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This systematic review aimed to investigate the association between dietary inflammatory potential and liver cancer to provide evidence regarding scientific dietary health education.
Systematic review and meta-analysis.
A comprehensive literature review was conducted to identify case-control or cohort studies that involved dietary inflammation index (DII)/empirical dietary inflammation pattern (EDIP) and liver cancer in PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane, and Web of Science databases. Using a combination of DII/EDIP and liver cancer as the search terms, the associations between DII/EDIP and liver cancer were then assessed.
Three case-control studies and two cohort studies were brought into the Meta-analysis, with 225,713 enrolled participants.
Meta-analysis of categorical variables showed that DII/EDIP in the highest category increased the risk of liver cancer compared to DII/EDIP in the lowest category (RR=2.35; 95% CI 1.77–3.13; p=0.000) and with low heterogeneity across studies (I2=40.8%, p=0.119). Meta-analysis of continuous variables showed that significant positive association between liver cancer and DII/EDIP scores (RR=1.24; 95% CI 1.09–1.40; p=0.001), and no heterogeneity (I²=0.0%, p=0.471). Stratified according to the study design, there was a significant positive association between liver cancer and DII/EDIP scores in both cohort studies (RR=2.16; 95%CI: 1.51-3.07; p=0.000) and case-control studies (RR=2.75; 95%CI: 1.71-4.41; p= 0.000).
The higher the DII/EDIP score, the higher the risk of liver cancer. This finding may have prominent implications for the general population.
Theoretical investigation of the primary Mach reflection (MR) configuration on V-shaped blunt leading edges (VBLEs) forms the focus of this study. By ignoring the secondary interactions, a theoretical method based on a simplified form of the continuity relation is developed to predict the shock configurations, including the detached shock, the Mach stem, the transmitted shock and the triple point. The comparison of the theoretical results with both numerical and previous experimental results shows the reliability of the theoretical approach in predicting shock structures across a wide range of free stream and geometric parameters. The theoretical model provides a detailed comprehension of the occurrence mechanism of inverse MRs on VBLEs and the influence of the free stream and geometric parameters on primary MR configurations. Along with the primary MR configuration, the curved shock or compression waves generated by the crotch are solved and offer insight into the transition from the MR to the regular reflection from the same family (sRR). The increase of the ratio $R/r$ and the free stream Mach number $M_0$ appears to facilitate the transition, while the effect of the half-span angle $\beta$ is non-monotonic. The predicted shock positions allow for the identification of the transition boundary between the primary MR and sRR. It is found that $R/r$ below a threshold (for a set $M_0$ value) produces MR, irrespective of $\beta$. If this threshold is exceeded, the configuration can transition from the primary MR to sRR and then back to the primary MR as $\beta$ increases.
Human gait trajectory prediction is a long-standing research topic in human–machine interaction. However, there are two shortcomings in the current gait trajectory prediction technology. The first shortcoming is that the neural network model of gait prediction only predicts dozens of future time frames of gait trajectory. The second shortcoming is that the gait prediction neural network model is uninterpretable. We propose the Interpretable-Concatenation former (IC-former) model, which can predict long-term gait trajectories and explain the prediction results by quantifying the importance of data at different positions in the input sequence. Experiments prove that the IC-former model we proposed not only makes a breakthrough in prediction accuracy but also successfully explains the data basis of the prediction.
This experiment was conducted to investigate whether dietary chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) could attenuate high-fat (HF) diet-induced growth retardation, lipid accumulation and bile acid (BA) metabolism disorder in the liver of yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco. Yellow catfish (initial weight: 4·40 (sem 0·08) g) were fed four diets: the control (105·8 g/kg lipid), HF diet (HF group, 159·6 g/kg lipid), the control supplemented with 0·9 g/kg CDCA (CDCA group) and HF diet supplemented with 0·9 g/kg CDCA (HF + CDCA group). CDCA supplemented in the HF diet significantly improved growth performance and feed utilisation of yellow catfish (P < 0·05). CDCA alleviated HF-induced increment of hepatic lipid and cholesterol contents by down-regulating the expressions of lipogenesis-related genes and proteins and up-regulating the expressions of lipololysis-related genes and proteins. Compared with the control group, CDCA group significantly reduced cholesterol level (P < 0·05). CDCA significantly inhibited BA biosynthesis and changed BA profile by activating farnesoid X receptor (P < 0·05). The contents of CDCA, taurochenodeoxycholic acid and glycochenodeoxycholic acid were significantly increased with the supplementation of CDCA (P < 0·05). HF-induced elevation of cholic acid content was significantly attenuated by the supplementation of CDCA (P < 0·05). Supplementation of CDCA in the control and HF groups could improve the liver antioxidant capacity. This study proved that CDCA could improve growth retardation, lipid accumulation and BA metabolism disorder induced by HF diet, which provided new insight into understanding the physiological functions of BA in fish.
The effects of monolaurin (ML) on the health of piglets infected with porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus (PEDV) have not been fully understood. This study aimed to investigate its role in blood biochemical profile, intestinal barrier function, antioxidant function and the expression of antiviral genes in piglets infected with PEDV. Thirty-two piglets were randomly divided into four groups: control group, ML group, PEDV group and ML + PEDV group. Piglets were orally administrated with ML at a dose of 100 mg/kg·BW for 7 d before PEDV infection. Results showed that PEDV infection significantly decreased D-xylose content and increased intestinal fatty acid-binding protein content, indicating that PEDV infection destroyed intestinal barrier and absorption function. While it could be repaired by ML administration. Moreover, ML administration significantly decreased plasma blood urea nitrogen and total protein content upon PEDV infection. These results suggested ML may increase protein utilisation efficiency. ML administration significantly decreased the number of large unstained cells and Hb and increased the number of leucocytes and eosinophils in the blood of PEDV-infected piglets, indicating ML could improve the immune defense function of the body. In the presence of PEDV infection, ML administration significantly increased superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in blood and colon, respectively, indicating ML could improve antioxidant capacity. Besides, ML administration reversed the expression of ISG15, IFIT3 and IL-29 throughout the small intestine and Mx1 in jejunum and ileum, indicating the body was in recovery from PEDV infection. This study suggests that ML could be used as a kind of feed additive to promote swine health upon PEDV infection.
The advent of time-domain sky surveys has generated a vast amount of light variation data, enabling astronomers to investigate variable stars with large-scale samples. However, this also poses new opportunities and challenges for the time-domain research. In this paper, we focus on the classification of variable stars from the Catalina Surveys Data Release 2 and propose an imbalanced learning classifier based on Self-paced Ensemble (SPE) method. Compared with the work of Hosenie et al. (2020), our approach significantly enhances the classification Recall of Blazhko RR Lyrae stars from 12% to 85%, mixed-mode RR Lyrae variables from 29% to 64%, detached binaries from 68% to 97%, and LPV from 87% to 99%. SPE demonstrates a rather good performance on most of the variable classes except RRab, RRc, and contact and semi-detached binary. Moreover, the results suggest that SPE tends to target the minority classes of objects, while Random Forest is more effective in finding the majority classes. To balance the overall classification accuracy, we construct a Voting Classifier that combines the strengths of SPE and Random Forest. The results show that the Voting Classifier can achieve a balanced performance across all classes with minimal loss of accuracy. In summary, the SPE algorithm and Voting Classifier are superior to traditional machine learning methods and can be well applied to classify the periodic variable stars. This paper contributes to the current research on imbalanced learning in astronomy and can also be extended to the time-domain data of other larger sky survey projects (LSST, etc.).
The development of high-brightness X-ray free electron lasers (XFELs), such as hard X-ray self-seeding free electron lasers and XFEL oscillators (XFELOs), brings a severe challenge to the crystal monochromator due to a strong non-uniform thermal load. The distortion caused by spatial temperature gradients can severely affect the optical performance of crystals. Therefore, this paper presents a model to estimate the performance of non-uniform thermally distorted crystals. The model not only takes into account thermal strain, slope error and incident angle deviation, but also considers temperature-dependent factors such as the Debye–Waller factor and electric susceptibility. Our investigation indicates that the Debye–Waller factor reduces the height and bandwidth of rocking curves, and the impact of the electric susceptibility is tiny. The proposed model can describe the distortion of the reflectivity and transmissivity curves of non-uniform thermally loaded crystals and can be applied in the design of crystal monochromators, crystal splitters, crystal compressors and XFELOs.
This paper provides nonparametric specification tests for the commonly used homogeneous and stable coefficients structures in panel data models. We first obtain the augmented residuals by estimating the model under the null hypothesis and then run auxiliary time series regressions of augmented residuals on covariates with time-varying coefficients (TVCs) via sieve methods. The test statistic is then constructed by averaging the squared fitted values, which are close to zero under the null and deviate from zero under the alternatives. We show that the test statistic, after being appropriately standardized, is asymptotically normal under the null and under a sequence of Pitman local alternatives. A bootstrap procedure is proposed to improve the finite sample performance of our test. In addition, we extend the procedure to test other structures, such as the homogeneity of TVCs or the stability of heterogeneous coefficients. The joint test is extended to panel models with two-way fixed effects. Monte Carlo simulations indicate that our tests perform reasonably well in finite samples. We apply the tests to re-examine the environmental Kuznets curve in the United States, and find that the model with homogenous TVCs is more appropriate for this application.
Although ethanol treatment is widely used to activate oocytes, the underlying mechanisms are largely unclear. Roles of intracellular calcium stores and extracellular calcium in ethanol-induced activation (EIA) of oocytes remain to be verified, and whether calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) is involved in EIA is unknown. This study showed that calcium-free ageing (CFA) in vitro significantly decreased intracellular stored calcium (sCa) and CaSR expression, and impaired EIA, spindle/chromosome morphology and developmental potential of mouse oocytes. Although EIA in oocytes with full sCa after ageing with calcium does not require calcium influx, calcium influx is essential for EIA of oocytes with reduced sCa after CFA. Furthermore, the extremely low EIA rate in oocytes with CFA-downregulated CaSR expression and the fact that inhibiting CaSR significantly decreased the EIA of oocytes with a full complement of CaSR suggest that CaSR played a significant role in the EIA of ageing oocytes. In conclusion, CFA impaired EIA and the developmental potential of mouse oocytes by decreasing sCa and downregulating CaSR expression. Because mouse oocytes routinely treated for activation (18 h post hCG) are equipped with a full sCa complement and CaSR, the present results suggest that, while calcium influx is not essential, CaSR is required for the EIA of oocytes.
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is clinically documented to co-occur with multiple gastrointestinal disorders (GID), but the potential causal relationship between them remains unclear. We aimed to evaluate the potential causal relationship of MDD with 4 GID [gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), peptic ulcer disease (PUD), and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)] using a two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) design.
We obtained genome-wide association data for MDD from a meta-analysis (N = 480 359), and for GID from the UK Biobank (N ranges: 332 601–486 601) and FinnGen (N ranges: 187 028–218 792) among individuals of European ancestry. Our primary method was inverse-variance weighted (IVW) MR, with a series of sensitivity analyses to test the hypothesis of MR. Individual study estimates were pooled using fixed-effect meta-analysis.
Meta-analyses IVW MR found evidence that genetically predicted MDD may increase the risk of GERD, IBS, PUD and NAFLD. Additionally, reverse MR found evidence of genetically predicted GERD or IBS may increase the risk of MDD.
Genetically predicted MDD may increase the risk of GERD, IBS, PUD and NAFLD. Genetically predicted GERD or IBS may increase the risk of MDD. The findings may help elucidate the mechanisms underlying the co-morbidity of MDD and GID. Focusing on GID symptoms in patients with MDD and emotional problems in patients with GID is important for the clinical management.
To identify risk genes whose expression are regulated by the reported risk variants and to explore the potential regulatory mechanism in schizophrenia (SCZ).
We systematically integrated three independent brain expression quantitative traits (eQTLs) (CommonMind, GTEx, and BrainSeq Phase 2, a total of 1039 individuals) and GWAS data (56 418 cases and 78 818 controls), with the use of transcriptome-wide association study (TWAS). Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging was utilized to quantify the integrity of white matter bundles and determine whether polygenic risk of novel genes linked to brain structure was present in patients with first-episode antipsychotic SCZ.
TWAS showed that eight risk genes (CORO7, DDAH2, DDHD2, ELAC2, GLT8D1, PCDHA8, THOC7, and TYW5) reached transcriptome-wide significance (TWS) level. These findings were confirmed by an independent integrative approach (i.e. Sherlock). We further conducted conditional analyses and identified the potential risk genes that driven the TWAS association signal in each locus. Gene expression analysis showed that several TWS genes (including CORO7, DDAH2, DDHD2, ELAC2, GLT8D1, THOC7 and TYW5) were dysregulated in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of SCZ cases compared with controls. TWS genes were mainly expressed on the surface of glutamatergic neurons, GABAergic neurons, and microglia. Finally, SCZ cases had a substantially greater TWS genes-based polygenic risk (PRS) compared to controls, and we showed that fractional anisotropy of the cingulum-hippocampus mediates the influence of TWS genes PRS on SCZ.
Our findings identified novel SCZ risk genes and highlighted the importance of the TWS genes in frontal-limbic dysfunctions in SCZ, indicating possible therapeutic targets.
The relationships between childhood weight self-misperception and obesity-related factors particularly health markers have not been extensively discussed. This study aims to examine the associations between weight self-misperception and obesity-related knowledge, attitudes, lifestyles and cardio-metabolic markers among Chinese paediatric population.
Data sourced from a national survey in Chinese seven provinces in 2013.
Children and adolescents aged 5–19 years.
Of the total 14 079 participants, there were 14·5 % and 2·2 % participants over-estimated and under-perceived their weight, respectively. Multi-variable logistic regression was applied to calculate OR and 95 % CI (95 % Cl) of obesity-related behaviours and cardio-metabolic markers by actual and perceived weight status. Individuals who perceived themselves as overweight/obese were more likely to have prolonged screen time, insufficient dairy intake and over sugar-sweetened beverages consumption (all P < 0·05), regardless of their weight. Furthermore, actual overweight/obese individuals had higher odds of abnormal cardio-metabolic markers, but a smaller magnitude of association was found among weight under-estimators. Among non-overweight/obese individuals, weight over-estimation was positively associated with abdominal obesity (OR: 10·49, 95 % CI: 7·45, 14·76), elevated blood pressure (OR: 1·30, 95 % CI: 1·12, 1·51) and dyslipidemia (OR: 1·43, 95 % CI: 1·29, 1·58).
Weight over-perception was more prevalent than under-estimation, particularly in girls. Weight over-estimators tended to master better knowledge but behave more unhealthily; both weight over-perception and actual overweight/obesity status were associated with poorer cardio-metabolic markers. Future obesity intervention programmes should additionally pay attention to the population with inaccurate estimation of weight who were easily overlooked.
Dynamic interpersonal therapy (DIT) is a brief, structured psychodynamic psychotherapy with demonstrated efficacy in treating major depressive disorder (MDD). The aim of the study was to determine whether DIT is an acceptable and efficacious treatment for MDD patients in China.
Patients were randomized to 16-week treatments with either DIT plus antidepressant medication (DIT + ADM; n = 66), general supportive therapy plus antidepressant medication (GST + ADM; n = 75) or antidepressant medication alone (ADM; n = 70). The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) administered by blind raters was the primary efficacy measure. Assessments were completed during the acute 16-week treatment and up to 12-month posttreatment.
The group × time interaction was significant for the primary outcome HAMD (F = 2.900, df1 = 10, df2 = 774.72, p = 0.001) in the acute treatment phase. Pairwise comparisons showed a benefit of DIT + ADM over ADM at weeks 12 [least-squares (LS) mean difference = −3.161, p = 0.007] and 16 (LS mean difference = −3.237, p = 0.004). Because of the unexpected high attrition during the posttreatment follow-up phase, analyses of follow-up data were considered exploratory. Differences between DIT + ADM and ADM remained significant at the 1-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up (ps range from 0.001 to 0.027). DIT + ADM had no advantage over GST + ADM during the acute treatment phase. However, at the 12-month follow-up, patients who received DIT remained less depressed.
Acute treatment with DIT or GST in combination with ADM was similarly efficacious in reducing depressive symptoms and yielded a better outcome than ADM alone. DIT may provide MDD patients with long-term benefits in symptom improvement but results must be viewed with caution.
There are few studies on the intelligent guidance of unmanned sailboats, which should coordinate pluralistic tasks at sea in the nature of its maneuvring intractability. To ensure the algorithmic practicability, this paper proposes a path-following and collision-avoidance guidance approach of unmanned sailboats with total formulaic description. The risk-detecting mechanism is fabricated by setting a circular detecting zone and using the time to the closest point of approach. Then, the risk of collision, the path deviation, the speed loss, and the course loss can be judged by constructing the cost functions and applying the distance to closest point of approach. The optimized heading angle is deemed as the one minimizing the aggregate cost functions, which is sought by applying and improving the beetle antennae search (BAS) algorithm. In the proposed modified BAS, the searching step is redesigned to enhance the searching efficiency. To ensure the convergence of the real heading angle to the reference, the backstepping-based control law is fabricated for the high-order sailboat model and in the linear form. The control parameters are offline optimized through the modified BAS. Compared with the adaptive control, this controller can guarantee more computation simplicity and the optimized control performance. Finally, simulation corroborates that the sailboat can successfully complete path following and collision avoidance while encountering multiple static and moving obstacles under the proposed schemes.
In this paper, the reflection of curved shock waves over a symmetry plane in planar supersonic flow is studied. This includes stable Mach reflection (MR) and the regular reflection (RR) to MR transition process. Curved shock theory (CST) is applied to derive the high-order parameters in front of and behind the shock wave. The method of curved shock characteristics is used to establish an analytical model to predict the wave configurations. The shock structures provided by the proposed model agree well with the numerical results. Flow structures, such as the height of the Mach stem and the shape of the shock wave and slip line, are studied by applying the analytical model. Isentropic waves generated from a curved wall are found to significantly influence the flow patterns. It appears that the compression waves obstruct the formation of the sonic throat and increase the Mach-stem height. The expansion waves have the opposite effect. The evolution mechanism of the Mach stem is found in conjunction with the RR-to-MR transition process. The CST is extended to a moving frame and used to model the transition. The time history of the moving triple point illustrates the effects of the incident shock angle and isentropic waves on the transition process.
High-speed water entry is a transient hydrodynamic process that is accompanied by strongly compressible flow, free surface splash, cavity evolution and other nonlinear hydrodynamic phenomena. To address these problems, a novel fluid–structure interaction (FSI) scheme based on the immersed boundary method is proposed which is suitable for strongly compressible multiphase flows. In this scheme, considering the multiphase interfaces at the immersed boundary, an improved immersed boundary method for effectively suppressing the non-physical force oscillation is proposed. Additionally, a quaternion-based six degrees of freedom motion system is used to describe rigid body motion, and the multiphase flow Eulerian finite element method is applied as the fluid solver. Using analytical solutions, experimental data and literature data, the accuracy and robustness of the FSI scheme are validated. Finally, the high-speed water entry of the slender body with different noses is investigated, and the hydrodynamic loads including the axial and normal drag forces and the bending moment are extensively discussed. The hydrodynamic load and motion trajectory are determined by the nose configuration. The tail slamming phenomenon is the primary focus, and it is revealed that its formation is primarily related to the pitch moment formed at the stage of crossing the free surface. Tail slamming also causes violent impact loads, especially bending moments, which may cause slender projectiles to break off. Finally, to combine the features of the flat and hemispherical noses, the water entry of the projectile with a truncated hemispherical nose is simulated and discussed.