagnosis had not been formally evaluated prior to our study. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the attitude toward disclosing an AD diagnosis to patients in China with cognitive impairment from their caregivers, and the factors that may affect their attitude.
We designed a 17-item questionnaire and administered this questionnaire to caregivers, who accompanied patients with cognitive impairment or dementia in three major hospitals in Shanghai, China. The caregiver's attitude toward disclosing the diagnosis of AD as evaluated by the questionnaire was compared to that of disclosing the diagnosis of terminal cancer.
A majority (95.7%) of the 175 interviewed participants (mean 14.2 years of education received) wished to know their own diagnosis if they were diagnosed with AD, and 97.6% preferred the doctor to tell their family members if they were diagnosed with AD. If a family member of the participants suffered from AD, 82.9% preferred to have the diagnosis disclosed to the patient. “Cognitive impairment” was the most accepted term by caregivers to disclose AD diagnosis in Chinese.
This study suggests most of the well-educated individuals in a Chinese urban area favored disclosing the diagnosis when they or their family members were diagnosed with AD.
As growers adopt and diffuse improved food crop cultivars, their investment decisions for producing new cultivars control product accessibility and directly affect the entire supply chain. In this study, we estimated growers’ willingness to invest (willingness to pay (WTP)) in cultivars with improved quality traits for five rosaceous fruit crops: apple, peach, strawberry, sweet cherry, and tart cherry. WTP values differed by crop, but fruit flavor was consistently rated one of the most important traits, with higher WTP. This information will help breeding programs focus resources to develop superior cultivars for long-term economic sustainability of the rosaceous fruit industry.
Currently large sky area spectral surveys like SDSS, 2dF, and LAMOST, using the new generation of telescopes and observatories, have provided massive spectral data sets for astronomical research. Most of the data can be automatically handled with pipelines, but visually inspection by human eyes is still necessary in several situations, like low SNR spectra, QSO recognition and peculiar spectra mining. Using ASERA, A Spectrum Eye Recognition Assistant, we can set up a team spectral inspection platform. On a preselected spectral data set, members of a team can individually view spectra one by one, find the best match template and estimate the redshift. Results from different members will be gathered and merged to raise the team work efficiency. ASERA mainly targets the spectra of SDSS and LAMOST fits data formats. Other formats can be supported with some conversion. Spectral templates from SDSS and LAMOST pipelines are embedded and users can easily add their own templates. Convenient cross identification interfaces with SDSS, SIMBAD, VIZIER, NED and DSS are also provided. An application example targeting finding strong emission line spectra from LAMOST DR2 is presented.
Vortex reconnection, as the topological change of vortex lines or surfaces, is a critical process in transitional flows, but is challenging to accurately characterize, particularly in shear flows. We apply the vortex-surface field (VSF), whose isosurface is the vortex surface consisting of vortex lines, to study vortex reconnection in the Klebanoff-type temporal transition in channel flow. The VSF evolution can capture the reconnection of the hairpin-like vortical structures evolving from the initial vortex sheets in opposite halves of the channel. The incipient vortex reconnection is characterized by the vanishing minimum distance between a pair of vortex surfaces and the reduction of vorticity flux through the region enclosed by the wall and the VSF isoline of the channel half-height on the spanwise symmetric plane. We find that the surge of the wall-friction coefficient begins at the identified reconnection time. From the Biot–Savart law, the rapid reconnection of vortex lines can induce a velocity opposed to the mean flow, which partially blocks the flow near the central region and generally accelerates the near-wall fluid motion in the flow with constant mass flux. Therefore, the vortex reconnection appears to play an important role in the sudden increase of wall friction in transitional channel flows.
The Endangered giant panda Ailuropoda melanoleuca is one of the most threatened mammals. The species has experienced declines in its population and habitat as a result of human disturbance. We investigated the influence of human disturbance on habitat use by giant pandas in the Daxiangling Mountains, in China's Sichuan Province. We mapped all signs of giant panda and all locations of seven types of human disturbance in the study area. We used correlation analysis, generalized linear models, and Akaike information criteria to analyse the influence of the various types of human disturbances on habitat use by the giant panda. Our results showed that habitat use was positively correlated with elevation and distance from roads, residences, hydropower stations and logging or tree-felling sites, but negatively correlated with distance from bamboo shoot collection sites and trap sites. We found that the road-effect zone spanned a distance of c. 1,200 m and that human residence could affect the intensity of habitat use by giant pandas at distances > 2,500 m. The effect of roads on habitat use was probably influenced by the association of roads with residences, hydropower stations and mines. In the area occupied by giant pandas, we recommend increased regulation to minimize the expansion and impact of roads, residences, hydropower stations and logging activities.
We report a Lagrangian study on the evolution of material surfaces in the Klebanoff-type temporal transitional channel flow. Based on the Eulerian velocity field from the direct numerical simulation, a backward-particle-tracking method is applied to solve the transport equation of the Lagrangian scalar field, and then the isosurfaces of the Lagrangian field can be extracted as material surfaces in the evolution. Three critical issues for Lagrangian investigations on the evolution of coherent structures using material surfaces are addressed. First, the initial scalar field is uniquely determined based on the proposed criteria, so that the initial material surfaces can be approximated as vortex surfaces, and remain invariant in the initial laminar state. Second, the evolution of typical material surfaces initially from different wall distances is presented, and then the influential material surface with the maximum deformation is identified. Large vorticity variations with the maximum curvature growth of vortex lines are also observed on this surface. Moreover, crucial events in the transition can be characterized in a Lagrangian approach by conditional statistics on the material surfaces. Finally, the influential material surface, which is initially a vortex surface, is demonstrated as a surrogate of the vortex surface before significant topological changes of vortical structures. Therefore, this material surface can be used to elucidate the continuous temporal evolution of vortical structures in transitional wall-bounded flows in a Lagrangian perspective. The evolution of the influential material surface is divided into three stages: the formation of a triangular bulge from an initially disturbed streamwise–spanwise sheet, rolling up of the vortex sheet near the bulge ridges with the vorticity intensification and the generation and evolution of signature hairpin-like structures with self-induced dynamics of vortex filaments.
The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of hyperhomocysteinaemia (HHCY; total plasma homocysteine (tHcy) concentration >15 μmol/l) and its major determinants in healthy Chinese northerners. A descriptive and cross-sectional study was conducted in Shaanxi Province, China. The study sample included 2645 participants (1042 men and 1603 women) aged >20 years. Demographic characteristics and lifestyle factors were assessed via questionnaire interviews and physical examination. Plasma levels of homocysteine and folate and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene polymorphism were determined according to standard methods. The prevalence of HHCY was 67·7 % (81·4 % in men and 58·8 % in women). The geometric mean of tHcy concentration was 19·1 μmol/l. The OR of HHCY were 0·44 (95 % CI 0·34, 0·57) for women v. men; 1·95 (95 % CI 1·41, 2·70), 1·41 (95 % CI 1·05, 1·88) and 0·76 (95 % CI 0·64, 0·89) for participants with smoking and alcohol drinking cessation and improved physical activity levels, respectively; 0·25 (95 % CI 0·17, 0·38), 0·33 (95 % CI 0·22, 0·49) and 0·56 (95 % CI 0·36, 0·88) for participants with an education level of elementary school, secondary school and university v. illiterate, respectively; 1·41 (95 % CI 1·13, 1·75) and 3·05 (95 % CI 2·35, 3·97) for participants with CT and TT v. CC genotype at MTHFR 677C → T polymorphism, respectively. These results demonstrate that the prevalence of HHCY is considerably high in Chinese northerners, especially in TT subjects, suggesting that implementation of tHcy-lowering strategies, such as lifestyle changes, is necessary.
A solid-state nanopore was integrated into an optofluidic sensor chip, liquid-core anti-resonant reflecting optical waveguide (ARROW). The solid-state nanopore worked as a smart gate, which simultaneously provided characteristic electrical signals and controlled the entry of single nanoparticles into the liquid-core channel. The subsequent fluorescence detection further identified the nanoparticles by providing optical signals within a specific wavelength range. In this work, correlated electrical and optical detection of single nanoparticles, H1N1 viruses, and λ-DNA molecules was demonstrated. Different types of particles in a mixture were successfully discriminated. Moreover, the flow velocity in the liquid-core channel was extracted with the help of combined analysis of electrical and optical signals. Enhanced electrical sensitivity using a solid-state nanopore with a thin limiting aperture sculpted by SiO2 deposition was also shown.