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Identifying risk factors and mortality of individuals with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) could have important implications for the clinical management of AD.
This pilot study aimed to examine the overall mortality of AD patients over a 10-year surveillance period in Shanghai, China. This study is an extension of our previous investigation on mortality of neurodegenerative diseases.
One hundred and thirty-two AD patients recruited from the memory clinics of two hospitals in Shanghai in 2007 were followed up until December 31, 2017 or death, representing a follow-up period of up to 10 years. Overall standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated, and predictors for survival at recruitment were estimated.
Sixty-seven patients had died by December 31, 2017, and the SMR at 10 years of follow-up was 1.225 (95% confidence interval 0.944–1.563). Employing Cox’s proportional hazard modeling, lower Mini-Mental State Examination score, and comorbid diabetes predicted poor survival in this cohort.
This pilot study suggests a similar survival trend of patients with AD compared to the general population in Shanghai urban region. Poor cognitive status and comorbid diabetes had a negative impact on the survival of AD patients.
Synaptotagmin 1 (Syt1) is an abundant and important presynaptic vesicle protein that binds Ca2+ for the regulation of synaptic vesicle exocytosis. Our previous study reported its localization and function on spindle assembly in mouse oocyte meiotic maturation. The present study was designed to investigate the function of Syt1 during mouse oocyte activation and subsequent cortical granule exocytosis (CGE) using confocal microscopy, morpholinol-based knockdown and time-lapse live cell imaging. By employing live cell imaging, we first studied the dynamic process of CGE and calculated the time interval between [Ca2+]i rise and CGE after oocyte activation. We further showed that Syt1 was co-localized to cortical granules (CGs) at the oocyte cortex. After oocyte activation with SrCl2, the Syt1 distribution pattern was altered significantly, similar to the changes seen for the CGs. Knockdown of Syt1 inhibited [Ca2+]i oscillations, disrupted the F-actin distribution pattern and delayed the time of cortical reaction. In summary, as a synaptic vesicle protein and calcium sensor for exocytosis, Syt1 acts as an essential regulator in mouse oocyte activation events including the generation of Ca2+ signals and CGE.
The present study examines the characteristics of clay minerals in shale gas reservoirs and their influence on reservoir properties based on X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. These analyses were combined with optical microscopy observations and core and well-log data to investigate the genesis, distribution characteristics, main controlling factors and pore features of clay minerals of the Lower Silurian Longmaxi Formation in the East Sichuan area, China. The clay mineral assemblage consists of illite + mixed-layer illite-smectite (I-S) + chlorite. This assemblage includes three sources of clay minerals: detrital, authigenic and diagenetic minerals. The lower section of the Longmaxi Formation in the Jiaoshiba area has sealing ability which resulted in abnormal high pressures during hydrocarbon generation which inhibited illitization. Therefore, an anomalous transformation sequence is present in which the mixed-layer I-S content increases with depth. This anomalous transformation sequence can be used to infer the existence of abnormal high pressures. The detrital components of the formation also affect the clay-minerals content indirectly, especially the abundance of K-feldspar. The transformation of mixed-layer I-S to illite is limited due to the limited availability of K+, which determines the extent of transformation. Three types of pores were observed in the shale reservoir rocks of the Longmaxi Formation: interparticle (interP) pores, intraparticle (intraP) pores and organic-matter pores. The clay-mineral content controls the development of intraP pores, which are dominated by pores within clay particles. For a given clay mineral content, smectite and mixed-layer I-S were more conducive to the development of shale-gas reservoirs than other clay minerals.
The metadynamic recrystallization (MDRX) behavior of a Nb–V microalloyed nonquenched and tempered steel was investigated by isothermal hot compression tests on Gleeble-1500 thermal-mechanical simulator. Compression tests were performed using double hit schedules at temperatures of 1273–1423 K, strain rates of 0.01–5 s−1, initial grain sizes of 92–149 μm and an inter-pass time of 0.5–10 s. The experimental results show that MDRX softening fraction increases with the increasing of deformation temperature, strain rate, and inter-pass time, while it decreases with the increasing of initial grain size. Based on the experimental results, the MDRX softening fraction kinetic model and recrystallized grain size model of the tested steel was established. Besides, using the above mathematic models, a finite element model was built to simulate the MDRX process of the tested steel. The simulation results show good agreement with the experimental ones, which indicates that finite element method is an effective approach to analyze the MDRX behavior and the established that mathematic models of the tested steel are reliable and accurate.
In traditional antenna design, metal components are not placed in the central part of the antenna as they change the characteristics of near field radiation. However, we show that placing a metal ring in the centre of the strip lines, which connect the ends of folded high-frequency dipoles, does not damage the performance of the feed. Instead it significantly improves the voltage standing wave ratio of the feed whilst other performance indicators are not compromised. Thus, our findings show an excellent way of improving the wide band feed. Based on this foundation, a new circularly polarised feed for operation between 0.4 to 2 GHz is introduced for the Chinese Spectral Radioheliograph in this paper. The issue of a feed impedance matching network is investigated. By optimising the impedance matching, the performance of the feed is enhanced with respect to the previous realisations of the Eleven feed. The simulation and experimental results show that the gain of the feed is about 10 dBi, and the VSWR is less than 2:1. In addition, the feed has a low axial ratio, fixed phase centre location, and constant beam width in the range of 0.4 to 2 GHz.
In this study, the effects of HA combined with NPK fertilizer (HANPK) on root growth and leaf quality of tobacco plants were investigated in tobacco fields. Results indicated that the application of HA alone did not enhance the growth of tobacco obviously, while HANPK increased tobacco biomass by 36.9% and stimulated the growth of lateral roots significantly. The number of the second-order lateral roots was increased by 89.3% compared with the control. Furthermore, HANPK raised the ratio of root biomass in 0–20 cm soil layer over the whole soil layer and increased the proportion of fine roots over the total roots. Tobacco leaf yield, output value, and benefit of HANPK were 12.2%, 29.4% and 35.5% higher than those of the control, respectively. The above results suggest that the combined application of HA and NPK chemical fertilizer is an economical pattern for improving tobacco growth.
The Chinese Spectral Radioheliograph is an aperture-synthesis telescope observing the Sun in ultra wide bandwidth on the ground. It contains two arrays Chinese Spectral Radioheliograph-I and Chinese Spectral Radioheliograph-II from 0.4 to 15 GHz. In order to obtain ultra wide-band performance, the cascaded folded dipoles are used in this feed. At the same time, in order to get circularly polarised signals coming from the Sun, a wide-band 90° hybrid is added in the output ports of the feed. This feed has characteristics of about 10 dBi gain, less than 1.5 voltage standing wave ratio. It also has characteristics with low axial ratio, fixed phase centre location, and constant beam width in operating frequencies. Through cross-correlating all combinations of two orthogonal polarisations at each antenna, the polarisation state of the waves is measured and give a differential instrumental delay between two data channels. The relationship between the own polarisation degree of the Sun and the observed polarisation degree is also measured for cross-polarised delay in observing the Sun in this paper.
A study of 7,388 consecutive patients after hepatic resection between 2011 and 2012 identified hepatolithiasis, cirrhosis, and intraoperative blood transfusion as the only independent risk factors of both incisional and organ/space surgical site infection (SSI). Patients with these conditions should be cared for with caution to lower SSI rates.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic effects of osteopontin neutralization treatment on schistosome-induced liver injury in BALB/C mice. We randomly divided 100 BALB/C mice into groups A, B, C, D and group E. Mice in all groups except group A were abdominally infected with schistosomal cercariae to induce a schistosomal hepatopathological model. Mice in group C, D and group E were respectively administered with praziquantel, praziquantel plus colchicine and praziquantel plus neutralizing osteopontin antibody. We extracted mouse liver tissues at 3 and 9 weeks after the ‘stool-eggs-positive’ day, observed liver histopathological changes by haematoxylin-eosin and Masson trichrome staining and detected the expression of osteopontin, alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β1) by immunohistochemistry, RT-PCR and Western blot. We found that praziquantel plus neutralizing osteopontin antibody treatment significantly decreased the granuloma dimension, the percentage of collagen and the expression of osteopontin, α-SMA and TGF-β1 compared to praziquantel plus colchicine treatment in both the acute and chronic stage of schistosomal liver damage (P<0·05). So we believe that the combined regimen of osteopontin immunoneutralization and anti-helminthic treatment can reduce the granulomatous response and liver fibrosis during the schistosomal hepatopathologic course.
The meta-foil is an all-metal self-supported electromagnetic metamaterial that features a space-grid that is locally stiff, yet globally flexible. Owing to its mechanical, thermal, chemical and radiative robustness, it lends itself to widespread applications.
The population doubling number (70–80 times) of human fetal bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) is about two times higher than that (30–40 times) of adult BMMSCs, and their differentiation capacity is superior to that of their adult counterparts. In this study, BMMSCs were isolated from long bones of 2- to 3-month-old human abortuses by rinsing and selectively culturing whole marrow cells. Basic medium and serum concentration were optimized and growth curves plotted, both by MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-di-phenyltetrazolium bromide] reduction assay. Isolated cells were identified by flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry for their antigen markers. The biosafety of isolated cells was evaluated by karyotype analysis and a tumour-forming experiment. The results indicated that lengthwise scissoring of fetal long bones and rinsing of their marrow cells was practical and useful for recovery of BMMSCs from the investigated human abortuses. In this experiment, α-MEM (minimum essential medium, alpha medium)+20% FCS (fetal calf serum) was the best for in vitro culture of BMMSCs. The third-passage BMMSCs expressed Oct4, SSEA3 and SSEA4 besides the surface markers of their adult counterparts. The population doubling time of the BMMSCs of passage 6, 12 and 24 were 34, 36 and 40 h, respectively. Cells in all passages showed a diploid karyotype and formed no tumours in nude mice. The BMMSCs used in this study proved to be biologically safe and ideal seed cells for research on human tissue engineering and regeneration medicine.
Medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoates (mcl-PHAs) belong to the group of microbial polyesters. The key enzyme for mcl-PHA biosynthesis is type II PHA synthase. The gene phaC2 encoding type II PHA synthase was placed under the control of psbA-pro and psbA-ter of rice (Oryza sativa) to construct a phaC2 cassette, which was ligated with the screening marker gene aadA cassette (prrn–aadA–TpsbA-ter). These recombined fragments were cloned between the plastid rbcL and accD genes for targeting to the large single copy region of the chloroplast genome. A chloroplast transformation vector, pTC2, was constructed and introduced into the tobacco (Nicotiana tobacum) chloroplast genome by particle bombardment. PCR and Southern blot analysis confirmed stable integration of phaC2 into the chloroplast genomes of T0 and T1 transgenic plants, and T1 transgenic plants exhibited homoplasmy. The expression of phaC2 at transcription level was detected by reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Recombinant transgenes in the tobacco chloroplast genome were maternally inherited and were not transmitted via pollen when out-crossed with untransformed female plants. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the stable transformation of phaC2 encoding type II PHA synthase in tobacco via chloroplast genetic engineering.
Increasing the growth rate is especially important for low-quality wood applications, so this has become an important goal in poplar breeding. The present study describes the transfer of Vitreoscilla haemoglobin (VHb) gene (vgb) driven by constitutive promoters, by Agrobacterium tumefaciens into poplar (Populus alba×P. glandulosa). From about 450 leaf discs used for transformation, 60 Kan-resistant plants were obtained, and 52 proved to be true transgenic plants. The transgenic nature of these plants was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and Southern dot blot hybridization. The expression of vgb gene in transgenic plants was confirmed by reverse transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR). The performance of the transgenic lines was evaluated during the first year of growth in a greenhouse. These plants showed no significant stable morphological differences from the untransformed plants. Among them, three vgb-transgenic lines exhibited noticeably higher growth rates in terms of height and diameter.
In this article, a new algorithm for obtaining the maximum likelihood estimators (MLEs) of parameters in the joint segregation analysis (JSA) of multiple generations of P1, F1, P2, F2 and F2[ratio ]3 (MG5) for quantitative traits was set up. Firstly, owing to the fact that the component variance of the heterogeneous genotype in F2[ratio ]3 included both the first-order genetic parameters (denoted by the means of distributions) and the second-order parameters, a simple closed form for the MLEs of the means of component distributions did not exist while the expectation and maximization (EM) algorithm was used. To simplify the estimation of parameters, the first partial derivative of the above variance on the mean in the sample log-likelihood function was omitted. However, this would be remedied by the iterated method. Then, variances of component distributions for segregating populations were partitioned into major-gene, polygenic and environmental variances so that the generally iterated formulae for estimating the means as well as polygenic and environmental variances of component distributions in the maximization step (M-step) of the EM algorithm were obtained. Therefore, the EM algorithm for estimating parameters in the JSA model for the MG5 was simplified. This is called the expectation and iterated maximization (EIM) algorithm. Finally, an example of the inheritance of the resistance of soybean to beanfly showed that the results of mixed inheritance analysis in this paper coincided with those in both Wang & Gai (2001) and Wei et al. (1989), so the EIM algorithm was appropriate.
In this paper, we report on a study of the surface effect on nanoindentation and introduce the apparent surface stress that represents the energy dissipated per unit area of a solid surface in a nanoindentation test. The work done by an applied indentation load contains both bulk and surface work. Surface work, which is related to the apparent surface stress and the size and geometry of an indenter tip, is necessary in the deformation of a solid surface. Good agreement is found between theoretical first-order approximations and empirical data on depth-dependent hardness, indicating that the apparent surface stress plays an important role in depth-dependent hardness. In addition, we introduce a critical indentation depth. The surface deformation predominates if the indentation depth is shallower than the critical depth, while the bulk deformation predominates when the indentation depth is deeper than the critical depth.
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