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The microbiota–gut–brain axis, especially the microbial tryptophan (Trp) biosynthesis and metabolism pathway (MiTBamp), may play a critical role in the pathogenesis of major depressive disorder (MDD). However, studies on the MiTBamp in MDD are lacking. The aim of the present study was to analyze the gut microbiota composition and the MiTBamp in MDD patients.
We performed shotgun metagenomic sequencing of stool samples from 26 MDD patients and 29 healthy controls (HCs). In addition to the microbiota community and the MiTBamp analyses, we also built a classification based on the Random Forests (RF) and Boruta algorithm to identify the gut microbiota as biomarkers for MDD.
The Bacteroidetes abundance was strongly reduced whereas that of Actinobacteria was significantly increased in the MDD patients compared with the abundance in the HCs. Most noteworthy, the MDD patients had increased levels of Bifidobacterium, which is commonly used as a probiotic. Four Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) orthologies (KOs) (K01817, K11358, K01626, K01667) abundances in the MiTBamp were significantly lower in the MDD group. Furthermore, we found a negative correlation between the K01626 abundance and the HAMD scores in the MDD group. Finally, RF classification at the genus level can achieve an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.890.
The present findings enabled a better understanding of the changes in gut microbiota and the related Trp pathway in MDD. Alterations of the gut microbiota may have the potential as biomarkers for distinguishing MDD patients form HCs.
Disaster can strike people in any community at any time anywhere in the world. Disasters occur with high frequency, take on multiple forms, and exert wide influence, typically causing property damage, injuries, and death. As the world’s largest developing country, China incurs great costs when a disaster hits. After the Wenchuan earthquake in 2008, the Chinese government focused its attention on the construction of an emergency response system, the creation of disaster prevention and mitigation systems, and the development of a disaster medicine program. Here, we describe the current status of disaster medicine in China, focusing on the following four aspects: the Emergency Management System, Education & Training, Rescue Practices, and Research. We also discuss the future of disaster medicine in China. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018;12:157–165)
The present study aimed to explore the associations between food away-from-home (FAFH) consumption and body weight outcomes among Chinese adults.
FAFH was defined as food prepared at restaurants and the percentage of energy from FAFH was calculated. Measured BMI and waist circumference (WC) were used as body weight outcomes. Quantile regression models for BMI and WC were performed separately by gender.
Information on demographic, socio-economic, diet and health parameters at individual, household and community levels was collected in twelve provinces of China.
A cross-sectional sample of 7738 non-pregnant individuals aged 18–60 years from the China Health and Nutrition Survey 2011 was analysed.
For males, quantile regression models showed that percentage of energy from FAFH was associated with an increase in BMI of 0·01, 0·01, 0·01, 0·02, 0·02 and 0·03 kg/m2 at the 5th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th and 95th quantile, and an increase in WC of 0·04, 0·06, 0·06, 0·04, 0·06, 0·05 and 0·07 cm at the 5th, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th and 95th quantile. For females, percentage of energy from FAFH was associated with 0·01, 0·01, 0·01 and 0·02 kg/m2 increase in BMI at the 10th, 25th, 90th and 95th quantile, and with 0·05, 0·04, 0·03 and 0·03 cm increase in WC at the 5th, 10th, 25th and 75th quantile.
Our findings suggest that FAFH consumption is relatively more important for BMI and WC among males rather than females in China. Public health initiatives are needed to encourage Chinese adults to make healthy food choices when eating out.
Accumulating evidence suggests that altered immunity contributes to the
development of major depressive disorder (MDD).
To examine whether complement factor H (CFH), a regulator of activation
of the alternative pathway of the complement cascade, confers
susceptibility to MDD.
Expression analyses were tested in 53 unmedicated people with MDD and 55
healthy controls. A two-stage genetic association analysis was performed
in 3323 Han Chinese with or without MDD. Potential associations between
CFH single nucleotide polymorphisms and age at MDD
onset were evaluated.
CFH levels were significantly lower in the MDD group at
both protein and mRNA levels (P = 0.009 and
P = 0.014 respectively). A regulatory variant in the
CFH gene, rs1061170, showed statistically significant
genotypic and allelic differences between the MDD and control groups
(genotypic P = 0.0005, allelic P =
0.0001). Kaplan–Meier survival analysis showed that age at onset of MDD
was significantly associated with the C allele of
rs1061170 (log rank statistic χ2 = 6.82, P =
0.009). The C-allele carriers had a younger age at onset
of MDD (22.2 years, s.d. = 4.0) than those without the C
allele (23.6 years, s.d. = 4.3).
CFH is likely to play an important role in the
development of MDD. rs1061170 has an important effect on age at onset of
MDD in Han Chinese and may therefore be related to early pathogenesis of
MDD, although further study is needed.
Experimental X-ray powder diffraction data, unit-cell parameters, and space group for [C6Trop]+[PF6]−, C14H27NOPF6, are reported [a = 16.1879(6) Å, b = 11.4271(2) Å, c = 10.3966(5) Å, α = 66.4949(3)°, β = 94.5589(0)°, γ = 93.3092(4)°, unit-cell volume V = 1923.17 Å3, Z = 1, and space group P1]. No detectable impurities were observed.
The authors investigated the effects of annealing in Ar atmosphere at different temperatures (350–1100 °C) on the densification and leakage current characteristics of thermally oxidized SiO2 films on n-type 4H-SiC. A strong correlation between densification improvement and leakage current reduction was observed. Densification of the SiO2 films, which were characterized by spectroscopic ellipsometry, Fouriertransform infrared spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy, can be significantly improved after annealing at moderate temperature (600 °C). The leakage current is decreased by two orders of magnitude of the SiO2 thin film after annealing at 600 °C. Based on the studies, SiO2 film of the highest quality can be obtained after annealing at 600 °C. Improvements in the quality of the SiO2 thin films after annealing at 600 °C may be explained by the consumption and formation of carbon-related and oxygen-related defects during annealing.
Spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) have the ability to self-renew and offer a pathway for genetic engineering of the male germ line. Cryopreservation of SSCs has potential value for the treatment of male infertility, spermatogonial transplantation, and so on. In order to investigate the cryopreservation effects of different cryoprotectants on murine SSCs, 0.2 M of low-density lipoproteins (LDL), trehalose and soybean lecithin were added to the cryoprotective medium, respectively, and the murine SSCs were frozen at −80°C or −196°C. The results indicated that the optimal recovery rates of murine SSCs in the cryoprotective medium supplemented with LDL, trehalose and soybean lecithin were 92.53, 76.35 and 75.48% at −80°C, respectively. Compared with freezing at −196°C, the optimum temperature for improvement of recovery rates of frozen murine SSCs, cryopreservation in three different cryoprotectants at −80°C, were 17.11, 6.68 and 10.44% respectively. The recovery rates of murine SSCs in the cryoprotective medium supplemented with 0.2 M LDL were significantly higher than that of other cryoprotectants (P < 0.05). Moreover, the recovery rates were demonstrated to be greater at −80°C compared with at −196°C (P < 0.05). In conclusion, 0.2 M of LDL could significantly protect murine SSCs at −80°C. In the freezing–thawing process, LDL is responsible for the cryopreservation of murine SSCs because it can form a protective film at the surface of membranes. However, more research is needed to evaluate and understand the precise role of LDL during the freezing–thawing of SSCs.
Pregnancy is a condition exhibiting increased susceptibility to oxidative stress, and Fe plays a central role in generating harmful oxygen species. The objective of the present study is to investigate the changes in haematological status, oxidative stress and erythrocyte membrane fluidity in anaemic pregnant women after Fe supplementation with and without combined vitamins. The study was a 2 months double-blind, randomised trial. Pregnant women (n 164) were allocated to four groups: group C was the placebo control group; group I was supplemented daily with 60 mg Fe (ferrous sulphate) daily; group IF was supplemented daily with Fe plus 400 μg folic acid; group IM was supplemented daily with Fe plus 2 mg retinol and 1 mg riboflavin, respectively. After the 2-month trial, Hb significantly increased by 15·8, 17·3 and 21·8 g/l, and ferritin by 2·8, 3·6 and 11·0 μg/l, in the I, IF and IM groups compared with placebo. Polarisation (ρ) and microviscosity (η) decreased significantly in other groups compared with placebo, indicating an increase in membrane fluidity. Significant decreases of ρ and η values compared with group C were 0·033 and 0·959 for group I, 0·037 and 1·074 for group IF and 0·064 and 1·865 for group IM, respectively. In addition, significant increases of glutathione peroxidase activities and decreases of malondialdehyde were shown in all treated groups, as well as increases of plasma retinol and urine riboflavin in group IM. The findings show that supplementation with Fe and particularly in combination with vitamins could improve the haematological status as well as oxidative stress and erythrocyte membrane fluidity.
To identify the disease-causing gene for a large multi-generational Chinese family affected by familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (FHCM), genome-wide screening was carried out in a Chinese family with FHCM using micro-satellite markers, and linkage analysis was performed using the MLINK program. The disease locus was mapped to 1q32 in this family. Screening for a mutation in the cardiac troponin T (cTnT) gene was performed by a PCR and sequencing was done with an ABI Prism 3700 sequencer. A novel C→G transition located in the ninth exon of the cTnT gene, leading to a predicted amino acid residue change from Ile to Met at codon 90, was identified in all individuals with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). The results presented here strongly suggest that Ile90Met, a novel mutation in the cTnT gene, is causative agent of HCM in this family.
The strategies of repair of tetralogy of Fallot change with the age of patients. In children older than 4 years and adults, the optimal strategy may be to use different method of reconstruction of the right ventricular outflow tract from those followed in younger children, so as to avoid, or reduce, the pulmonary insufficiency that is increasingly known to compromise right ventricular function.
From April, 2001, through May, 2008, we undertook complete repair in 312 patients, 180 male and 132 female, with a mean age of 11.3 years ±0.4 years, and a range from 4 to 48 years, with typical clinical and morphological features of tetralogy of Fallot, including 42 patients with the ventriculo-arterial connection of double outlet right ventricle. The operation was performed under moderate hypothermia using blood cardioplegia. The ventricular septal defect was closed with a Dacron patch. When it was considered necessary to resect the musculature within the right ventricular outflow tract, or perform pulmonary valvotomy, we sought to preserve the function of the pulmonary valve by protecting as far as possible the native leaflets, or creating a folded monocusp of autologous pericardium.
The repair was achieved completely through right atrium in 192, through the right ventricular outflow tract in 83, and through the right atrium, the outflow tract, and the pulmonary trunk in 36 patients. A transjunctional patch was inserted in 169 patients, non-valved in all but 9. There were no differences regarding the periods of aortic cross-clamping or cardiopulmonary bypass. Of the patients, 5 died (1.6%), with no influence noted for the transjunctional patch. Of those having a non-valved patch inserted, three-tenths had pulmonary regurgitation of various degree, while those having a valved patch had minimal pulmonary insufficiency and good right ventricular function postoperatively, this being maintained after follow-up of 8 to 24-months.
Based on our experience, we suggest that the current strategy of repair of tetralogy of Fallot in older children and adults should be based on minimizing the insertion of transjunctional patches, this being indicated only in those with very small ventriculo-pulmonary junctions. If such a patch is necessary, then steps should be taken to preserve the function of the pulmonary valve.
HbUEP, an ubiquitin extension protein gene from latex of the rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) was cloned and sequenced using a differentially ethphon-induced expressed cDNA subtraction library. The cDNA had 771 bp nucleotides, comprising a 226 bp 3′ untranslated region (UTR), 77 bp 5′UTR and a 468 bp open reading frame encoding a 156 amino acid peptide. Southern blotting analysis showed that this gene was a low copy number gene in the H. brasiliensis genome. Within 24 h after application of ethphon, the gene was expressed weakly in both control and latex sampled at 6 h, and strongly in latex sampled at 12 h, showing that this gene expression could be regulated by ethphon. Ethphon could increase the latex yield in H. brasiliensis. It is suggested that the HbUEP gene may be involved in the regulation of ethphon-induced high latex yield in H. brasiliensis.
Sn whiskers can form at room temperature on the agglomerated flakes produced by mechanical alloying (MA) of Ti, Sn, and C powders, whether the flakes are stored in air or water. The Sn whiskers forming in air are tens of micrometers to several centimeters in length and 0.5 to ∼10 μm in diameter. Whereas a large amount of Sn polyhedra forms on the flakes that are stored in water, a small amount of Sn whiskers forms on the polyhedra. The driving force for Sn whisker formation is the compressive stress induced by mechanical alloying (MA) and oxidation. The mechanism about the spontaneous growth of metal whiskers is discussed.
An open-loop system of a multidimensional wave equation
with variable coefficients, partial boundary Dirichlet control and
collocated observation is considered. It is shown that the system is
well-posed in the sense of D. Salamon and regular in the sense of G.
Weiss. The Riemannian geometry method is used in the proof of
regularity and the feedthrough operator is explicitly computed.
To evaluate the effects of H5 subtype avian influenza DNA vaccine with HA gene and expressive vector optimization, groups of 3-week-old specific pathogen free (SPF) chickens were inoculated intramuscularly with a single dose of 100 μg or 10 μg of pCIHA5, pCAGGHA5, pCIoptiHA5 or pCAGGoptiHA5 in 200 μl volume. Another group of chickens was injected with 200 μl phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) as controls. Sera were collected every week after vaccination to detect the HI and agar-gel precipitin (AGP) antibodies. Four weeks after the single vaccination, all chickens were challenged with 100LD50 of the highly pathogenic A/Goose/GuangDong/1/96(H5N1) [Gs/GD/1/96(H5N1)]. Oropharyngeal and cloacal swab specimens were collected from all chickens 3, 5 and 7 days after inoculation for titration of virus in eggs. Chickens were observed daily for 2 weeks for signs of disease and death. Results showed that in the groups vaccinated with 100 μg pCAGGoptiHA5 and pCAGGHA5 chickens were completely protected from virus challenge (no disease signs, no virus shedding and no deaths), while only partial protection occurred in chickens vaccinated with 100 μg pCIoptiHA5 (75%) and pCIHA5 (50%). In groups vaccinated with 10 μg pCAGGoptiHA5 and pCAGGHA5 chickens were protected from virus challenge (no disease signs and no deaths). In the group vaccinated with 10 μg pCIoptiHA5 the protection ratio was 75%, while chickens vaccinated with 10 μg pCIHA5 all died after challenge. Results indicated that codon usage optimization of the HA gene and β-actin promoter enhanced the protection efficiency of H5 subtype avian influenza DNA vaccine and the construction pCAGGoptiHA5 could protect chickens from lethal H5N1 virus challenge even at the low dose of 10 μg, implying the possibility for the commercialization of an avian influenza DNA vaccine in the near future.
Alternative splicing is an important cellular mechanism that increases the diversity of gene products. The study of alternatively spliced genes reported so far in plants is far less documented than that in mammals, but considerable results have been reported, showing the role of these genes in regulating mechanisms, influencing factors, and specificities and function of alternative splicing in plants. This review summarizes briefly the major progress made on alternative splicing in plants.
Zr/Ti an Hf/Ti composite nitrate were developed as single-source precursors for deposition of multi-component metal oxide films. X-ray diffraction (XRD), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses confirmed that ZrxTi1-xO2 and HfxTi1-xO2 films were successfully prepared by the CVD technique from these composite precursors. The Zr/Ti nitrate can be taken as a solid solution of the individual Zr and Ti nitrate, and the Zr/Ti molar ratio in as-deposited ZrxTi1-xO2 films is nicely consistent with that of the precursor. The Hf/Ti nitrate appears to be a mixture of the Zr and Ti nitrates and the composition of the as-deposited HfxTi1-xO2 films depends remarkably on the heating time of precursor. Both ZrxTi1-xO2 and HfxTi1-xO2 films exhibit trading-off properties between band gap and dielectric constant, which suggesting that ZrxTi1-xO2 and HfxTi1-xO2 can be the promising candidates for gate dielectric application to improve the scalability and reduce the leakage current of the next generation complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor transistor (CMOS) devices.
Tests were conducted to highlight the effects of donor cell treatment (bovine G0- and non-G0 phase somatic cells refrigerated for 1–5 or 12–14 days at 4°C), fusion solution (with or without cytochalasin B) and age of the rabbit (young, 3–5-months old; or multiparous, 10–12 months old) as oocyte donor on the fusion and mortality rates of bovine–rabbit interspecies reconstructed eggs. Results showed that there were no significant differences (P>0.05) in fusion and mortality rates of eggs reconstructed with G0 cells or non-G0 cells as nuclear donor somatic cells. The same was also true when nuclear donor somatic cells (G0 cells or non-G0 cells) were treated at low temperature (4°C) for 1–5 or 12–14 days. The fusion rate of reconstructed eggs did not change significantly (P>0.05) when adding cytochalasin B into the fusion solution, but the mortality rate increased significantly (P<0.05). No significant effect (P>0.05) was found in fusion rate of the eggs reconstructed with young rabbits' and multiparous rabbits' oocytes as recipient, but the mortality rate decreased significantly (P<0.01) for young rabbit oocytes compared with multiparous rabbit ones.
In order to verify Van de Walle and Jackson's theory on the isotope effect of the Si-H/D bonds resistant to hot-electron excitation [Appl. Phys. Lett., 69, 2441 (1996)], we measured the Si-H, Si-D, and other vibrational modes in oxidized silicon wafers annealed in hydrogen and deuterium using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometry. Our FTIR data suggest that the frequency for the Si-D bending mode at the SiO2/Si interface is 490 cm−1. Our experimental data support Van de Walle and Jackson's theory with some modification. Their theory is correct for the experiments of breaking Si-H/D bonds using scanning tunneling microscope (STM) where no oxide is involved. In the SiO2/Si case, the de-excitation of the Si-D bond may be due to the energy coupling from the Si-D bending mode to two vibrational modes; i.e., the Si-O TO mode and the Si-Si TO phonon mode. Van de Walle and Jackson only pointed out coupling to the Si-Si TO phonon mode. The strongest coupling might happen between the Si-D mode and the Si-O TO mode. Therefore, the oxide may play a crucial role in energy dissipation of the Si-D bond in metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) devices.