The chemical change in the surface of H13 steel or aluminum is produced by implanting a reactive elements, such as Ti, Mo and W. The X-ray diffraction pattern shows that implanted Ti at 400 C has reacted with carbon(0.35 in wt.%) forming a second phase TiC. Auger analysis shows that the carbon atoms have been condensed in the Ti implanted region. Carbon peak concentration of 30 At.% is greater than Ti atom peak concentration of 12 At.%.
Several second phases are formed during pulsed Mo ion implantation 2 into aluminum with high ion flux of 50˜80µA/cm2 which raises the target temperature from 400°C to 600°C.
More second phases are formed by dual Mo+C implantation with high dose of 3˜5×10 17/cm2 and high flux of 50˜75µA/cm2 . And the target temperature is raised from 400 to 600°C. The FeMo Fe3Mo2, Fe2MoC, Mo2C, MoC, MoCx, phases and iron carbides are identified by X-ray diffraction technique.