To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that is characterized by deficits in social interactions and perseverative and stereotypical behavior. Growing evidence points toward a critical role for synaptic dysfunction in the onset of ASD, and synaptic function is influenced by glial cells. Considering the evidence that neuroinflammation in ASD is mediated by glial cells, one hypothesis is that reactive glial cells, under inflammatory conditions, contribute to the loss of synaptic functions and trigger ASD. Ongoing pharmacological treatments for ASD, including oxytocin, vitamin D, sulforaphane, and resveratrol, are promising and are shown to lead to improvements in behavioral performance in ASD. More importantly, their pharmacological mechanisms are closely related to anti-inflammation and synaptic protection. We focus this review on the hypothesis that synaptic dysfunction caused by reactive glial cells would lead to ASD, and discuss the potentials of antineuroinflammatory therapy for ASD.
Whether borderline personality disorder (BPD) and bipolar disorder are the same or different disorders lacks consistency.
To detect whether grey matter volume (GMV) and grey matter density (GMD) alterations show any similarities or differences between BPD and bipolar disorder.
Web-based publication databases were searched to conduct a meta-analysis of all voxel-based studies that compared BPD or bipolar disorder with healthy controls. We included 13 BPD studies (395 patients with BPD and 415 healthy controls) and 47 bipolar disorder studies (2111 patients with bipolar disorder and 3261 healthy controls). Peak coordinates from clusters with significant group differences were extracted. Effect-size signed differential mapping meta-analysis was performed to analyse peak coordinates of clusters and thresholds (P < 0.005, uncorrected). Conjunction analyses identified regions in which disorders showed common patterns of volumetric alteration. Correlation analyses were also performed.
Patients with BPD showed decreased GMV and GMD in the bilateral medial prefrontal cortex network (mPFC), bilateral amygdala and right parahippocampal gyrus; patients with bipolar disorder showed decreased GMV and GMD in the bilateral medial orbital frontal cortex (mOFC), right insula and right thalamus, and increased GMV and GMD in the right putamen. Multi-modal analysis indicated smaller volumes in both disorders in clusters in the right medial orbital frontal cortex. Decreased bilateral mPFC in BPD was partly mediated by patient age. Increased GMV and GMD of the right putamen was positively correlated with Young Mania Rating Scale scores in bipolar disorder.
Our results show different patterns of GMV and GMD alteration and do not support the hypothesis that bipolar disorder and BPD are on the same affective spectrum.
Evidence on the association between maternal Hb concentration and preterm birth (PTB) risk is inconclusive. This paper aimed to explore whether women with anaemia or high Hb level before pregnancy would be at higher risk of PTB. We conducted a population-based cohort study with 2 722 274 women aged 20–49 years, who participated in National Free Pre-Pregnancy Checkups Project between 2013 and 2015 and delivered a singleton before 2016 in rural China. Logistic models were used to estimate OR and 95 % CI after adjusting for confounding variables. Restricted cubic spline models were applied to evaluate the dose–response relationships. A total of 192 819 (7·08 %) women had preterm deliveries. Compared with women with Hb of 110–149 g/l, the multivariable-adjusted OR for PTB was 1·19 (95 % CI 0·98, 1·44) for women with Hb<70 g/l, 1·01 (95 % CI 0·97, 1·03) for 70–99 g/l, 0·96 (95 % CI 0·95, 0·98) for 100–109 g/l, 1·04 (95 % CI 1·01, 1·06) for 150–159 g/l, 1·11 (95 % CI 1·05, 1·17) for 160–169 g/l and 1·19 (95 % CI 1·11, 1·27) for ≥170 g/l, respectively. The multivariable-adjusted OR for very PTB (VPTB) was 1·07 (95 % CI 1·03, 1·12) and 1·06 (95 % CI 1·01, 1·12) for women with Hb <110 and ≥150 g/l, compared with those with Hb of 110–149 g/l, respectively. Our study identified a U-shaped relationship between maternal preconception Hb concentration and PTB risk. Both preconception anaemia and high Hb level can significantly increase VPTB risk. Appropriate intervention for women with abnormal Hb levels before pregnancy is very necessary.
Multi-wavelength flares have routinely been observed from the supermassive black hole, Sagittarius A⋆ (Sgr A⋆), at our Galactic center. The nature of these flares remains largely unclear, despite many theoretical models. We study the statistical properties of the Sgr A⋆ X-ray flares and find that they are consistent with the theoretical prediction of the self-organized criticality system with the spatial dimension S = 3. We suggest that the X-ray flares represent plasmoid ejections driven by magnetic reconnection (similar to solar flares) in the accretion flow onto the black hole. Motivated by the statistical results, we further develop a time-dependent magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model for the multi-band flares from Sgr A⋆ by analogy with models of solar flares/coronal mass ejections (CMEs). We calculate the X-ray, infrared flare light curves, and the spectra, and find that our model can explain the main features of the flares.
The present study aims to evaluate the antiparasitic activity of active components from Costus speciosus against Ichthyophthirius multifiliis. Bioassay-guided fractionation was employed to identify active compounds from C. speciosus yielding 2 bioactive compounds: Gracillin and Zingibernsis newsaponin. In-vitro assays revealed that Gracillin and Zingibernsis newsaponin could be 100% effective against I. multifiliis at concentrations of 0·8 and 4·5 mg L−1, with median effective concentration (EC50) values of 0·53 and 3·2 mg L−1, respectively. All protomonts and encysted tomonts were killed when the concentrations of Gracillin and Zingibernsis newsaponin were 1·0 and 5·0 mg L−1. In-vivo experiments demonstrated that fish treated with Gracillin and Zingibernsis newsaponin at concentrations of 1·0 and 5·0 mg L−1 carried significantly fewer parasites than the control (P<0·05). Mortality of fish did not occur in the treatment group (Zingibernsis newsaponin at 5·0 mg L−1) during the trial, although 100% of untreated fish died. Acute toxicities (LD50) of Gracillin and Zingibernsis newsaponin for grass carp were 1·64 and 20·7 mg L−1, respectively. These results provided evidence that the 2 compounds can be selected as lead compounds for the development of new drugs against I. multifiliis.
A method to design the composite insulation structures in pulsed power systems is proposed in this paper. The theoretical bases for this method include the Weibull statistical distribution and the empirical insulation formula. A uniform formula to describe the reliability (R) for different insulation media such as solid, liquid, gas, vacuum, and vacuum surface is derived. The dependence curves of the normalized applied field on R are also obtained. These curves show that the normalized applied field decreases rapidly as R increases but the declining rates corresponding to different insulation media are different. In addition, if R is required to be higher than a given level, the normalized applied field should be smaller than a certain value. In practical design, the common range of the applied fields for different insulation media should be chosen to meet a global reliability requirement. In the end, the proposed method is demonstrated with a specific coaxial high-voltage vacuum insulator.
A model for predicting the austenite grain growth during a common heating process including continuous and isothermal heating processes in medium carbon alloy steel 42CrMo was developed. The isothermal austenite grain growth kinetics were studied with conditions involving soaking time and soaking temperature. The time exponent n in the model was obtained considering the influence of the initial grain size rather than simply utilizing Beck’s equation. The results showed that the value of the time exponent n is 3.55 ± 0.30 when the temperature is above 1000 °C, while the value is 8.33 when the temperature is below 1000 °C. When the temperature is below 1000 °C, the pinning effect of carbides contributes to the higher value of the time exponent. Based on the isothermal model and the rule of additivity, a model for predicting the grain growth occurring during continuous heating was proposed. A reasonable agreement between the calculations and experimental measurements of grain size was obtained. According to the model, the effect of the initial austenite grain size on the final austenite grain size during induction quenching was analyzed. The initial austenite grain size has a significant effect on the final austenite grain size. In order to obtain a refined quenched microstructure, it is necessary to refine the microstructure at room temperature.
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of lutein and lycopene supplementation on carotid artery intima–media thickness (CAIMT) in subjects with subclinical atherosclerosis. A total of 144 subjects aged 45–68 years were recruited from local communities. All the subjects were randomly assigned to receive 20 mg lutein/d (n 48), 20 mg lutein/d+20 mg lycopene/d (n 48) or placebo (n 48) for 12 months. CAIMT was measured using Doppler ultrasonography at baseline and after 12 months, and serum lutein and lycopene concentrations were determined using HPLC. Serum lutein concentrations increased significantly from 0·34 to 1·96 μmol/l in the lutein group (P< 0·001) and from 0·35 to 1·66 μmol/l in the combination group (P< 0·001). Similarly, serum lycopene concentrations increased significantly from 0·18 to 0·71 μmol/l in the combination group at month 12 (P< 0·001), whereas no significant change was observed in the placebo group. The mean values of CAIMT decreased significantly by 0·035 mm (P= 0·042) and 0·073 mm (P< 0·001) in the lutein and combination groups at month 12, respectively. The change in CAIMT was inversely associated with the increase in serum lutein concentrations (P< 0·05) in both the active treatment groups and with that in serum lycopene concentrations (β = − 0·342, P= 0·031) in the combination group. Lutein and lycopene supplementation significantly increased the serum concentrations of lutein and lycopene with a decrease in CAIMT being associated with both concentrations. In addition, the combination of lutein and lycopene supplementation was more effective than lutein alone for protection against the development of CAIMT in Chinese subjects with subclinical atherosclerosis, and further studies are needed to confirm whether synergistic effects of lutein and lycopene exist.
The aim of this study was to evaluate and to compare testicular tissue in immunized and control boars. Eighteen male piglets, aged 12 weeks, were vaccinated twice intramuscularly with a maltose-binding protein–gonadotropin-releasing hormone I hexamer peptide (MBP-GnRH-I6). Blood samples were taken at 12, 18, 21 and 24 weeks of age. Serum concentrations of testosterone and GnRH-I antibodies were determined by radioimmunoassay. The pigs were sacrificed 6 weeks after the second immunization. Testicular weight and size were recorded and tissue samples were collected for histological examination. The results demonstrated that active immunization against MBP-GnRH-I6 increased serum GnRH-I antibody levels (P < 0.05) and reduced serum concentrations of testosterone (P < 0.05) when compared with controls. Histological studies performed on testicular tissue revealed clear signs of atrophy in the MBP-GnRH-I6 immunized pigs, and a significant reduction (P < 0.05) in paired testes weight and size were seen in the treated boars. Microscopically, the mean diameter of the seminiferous tubules was markedly reduced (P < 0.01). Spermatogonia were visible, as well as few spermatocytes, but no spermatozoa were detected in the seminiferous tubules. Ultramicroscopic analysis of testicular tissue revealed an increase in the thickness of the basement membrane and extensive damage in the cell organelles of the treated animals, including small spermatogonial size, decreased number of mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum in the primary spermatocyte and spermatid, a shallow hollow for nuclear membranes in Sertoli cells and mitochondrial vacuolation in Leydig cells. We conclude that MBP-GnRH-I6 induces severe atrophy in the testes of immunized boars.
Neurosyphilis (NS) may present with neuropsychiatric disorders characterized by cognitive impairment, personality disorders, and confusion, among others. Very few studies have focused on neuropsychiatric disorders secondary to NS in elderly people.
A retrospective chart review was performed to characterize the psychiatric findings, clinical signs and symptoms, laboratory findings, and brain magnetic resonance imaging results of ten elderly inpatients with NS.
In these ten patients, the most common presenting symptoms included a wide variety of psychiatric manifestations. The serum rapid plasma regain (RPR) and Treponema pallidum particle agglutination assay (TPPA) of the ten patients were positive, with positive CSF TPPA and RPR rates of 100% and 60%, respectively. In addition, 90% of the patients demonstrated abnormal imaging, including cerebral atrophy, infarct ischemic stroke, and hydrocephalus.
Our findings support the importance of serological tests for syphilis as a routine component of the evaluation of patients with clinically evident neurological or psychiatric symptoms. If the serology is positive, all of the patients should be examined with a lumbar puncture. Moreover, psychiatric illnesses secondary to NS in the elderly also deserve medical attention.
The authors investigated the effects of annealing in Ar atmosphere at different temperatures (350–1100 °C) on the densification and leakage current characteristics of thermally oxidized SiO2 films on n-type 4H-SiC. A strong correlation between densification improvement and leakage current reduction was observed. Densification of the SiO2 films, which were characterized by spectroscopic ellipsometry, Fouriertransform infrared spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy, can be significantly improved after annealing at moderate temperature (600 °C). The leakage current is decreased by two orders of magnitude of the SiO2 thin film after annealing at 600 °C. Based on the studies, SiO2 film of the highest quality can be obtained after annealing at 600 °C. Improvements in the quality of the SiO2 thin films after annealing at 600 °C may be explained by the consumption and formation of carbon-related and oxygen-related defects during annealing.
To study coronary artery haemodynamics in adolescents with homozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia and aortic supravalvular stenosis.
Patients diagnosed with familial hypercholesterolaemia who were younger than 16 years and who had undergone transthoracic echocardiography from 2007 to 2010 were included in this study. We included patients with homozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia and aortic supravalvular stenosis and those with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia. All patients underwent stress echocardiography, and left anterior descending coronary artery flow was successfully detected. Coronary flow velocity reserve was calculated as the ratio of hyperaemic mean diastolic flow velocity after injection of adenosine to basal mean diastolic flow velocity. Changes in coronary haemodynamics and the relationship between lipid concentrations were determined.
A total of 11 patients with homozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia were enrolled in this study. Lipid concentrations were measured, and the mean coronary flow velocity reserve was 1.97 plus or minus 0.51. Seven children were included in the group of patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia. In these children, the mean coronary flow velocity reserve was 3.08 plus or minus 0.84.
The coronary flow velocity reserve of homozygous familial hypercholesterolaemic patients is lower than that of heterozygous familial hypercholesterolaemic patients, and it is associated with a high concentration of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Aortic stenosis and plaques compromised the ostia of the coronary artery and caused increased basal mean diastolic coronary velocity with blunted increase in peak velocity, which decreased the coronary flow velocity reserve.
The effects of acid and Al concentration, type of Al salt, treatment temperature and time of removal of Mg from sepiolite have been investigated, as has the use of modified sepiolite as an active fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) matrix. The samples were characterized by N2 adsorption and X-ray diffraction. Mg removal from sepiolite increased with increasing acid and Al ion concentration, treatment time and temperature. The temperature had the greatest impact on Mg removal. After acid and Al modification, 29% of the Mg was removed. When using the modified sepiolites as active matrices in FCC catalysts, the specific surface area, pore volume and mesoporous pore volume of the catalysts increased and they exhibited excellent performance in resisting the effects of heavy-metals as a result of the introduction of Mg oxide from the modified sepiolite.
The spatio-temporal expressed profiles of two kinds of chemical communication-related protein genes, the odorant-binding protein of Ac-ASP2 and chemosensory protein of Ac-ASP3, were identified by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results obtained using the 2−ΔΔCt method showed that Ac-ASP2 was a gene coding antenna-specific protein that did not express in larvae and pupae, but had discontinuous high abundance periods at 1, 9, 15, 27 and 30 days. The expressing abundance at such periods was at least ten times higher than that at other periods. From the distribution of Ac-ASP3 mRNA observed in different tissues, the transcript levels seemed to be higher in the wings, abdomen and thorax (of order ~106), and lower in the legs, antennae and head (of order ~105). From highest to lowest, the original copy number was found in the various body parts in the following order: wings, abdomen, thorax, legs, antenna, and head. The results suggest that Ac-ASP3 has an intimate relation with the chemosensory behaviour of wings and abdomen in Apis cerana cerana.
Using hypocotyl segments of aseptic seedlings of cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) as explants, regenerated plants with kanamycin resistance were obtained mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens (strain LBA4404). The transformed plants with the CryIA(c) (Bt) gene were confirmed by Southern blotting analysis, indicating the integration of the transgene into the cabbage genome. The majority of the transgenic plants had only a single copy of the inserted CryIA(c) gene. Leaf section bioassays showed that resistance against larvae of diamondback moth in CryIA(c) transgenic cabbage was significantly enhanced. The inheritance patterns of the transgene in T1 offspring of transgenic cabbage were investigated using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis and a kanamycin resistance test on the leaves of young seedlings. The results showed that dominant gene loci, CryIA(c) or neomycin phosphotransferase gene (NPTII), followed Mendelian inheritance, with a ratio of 3:1 segregation in T1 populations.
The bone morphogenetic protein receptor IB (BMPR-IB) gene, which controls the fecundity of Booroola Merino ewes, was studied as a candidate gene for the prolificacy of Small Tail Han and Hu ewes. A single nucleotide polymorphism of the BMPR-IB gene was detected in both high (Small Tail Han and Hu) and low (Suffolk and Dorset) fecundity sheep breeds by polymerase chain reaction–single-strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) analysis. The results indicated the presence of the same mutation (A746G) of the BMPR-IB gene in both Small Tail Han and Hu ewes and in Booroola Merino ewes, but not in both Suffolk and Dorset ewes. In Small Tail Han ewes, frequencies of BB, B+ and ++ genotypes were 0.524, 0.383 and 0.093, respectively. In Hu ewes, these frequencies were 0.882, 0.118 and 0.000. The BMPR-IB genotype distributions were significantly different (P<0.001) among high- and low-fecundity sheep breeds. Small Tail Han ewes with genotype BB had 0.92 (P<0.01) and 1.02 (P<0.01) lambs more than those with genotype ++ in the first and second parity, respectively. These results demonstrated that the BMPR-IB gene is a major gene affecting the prolificacy in both Small Tail Han and Hu ewes, and could be used as a molecular genetic marker to select the litter size in sheep.
Tests were conducted to highlight the effects of donor cell treatment (bovine G0- and non-G0 phase somatic cells refrigerated for 1–5 or 12–14 days at 4°C), fusion solution (with or without cytochalasin B) and age of the rabbit (young, 3–5-months old; or multiparous, 10–12 months old) as oocyte donor on the fusion and mortality rates of bovine–rabbit interspecies reconstructed eggs. Results showed that there were no significant differences (P>0.05) in fusion and mortality rates of eggs reconstructed with G0 cells or non-G0 cells as nuclear donor somatic cells. The same was also true when nuclear donor somatic cells (G0 cells or non-G0 cells) were treated at low temperature (4°C) for 1–5 or 12–14 days. The fusion rate of reconstructed eggs did not change significantly (P>0.05) when adding cytochalasin B into the fusion solution, but the mortality rate increased significantly (P<0.05). No significant effect (P>0.05) was found in fusion rate of the eggs reconstructed with young rabbits' and multiparous rabbits' oocytes as recipient, but the mortality rate decreased significantly (P<0.01) for young rabbit oocytes compared with multiparous rabbit ones.
The distribution of genetic diversity between Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica and O. sativa L. ssp. japonica covering different ecological zones in Yunnan was studied, and specific markers of indica/japonica subspecies, paddy/upland rice and different ecological zones were screened, using 36 microsatellite primers and 113 accessions in the Yunnan landrace rice core collection. The genetic diversity of japonica was higher than that of indica, and the ecological zone with the highest and smallest genetic diversity lay in south-east and north-east Yunnan, respectively. This distribution was consistent at morphological and isozyme levels with studies on the entire Yunnan rice resources and core collection. In addition, the results showed that, among 416 markers, there were six indica/japonica-specific markers, 15 specific markers for paddy/upland rice and three specific markers in different ecological zones. The main conclusions are that the landrace rice core collection in Yunnan genetically represents the entire landrace rice resources in Yunnan, the centre of genetic diversity at DNA level lies in south-east Yunnan, and the DNA differentiation between indica and japonica is small. Furthermore, microsatellite markers were useful for studying the genetic diversity, classification and ecotype of germplasm resources and their core collection.
Chemical bath deposition (CBD) techniques for the growth of CdS polycrystalline thin films are now well developed. However, there usually appear different structures, grain sizes and energy gaps in CdS polycrystalline films by CBD, which implies that the influence of growth process on the structures and properties of CBD CdS thin films must be considered. In this paper, the optical, compositional and structural properties of CBD CdS thin films in the reaction process have been studied by XRD, AFM, XPS and optical transmission spectra measurements. The results can be explained using atomic mechanism and lattice transition in the CdS thin films.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.