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This study assessed the iodine knowledge of pregnant and lactating women, and the relationship to dietary iodine intake and iodine status. The factors influencing iodine intake were analyzed.
Basic information and iodine knowledge were collected via a questionnaire. A food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) assessed dietary iodine intake. The urinary iodine concentration (UIC) was measured using the Arsenic-Cerium Catalytic Spectrophotometric Determination of Iodine in Urine (WS/T 107 -2016).
A cross-sectional study involving pregnant and lactating women in Xinjiang, China was conducted.
A total of 1181 pregnant women and 504 lactating women were enrolled in the study.
The median UIC for pregnant and lactating women was 179.27 and 191.40 µg/L, respectively, and the dietary iodine intake was 407.16 and 356.89 µg/day, respectively. Of the pregnant and lactating women, 83.9% and 86.5% had medium iodine knowledge, respectively. In pregnant women, iodine knowledge and dietary iodine intake were positively correlated. High iodine knowledge and iodine education were shown to be protective factors for excessive iodine intake in pregnant women.
This study demonstrated that the iodine nutritional status of women in Xinjiang was appropriate, and iodine knowledge was at a medium level, but there was confusion about iodine nutrition. Public education is needed to improve iodine knowledge and active iodine supplementation awareness among these populations of women.
This serial work presents a linear-time-invariance (LTI) notion to the Koopman analysis, finding consistent and physically meaningful Koopman modes and addressing a long-standing problem of fluid mechanics: deterministically relating the fluid excitations and corresponding structure reactions. Part 1 (Li et al., Phys. Fluids, vol. 34, no. 12, p. 125136) developed the Koopman-LTI architecture and applied it to a pedagogical prism wake. By a systematic analytical procedure, the Koopman-LTI generated sampling-independent linear models that captured all the recurring dynamics embedded in the input data, finding six corresponding, orthogonal, and in-synch fluid–structure mechanisms. This Part 2 analyses the six modal duplets to underpin their physical implications, providing a phenomenological analysis of the subcritical prism wake. Visualizing the newly proposed dynamic Koopman modes, results show that two mechanisms at St1 = 0.1242 and St5 = 0.0497 describe shear layer dynamics, the associated Bérnard–Kármán shedding and turbulence production, which together overwhelm the upstream and crosswind walls by instigating a reattachment-type of reaction. The on-wind walls’ dynamical similarity renders them a spectrally unified fluid–structure interface. Another four harmonic counterparts, namely the subharmonic at St7 = 0.0683, the second harmonic at St3 = 0.2422, and two ultra-harmonics at St7 = 0.1739 and St13 = 0.1935, govern the downstream wall. Finally, this work discovered the vortex breathing phenomenon, describing the constant energy exchange in the wake's circulation-entrainment-deposition processes. With the Koopman-LTI, one may pinpoint the exact excitations responsible for a specific structure reaction, benefiting future investigations into fluid–structure interactions and nonlinear, stochastic systems.
Objectives: Improper reprocessing of endoscopes may result in healthcare-associated infections. Regular microbiological surveillance is an important means of evaluating the quality of endoscope reprocessing. We evaluated the effectiveness of reprocessing endoscopes (including the protocols on steps to be taken in the event of any positive microbiological results) in a sterile supply unit (SSU) and an endoscopy unit in a Singapore tertiary-care academic hospital. Methods: Singapore General Hospital (SGH) is a 1,750-bed, tertiary-care, academic medical center in Singapore with 2 main SSUs: 1 inpatient endoscopy unit and 1 outpatient endoscopy unit. We reviewed microbiological surveillance results from endoscopes following reprocessing from January 2018 to December 2021. In total, 160 endoscopes (27 bronchoscopes, 58 gastroscopes, 52 colonoscopes, 6 duodenoscopes, 5 echoscopes, 5 cystoscopes, 5 rhinolaryngoscopes, and 5 enteroscopes) and 15 automated endoscope reprocessors (AERs) were evaluated for the presence of microorganisms. Samples were obtained by swabbing the tip of the scope and the biopsy channel. Fluid was flushed from the biopsy channel after reprocessing, and this water from the AERs was sampled after waterline disinfection. Results: Of the 15,783 samples collected, 15,667 (99.3%) yielded no growth; 36 (0.2%) were positive for gut and environmental flora; and 80 (0.5%) were positive for low-concern organisms such as skin flora. Conclusions: Microbiological surveillance yielded a high percentage of negative results confirming the effectiveness of endoscope reprocessing. This quality-assurance process is necessary and beneficial in achieving patient safety.
Coastal eutrophication and hypoxia remain a persistent environmental crisis despite the great efforts to reduce nutrient loading and mitigate associated environmental damages. Symptoms of this crisis have appeared to spread rapidly, reaching developing countries in Asia with emergences in Southern America and Africa. The pace of changes and the underlying drivers remain not so clear. To address the gap, we review the up-to-date status and mechanisms of eutrophication and hypoxia in global coastal oceans, upon which we examine the trajectories of changes over the 40 years or longer in six model coastal systems with varying socio-economic development statuses and different levels and histories of eutrophication. Although these coastal systems share common features of eutrophication, site-specific characteristics are also substantial, depending on the regional environmental setting and level of social-economic development along with policy implementation and management. Nevertheless, ecosystem recovery generally needs greater reduction in pressures compared to that initiated degradation and becomes less feasible to achieve past norms with a longer time anthropogenic pressures on the ecosystems. While the qualitative causality between drivers and consequences is well established, quantitative attribution of these drivers to eutrophication and hypoxia remains difficult especially when we consider the social economic drivers because the changes in coastal ecosystems are subject to multiple influences and the cause–effect relationship is often non-linear. Such relationships are further complicated by climate changes that have been accelerating over the past few decades. The knowledge gaps that limit our quantitative and mechanistic understanding of the human-coastal ocean nexus are identified, which is essential for science-based policy making. Recognizing lessons from past management practices, we advocate for a better, more efficient indexing system of coastal eutrophication and an advanced regional earth system modeling framework with optimal modules of human dimensions to facilitate the development and evaluation of effective policy and restoration actions.
Slowed information processing speed (IPS) is the core contributor to cognitive impairment in patients with late-life depression (LLD). The hippocampus is an important link between depression and dementia, and it may be involved in IPS slowing in LLD. However, the relationship between a slowed IPS and the dynamic activity and connectivity of hippocampal subregions in patients with LLD remains unclear.
One hundred thirty-four patients with LLD and 89 healthy controls were recruited. Sliding-window analysis was used to assess whole-brain dynamic functional connectivity (dFC), dynamic fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (dfALFF) and dynamic regional homogeneity (dReHo) for each hippocampal subregion seed.
Cognitive impairment (global cognition, verbal memory, language, visual–spatial skill, executive function and working memory) in patients with LLD was mediated by their slowed IPS. Compared with the controls, patients with LLD exhibited decreased dFC between various hippocampal subregions and the frontal cortex and decreased dReho in the left rostral hippocampus. Additionally, most of the dFCs were negatively associated with the severity of depressive symptoms and were positively associated with various domains of cognitive function. Moreover, the dFC between the left rostral hippocampus and middle frontal gyrus exhibited a partial mediation effect on the relationships between the scores of depressive symptoms and IPS.
Patients with LLD exhibited decreased dFC between the hippocampus and frontal cortex, and the decreased dFC between the left rostral hippocampus and right middle frontal gyrus was involved in the underlying neural substrate of the slowed IPS.
Circulating n-3 PUFA, which integrate endogenous and exogenous n-3 PUFA, can be better used to investigate the relationship between n-3 PUFA and disease. However, studies examining the associations between circulating n-3 PUFA and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk were limited, and the results remained inconclusive. This case–control study aimed to examine the association between serum n-3 PUFA and CRC risk in Chinese population. A total of 680 CRC cases and 680 sex- and age-matched (5-year interval) controls were included. Fatty acids were assayed by GC. OR and 95 % CI were calculated using multivariable logistic regression after adjustment for potential confounders. Higher level of serum α-linolenic acid (ALA), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), DHA, long-chain n-3 PUFA and total n-3 PUFA were associated with lower odds of CRC. The adjusted OR and 95 % CI were 0·34 (0·24, 0·49, Pfor trend < 0·001) for ALA, 0·57 (0·40, 0·80, Pfor trend < 0·001) for DPA, 0·48 (0·34, 0·68, Pfor trend < 0·001) for DHA, 0·39 (0·27, 0·56, Pfor trend < 0·001) for long-chain n-3 PUFA and 0·31 (0·22, 0·45, Pfor trend < 0·001) for total n-3 PUFA comparing the highest with the lowest quartile. However, there was no statistically significant association between EPA and odds of CRC. Analysis stratified by sex showed that ALA, DHA, long-chain n-3 PUFA and total n-3 PUFA were inversely associated with odds of CRC in both sexes. This study indicated that serum ALA, DPA, DHA, long-chain n-3 PUFA and total n-3 PUFA were inversely associated with odds of having CRC in Chinese population.
How is the rise of platform capitalism reinventing the traditional regime of familial production, while at the same time being energized by it? How do the historically informed, lived experiences of rural e-commerce entrepreneurs or workers in China help reconceptualize digital labor and platform studies? Deploying the analytic of platformized family production, this article addresses these questions through a deep description of the experiences of variously positioned platform-based and mediated laborers in an e-commerce village in East China. I argue that the ongoing process of platformizing family production is profoundly contradictory. As an alternative to a model of development based on unevenness and the rural-urban divide, village e-commerce has created opportunities for peasants and marginalized urban youth to achieve social mobility. However, it also shapes a new regime of value that privileges the individualized e-commerce entrepreneur as an ideal subject, and fetishizes and instrumentalizes innovation and creativity in conformity with the global intellectual property regime. These tendencies not only contradict the reality of collective labor organization both on e-commerce platforms and in villages, but also conflict with the indispensable role of manual labor in the production process—reinforcing rather than overcoming existing inequalities and stratification in rural China.
To examine the thematic features of dignity therapy generativity documents of advanced cancer patients receiving chemotherapy in mainland China from the perspective of meaning-making during dignity therapy.
This is a qualitative descriptive study. Content analysis was used to analyze 24 dignity therapy generativity documents derived from a quasi-experimental trial of dignity therapy for advanced cancer patients receiving chemotherapy in a daycare center at a cancer hospital in northern China.
Among the 24 advanced cancer patients whose generativity documents were analyzed, 14 were male and ranged in age from 26 to 78 years (average = 50.3). Two dimensions emerged from the data: (1) the sources of meaning in life, which consisted of social relationships, things and circumstances providing meaning in life, and (2) the ultimate meaning in life, referring to finding one’s real self and realizing the purpose in life, including personal life goals, dignity and autonomy, and morality of patients.
Significance of results
The multidimensional constructs of meaning in life with distinctive traditional Chinese cultural characteristics could provide insights into dignity-conserving care for advanced cancer patients with Chinese culture and provide evidence for refining the implementation protocol of DT through intentionally addressing the ultimate meaning of patients in the therapeutic session.
In 2016, an outbreak of paratyphoid fever occurred in 40 cases at Qingyang town, in China. A case-control study was carried out to determine the source of this outbreak. Case-control study was conducted to identify the risk factors of this outbreak. The cases were identified as patients with isolation of S. Paratyphi, controls were confirmed cases’ healthy classmates, colleagues or neighbors and matched by age (±5 y) and gender. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was performed to source tracking. Totally, 40 cases were reported: 24 cases were students, and 20 (20/24) of them were Qingyang High School students. For the case-control study, consuming Chinese egg pancakes was detected as a risk factor (OR1:1 = 5.000; 95% CI: 1.710-14.640), and hand-washing before meals was protective behavior compared with seldom hand-washing (OR1:1 = 23.256; 95% CI: 2.451-200.000). S. Paratyphi was cultured from a well water sample used for washing contents of the pancakes. Isolates from well water and paratyphoid cases showed the same PFGE patterns. Contaminated well water and Chinese egg pancakes were likely source and vehicle of this outbreak. Health education, especially handwashing, and food safety supervision should be promoted particularly in schools.
High-power continuous-wave ultraviolet lasers are useful for many applications. As ultraviolet laser sources, the wavelength switching capability and compact structure are very important to extend the applicability and improve the flexibility in practical applications. In this work, we present two simple and relatively compact schemes by laser diode pumping to obtain a watt-level single-wavelength 348.7-nm laser and discrete wavelength tunable ultraviolet lasers around 349 nm (from 334.7 to 364.5 nm) by intracavity frequency doubling based on Pr3+:YLF and
-BBO crystals. The maximum output power of the single-wavelength 348.7-nm laser is 1.033 W. The output powers of the discrete wavelength tunable lasers are at the level of tens of milliwatts, except for two peaks at 348.7 and 360.3 nm with output powers of approximately 500 mW. In addition, simulations are carried out to explain the experimental results and clarify the tuning mechanisms.
Previous studies have confirmed that miR-146a-5p overexpression suppresses neurogenesis, thereby enhancing depression-like behaviors. However, it remains unclear how miR-146a-5p dysregulation produces in vivo brain structural abnormalities in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD).
In this case–control study, we combined cortical morphology analysis of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and miR-146a-5p quantification to investigate the neuropathological effect of miR-146a-5p on cortical thickness in MDD patients. Serum-derived exosomes that were considered to readily cross the blood-brain barrier and contain miR-146a-5p were isolated for miRNA quantification. Moreover, follow-up MRI scans were performed in the MDD patients after 6 weeks of antidepressant treatment to further validate the clinical relevance of the relationship between miR-146a-5p and brain structural abnormalities.
In total, 113 medication-free MDD patients and 107 matched healthy controls were included. Vertex-vise general linear model revealed miR-146a-5p-dependent cortical thinning in MDD patients compared with healthy individuals, i.e., overexpression of miR-146a-5p was associated with reduced cortical thickness in the left orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), anterior cingulate cortex, bilateral lateral occipital cortices (LOCs), etc. Moreover, this relationship between baseline miR-146a-5p and cortical thinning was nonsignificant for all regions in the patients who had received antidepressant treatment, and higher baseline miR-146a-5p expression was found to be related to greater longitudinal cortical thickening in the left OFC and right LOC.
The findings of this study reveal a relationship between miR-146a-5p overexpression and cortical atrophy and thus may help specify the in vivo mediating effect of miR-146a-5p dysregulation on brain structural abnormalities in patients with MDD.
This research communication investigated the role and the underlying mechanism of sn-1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase 6 (AGPAT6) in acetate-induced mTORC1 signaling activation and milk fat synthesis in dairy cow mammary epithelial cells. The data showed AGPAT6 knockdown significantly decreased acetate-induced phosphorylation of mTORC1 signaling molecules and intracellular triacylglycerol (TAG) content, whereas this inhibition effect was reversed after the addition of 16:0,18:1 phosphatidic acid (PA), suggesting that AGPAT6 could generate PA in response to acetate simulation, that in turn activates mTORC1 signaling. PPARγ is the upstream regulator of AGPAT6 upon acetate stimulation. Luciferase assay with clones containing various deletions and mutation in AGPAT6 promoter showed that there is a RXRα binding sequence located at −96 bp of AGPAT6 promoter. Acetate stimulation significantly increased the interaction between PPARγ and AGPAT6 via this RXRα binding site. Taken together, our data indicated that AGPAT6 could activate mTORC1 signaling by producing PA during acetate-induced milk fat synthesis, and PPARγ acts as a transcription factor to mediate the effect of acetate on AGPAT6 via RXRα.
Although attentional bias modification training (ABM) and cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) are two effective methods to decrease the symptoms of generalized anxiety disorders (GAD), to date, no randomized controlled trials have yet evaluated the effectiveness of an intervention combining internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy (ICBT) and ABM for adults with GAD.
This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of an intervention combining ICBT and ABM for adults with GAD.
Sixty-three participants diagnosed with GAD were randomly assigned to the treatment group (ICBT with ABM; 31 participants) or the control group (ICBT with ABM placebo; 32 participants), and received 8 weeks of treatment and three evaluations. The CBT, ABM and ABM-placebo training were conducted via the internet. The evaluations were conducted at baseline, 8 weeks later, and 1 month later, respectively.
Both the treatment and control groups reported significantly reduced anxiety symptoms and attentional bias, with no clear superiority of either intervention. However, the treatment group showed a greater reduction in negative automatic thoughts than the control group after treatment and at 1-month follow-up (η2 = 0.123).
The results suggest that although not differing in therapeutic efficacy, the intervention combining ICBT and ABM is superior to the intervention combining ICBT and ABM-placebo in the reduction of negative automatic thoughts. ABM may be a useful augmentation of ICBT on reducing anxiety symptoms.
Pattern-forming with externally imposed symmetry is ubiquitous in nature but little studied. We present experimental studies of pattern formation and selection by spatial periodic forcing in rapidly rotating convection. When periodic topographic structures are constructed on the heated boundary, they modulate the local temperature and velocity fields. Symmetric convection patterns in the form of regular vortex lattices are observed near the onset of convection, when the periodicity of the external forcing is set close to the intrinsic vortex spacing. We show that the new patterns arise as a dynamical process of imperfect bifurcation which is well described by a Ginzburg–Landau-like model. We explore the phase diagram of buoyancy strength and periodicity of external forcing to find the optimal experimental settings for which the vortex patterns best match that of the external forcing.
In the treatment of infertile patients with non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA) caused by the deletion of the azoospermia factor c region (AZFc) on the Y chromosome, synchronous and asynchronous surgical strategies are discussed. Clinical data from NOA patients with the AZFc deletion who underwent micro-TESE were analyzed retrospectively. The sperm retrieval rate (SRR) and sperm utilization rate of synchronous and asynchronous operation groups were followed up and compared. The fertilization rate, high-quality embryo rate, clinical pregnancy rate, abortion rate, and cumulative live birth rate of ICSI in patients with successful sperm retrieval were compared between the two groups. The two groups had sperm utilization rates of 98.9% (93/94) and 50.0% (14/28), respectively. The asynchronous group’s sperm consumption rates were much lower than those of the synchronous operation group. Fertilization rate, high-quality embryo rate, clinical pregnancy rate of fresh transfer cycle, abortion rate, and cumulative live birth rate of patients in the synchronous operation group with fresh sperm, and the asynchronous operation group with thawed sperm, respectively, were 30.6% vs 33.8%, 33.8% vs 40.7%, 40.0% vs 12.5%, 30.4% vs 7.1%. Between the two groups, there was no significant difference. This suggests that individuals with NOA caused by the AZFc deletion have a high possibility of successfully acquiring sperm using micro-TESE and ICSI to conceive their own offspring. Synchronous micro-TESE is recommended to improve sperm utilization rate and the cumulative live birth rate.
This study investigated attitudes towards dementia among Chinese immigrants aged 50 years and over living in Australia and compares these attitudes with those of individuals living in mainland China. It aimed to better understand what older Chinese adults think about dementia and to inform the development of tailored dementia-related services for this group of people.
A qualitative design involving individual interviews was employed in this study.
Forty-six participants were recruited: 21 in Melbourne and 25 in Beijing. All interviewees were born in mainland China, were community-dwelling, and did not have a dementia diagnosis.
The tripartite model of attitudes was used to guide the semi-structured interview design and report the results. Thematic qualitative analysis was employed.
In both groups, most participants held negative feelings, stigmatized views and negative stereotypes of dementia. However, most participants expressed a willingness to help individuals living with dementia. Regarding dementia care, nearly all participants preferred home care but thought formal care would become the mainstream form of care in the future. Fewer Melbourne participants expressed concerns regarding developing dementia, were interested in dementia, or perceived a need for dementia-related educational activities. Melbourne participants also reported more avoidant responses to dementia or individuals living with dementia.
This study carefully compares attitudes towards dementia between older Chinese immigrants in Melbourne and older Chinese adults in Beijing. Similarities and differences were observed between these two groups. Dementia-related service providers should consider the sociocultural changes and migration-related barriers experienced by Chinese immigrants.
It is unclear whether the enhancing contact model (ECM) intervention is effective in reducing family caregiving burden and improving hope and quality of life (QOL) among family caregivers of persons with schizophrenia (FCPWS).
We conducted a cluster randomized controlled trial in FCPWS in eight rural townships in Xinjin, Chengdu, China. In total, 253 FCPWS were randomly allocated to the ECM, psychoeducational family intervention (PFI), or treatment as usual (TAU) group. FCPWS in three groups were assessed caregiving burden, QOL and state of hope at baseline (T0), post-intervention (T1), 3-month (T2), and 9-month (T3) follow-up, respectively.
Compared with participants in the TAU group, participants in the ECM group had statistically significantly lower caregiving burden scores both at T1 and T2 (p = 0.0059 and 0.0257, respectively). Compared with participants in the TAU group, participants in the PFI group had statistically significantly higher QOL scores in T1 (p = 0.0406), while participants in the ECM group had statistically significantly higher QOL scores in T3 (p = 0.0240). Participants in both ECM and PFI groups had statistically significantly higher hope scores than those in the TAU group at T1 (p = 0.0160 and 0.0486, respectively).
This is the first study to explore the effectiveness of ECM on reducing family caregiving burden and improving hope and QOL in rural China. The results indicate the ECM intervention, a comprehensive and multifaceted intervention, is more effective than the PFI in various aspects of mental wellbeing among FCPWS. Future research needs to confirm ECM's effectiveness in various population.
The relationship of a diet low in fibre with mortality has not been evaluated. This study aims to assess the burden of non-communicable chronic diseases (NCD) attributable to a diet low in fibre globally from 1990 to 2019.
All data were from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study 2019, in which the mortality, disability-adjusted life-years (DALY) and years lived with disability (YLD) were estimated with Bayesian geospatial regression using data at global, regional and country level acquired from an extensively systematic review.
All data sourced from the GBD Study 2019.
All age groups for both sexes.
The age-standardised mortality rates (ASMR) declined in most GBD regions; however, in Southern sub-Saharan Africa, the ASMR increased from 4·07 (95 % uncertainty interval (UI) (2·08, 6·34)) to 4·60 (95 % UI (2·59, 6·90)), and in Central sub-Saharan Africa, the ASMR increased from 7·46 (95 % UI (3·64, 11·90)) to 9·34 (95 % UI (4·69, 15·25)). Uptrends were observed in the age-standardised YLD rates attributable to a diet low in fibre in a number of GBD regions. The burden caused by diabetes mellitus increased in Central Asia, Southern sub-Saharan Africa and Eastern Europe.
The burdens of disease attributable to a diet low in fibre in Southern sub-Saharan Africa and Central sub-Saharan Africa and the age-standardised YLD rates in a number of GBD regions increased from 1990 to 2019. Therefore, greater efforts are needed to reduce the disease burden caused by a diet low in fibre.
Self-integrity plays a vital role in the psychological wellbeing of older adults. The present study investigated whether or not the confrontation with negative, self-stereotyped information leads to a deterioration of older adults' self-integrity. Additionally, the current study attempted to examine the mediating effects of sense of coherence and empathy on the relationship between self-stereotype and self-integrity. A total of 825 Chinese older adults aged 55 or above from Xi'an and Beijing were recruited as research participants. A self-stereotype scale, sense of coherence scale, interpersonal reactivity index and self-integrity scale were used. Results showed that self-stereotypes are negatively associated with sense of coherence, empathy and self-integrity. Furthermore, sense of coherence and empathy are positively associated with self-integrity and played important roles in mediating the relationship between self-stereotype and self-integrity. Findings of this study can contribute to an improved understanding of the mechanism of associations between self-stereotype and self-integrity in older adults. Lastly, results obtained can provide guidance for effectively improving older adults' self-integrity to limit the negative effects of self-stereotypes.