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A 15-year-old teenager presented with a 2-month history of headache. Neurological examination was normal except for papilledema. Further lumbar puncture indicated intracranial hypertension (330 mm H2O). Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was normal but phase contrast-magnetic resonance venography (PC-MRV) (Figure 1(A)) suggested possible left transverse-sigmoid sinus thrombosis; subsequent contrast-enhanced 3D fat-saturated T1 volumetric isotropic turbo spin echo acquisition (VISTA) MRI (Figure 1(B)) confirmed the pathology. Hyper-coagulable panel results (including six steroid sex hormones, antithrombin III, protein C, protein S, lupus anticoagulant, and anticardiolipin antibodies) were all within normal range. In further examination, computed tomography (CT) venography images (Figure 1(C) and (D)) showed that the left jugular vein was compressed by the styloid process, consistent with Eagle syndrome.1 The patient who refused the recommended surgical treatment, however, chose anticoagulant therapy consisting of low-molecular weight heparin subcutaneous injection in addition to new oral anticoagulant. At 18-month follow-up, the patient reported no symptoms remained.
As distinctive spontaneous polarization and far-infrared radiation characteristics, the natural mineral tourmaline (TM) has the regulatory effect on crystallization behavior, which possesses potential application in biomimetic mineralization and bone regeneration. In this study, polyurethane (PU) and gelatin (GE) membranes with different adding proportion of TM nanoparticles were prepared via electrospinning. Additionally, the effect of TM nanoparticles on the mineralization process of hydrophobic PU and hydrophilic GE was investigated by immersing the composite TM/PU and TM/GE electrospun membranes in the 10× simulated body fluid (10SBF) at 37 °C for varying periods of time. SEM images confirmed the well-dispersed TM nanoparticles in the PU and GE electrospun fibers. The mineralization deposition was characterized by the SEM, EDS, XRD, and FTIR, and it indicated that two types of calcium phosphate deposits with different Ca/P molar ratios were obtained when TM/PU membranes and TM/GE membranes were incubated in 10SBF. Honeycomb-like hydroxyapatite crystals nucleated and grew faster on TM/PU and TM/GE membranes than the pure PU and GE membranes, respectively. Furthermore, with the increase of the added TM nanoparticles in the composite membranes, more calcium phosphate crystals were precipitated. These results showed that the added TM nanoparticles were able to improve the mineralization of polymer fibrous membranes, which is potential for the composite bone scaffold.
Direct determination of barrier height (ΦBH) value between Ir and single crystal (001) hydrogen-terminated diamond with lightly boron doped has been performed using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy technique. 70 nm Ir islands were formed on hydrogen-terminated diamond surface using anodic aluminum oxide. The ΦBH value for Ir/hydrogen-terminated diamond was −0.43 ± 0.14 eV, indicating that Ir was a suitable metal for ohmic contact with hydrogen-terminated diamond. The band diagram of Ir/hydrogen-terminated diamond was obtained. The experimental ΦBH was compared with the theoretical ΦBH in this work.
Suicide attempt (SA), which is one of the strongest predictors of completed suicide, is common in major depressive disorder (MDD) but its prevalence across epidemiological studies has been mixed. The aim of this comprehensive meta-analysis was to examine the pooled prevalence of SA in individuals with MDD.
A systematic literature search was conducted in PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO, Web of Science and Cochrane Library from their commencement date until 27 December 2017. Original studies containing data on prevalence of SA in individuals with MDD were analyzed.
In all, 65 studies with a total of 27 340 individuals with MDD were included. Using the random effects model, the pooled lifetime prevalence of SA was 31% [95% confidence interval (CI) 27–34%], 1-year prevalence was 8% (95% CI 3–14%) and 1-month prevalence was 24% (95% CI 15–34%). Subgroup analyses revealed that the lifetime prevalence of SA was significantly associated with the patient setting, study region and income level, while the 1-month prevalence of SA was associated with only the patient setting.
This meta-analysis confirmed that SA was common in individuals with MDD across the world. Careful screening and appropriate interventions should be implemented for SA in the MDD population.
The following paper investigates the prevalence and characteristics of asymptomatic norovirus infection in the population living around oyster farm sites. Two consecutive surveys were conducted from January 2014 to December 2014 and 4549 stool samples were screened during the same time period. The total asymptomatic infection rate was 4.04% (184/4549). Norovirus infection rate was 5.20% in oyster farming population which was significantly higher compared with non-farming population where the infection rate was 3.65% (χ2 = 5.49, P < 0.05). A total of 184 NoV positive samples were identified by real time-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and semi-nested RT-PCR and 136 sequences were obtained. The sequences were clustered into 14 genotypes. GI strains were clustered into six genotypes, including GI.2, GI.3, GI.5, GI.6, GI.8 and GI.9; while GII strains were clustered into GII.2, GII.3, GII.4, GII.5, GII.6, GII.8 and GII.13. GI.9 and GII.17 were the predominant and most prevalent genotypes, respectively. The GII.17 genotype replaced GII.4 becoming the dominant genotype in the oyster farming area in 2014. To sum up, long-term monitoring of asymptomatic infection is crucial for the detection of new variant strains and for identifying outbreaks during the early stage.
To produce pulses with good flat-top quality, pulse-forming lines (PFLs) have been widely used in the field of Tesla-type pulse generators. To shorten the physical length of the PFL, a double-width PFL (DWPFL) is proposed that doubles the output pulse width while maintaining flat-top quality. A repetitively 10 GW Tesla-type long-pulse generator producing pulses with flat-top width of about 110 ns was developed with a coaxial DWPFL to produce high-current electron beams. Electron beams of about 10 GW with flat-top widths of about 110 ns were obtained on a planar vacuum diode load. With this pulse generator and a C-band high-power microwave system, microwaves of ~2.2 GW power and full-width at half-maximum of 101 ns were generated. The experiment demonstrates the feasibility and ideal output waveform quality of the DWPFL.
In this work, the reduction mechanism of potassium chromate (K2CrO4) was investigated via in situ high-temperature X-ray diffraction coupled with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. During the hydrogen reduction of K2CrO4, the formation of K3CrO4, KCrO2, and KxCrO2 were detected for the first time. The study discovered that K2CrO4 was firstly reduced to K3CrO4 and an amorphous Cr(III) intermediate product at low temperature (400–500 °C). Moreover, the K3CrO4 was the only crystalline material at this stage. As the temperature increased, a stabilized amorphous CrOOH was formed. At a high temperature (550–700 °C), KCrO2 was generated. Interestingly, a portion of KCrO2 was spontaneously decomposed during the hydrogen reduction, accompanying by the formation of K0.7CrO2. Finally, the results clearly illustrated the reduction mechanism of K2CrO4: K2CrO4 → K3CrO4 → amorphous intermediate → KCrO2.
To assess correlations between cruciferous vegetable intake and urinary isothiocyanate (ITC) level, in addition to glutathione S-transferase (GST) genotypes and other individual factors.
The study included cohort participants whose urinary ITC levels had been previously ascertained. Urinary ITC was assessed using HPLC. Usual dietary intake of cruciferous vegetables was assessed using a validated FFQ and total dietary ITC intake was calculated. Recent cruciferous vegetable intake was determined. GST genotypes were assessed using duplex real-time quantitative PCR assays. Spearman correlations were calculated between the covariates and urinary ITC levels and linear regression analyses were used to calculate the mean urinary ITC excretion according to GST genotype.
Urban city in China.
The study included 3589 women and 1015 men from the Shanghai Women’s and Men’s Health Studies.
Median urinary ITC level was 1·61 nmol/mg creatinine. Self-reported usual cruciferous vegetable intake was weakly correlated with urinary ITC level (rs=0·1149; P<0·0001), while self-reported recent intake was more strongly correlated with urinary ITC (rs=0·2591; P<0·0001). Overall, the GST genotypes were not associated with urinary ITC level, but significant differences according to genotype were observed among current smokers and participants who provided an afternoon urine sample. Other factors, including previous gastrectomy or gastritis, were also related to urinary ITC level.
The study suggests that urinary secretion of ITC may provide additional information on cruciferous vegetable intake and that GST genotypes are related to urinary ITC level only in some subgroups.
Despite substantial research, uncertainty remains about the clinical and etiological heterogeneity of major depression (MD). Can meaningful and valid subtypes be identified and would they be stable cross-culturally?
Symptoms at their lifetime worst depressive episode were assessed at structured psychiatric interview in 6008 women of Han Chinese descent, age ⩾30 years, with recurrent DSM-IV MD. Latent class analysis (LCA) was performed in Mplus.
Using the nine DSM-IV MD symptomatic A criteria, the 14 disaggregated DSM-IV criteria and all independently assessed depressive symptoms (n = 27), the best LCA model identified respectively three, four and six classes. A severe and non-suicidal class was seen in all solutions, as was a mild/moderate subtype. An atypical class emerged once bidirectional neurovegetative symptoms were included. The non-suicidal class demonstrated low levels of worthlessness/guilt and hopelessness. Patterns of co-morbidity, family history, personality, environmental precipitants, recurrence and body mass index (BMI) differed meaningfully across subtypes, with the atypical class standing out as particularly distinct.
MD is a clinically complex syndrome with several detectable subtypes with distinct clinical and demographic correlates. Three subtypes were most consistently identified in our analyses: severe, atypical and non-suicidal. Severe and atypical MD have been identified in multiple prior studies in samples of European ethnicity. Our non-suicidal subtype, with low levels of guilt and hopelessness, may represent a pathoplastic variant reflecting Chinese cultural influences.
The symptoms of major depression (MD) are clinically diverse. Do they form coherent factors that might clarify the underlying nature of this important psychiatric syndrome?
Symptoms at lifetime worst depressive episode were assessed at structured psychiatric interview in 6008 women of Han Chinese descent, age ⩾30 years with recurrent DSM-IV MD. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatoryfactor analysis (CFA) were performed in Mplus in random split-half samples.
The preliminary EFA results were consistently supported by the findings from CFA. Analyses of the nine DSM-IV MD symptomatic A criteria revealed two factors loading on: (i) general depressive symptoms; and (ii) guilt/suicidal ideation. Examining 14 disaggregated DSM-IV criteria revealed three factors reflecting: (i) weight/appetite disturbance; (ii) general depressive symptoms; and (iii) sleep disturbance. Using all symptoms (n = 27), we identified five factors that reflected: (i) weight/appetite symptoms; (ii) general retarded depressive symptoms; (iii) atypical vegetative symptoms; (iv) suicidality/hopelessness; and (v) symptoms of agitation and anxiety.
MD is a clinically complex syndrome with several underlying correlated symptom dimensions. In addition to a general depressive symptom factor, a complete picture must include factors reflecting typical/atypical vegetative symptoms, cognitive symptoms (hopelessness/suicidal ideation), and an agitated symptom factor characterized by anxiety, guilt, helplessness and irritability. Prior cross-cultural studies, factor analyses of MD in Western populations and empirical findings in this sample showing risk factor profiles similar to those seen in Western populations suggest that our results are likely to be broadly representative of the human depressive syndrome.
The Lower Yangtze foreland basin is situated to the northwest of the early Palaeozoic Wuyi–Yunkai orogen in South China. To demonstrate its provenance history and the denudation of the orogen, seven sandstone samples were collected from the upper Ordovician to Silurian strata for U–Pb dating. The zircons show a broad range of ages that can be linked with the ages of specific units in the Wuyi–Yunkai orogen. The zircon spectra in the late Ordovician samples are similar to those in the pre-orogenic strata, suggesting a recycled source. The dominant age population of 880–740 Ma in the early Llandovery samples indicates that the middle Neoproterozoic volcanic rocks were the primary source. A significant age population of 460–425 Ma in the late Llandovery to Wenlock samples reflects the fact that the synorogenic magmatic and metamorphic rocks were exposed to provide detritus. The youngest zircons from the uppermost Silurian strata yield an age of 425 Ma, which approximates the inferred depositional age. This age, together with available biostratigraphic data, indicates that the foreland basin was formed 448–425 Ma ago. We surmise a possible link between the Wuyi–Yunkai orogen and the Appalachian–Caledonian orogen based on the geological constraints and palaeomagnetic data.
Since the pioneer work by Bender and Boettcher on non-Hermitian Hamiltonian under paritytime (PT) symmetry [Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 5243 (1998)], PT-symmetry optical coupled systems have been investigated extensively. Here we propose theoretically perfect transparency of a PT-symmetric acoustic coupled system which is comprised of a waveguide channel and two same-sized side-coupled resonators. Specifically, we demonstrate that with the change in the amplitude of attenuation and amplification coefficient, the spatial symmetry of two resonators is spontaneously broken which triggers an acoustic analog of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) by assigning anti-phase to the pressure field inside the two resonators.
The Blumlein pulse forming line (BPFL) consisting of an inner coaxial pulse forming line (PFL) and an outer coaxial PFL is widely used in the field of pulsed power, especially for intense electron-beam accelerators (IEBA). The output voltage waveform determines the quality and characteristics of the output beam current of the IEBA. Comparing with the conventional BPFL, an IEBA based on a strip spiral type BPFL can increase the duration of the output voltage in the same geometrical volume. However, for the spiral type BPFL, the voltage waveform on a matched load may be distorted, which influences the electron-beam quality. In this paper, the output waveform of an IEBA based on strip spiral BPFL is analyzed. It is found that there is fluctuation on the flattop of the main pulse, and the flatness is increased with the increment of the output voltage. According to the time integrated pictures of the cathode holder during the operation of the IEBA, the electron emission of the cathode holder is one of the reasons to cause the variance of the flatness. Furthermore, the distribution of the current density of spiral middle cylinder of the BPFL is calculated by using electromagnetic simulation software, and it is obtained that the current density is not uniform, and which leads to the nonuniformity of the impedance of BPFL. Meanwhile, when the nonuniformity of the BPFL is taken into account, the operation of the whole accelerator is simulated using a circuit-simulation code called PSpice. It is obtained that the nonuniformity of the BPFL influences the flatness of the output voltage waveform. In order to get an ideal square pulse voltage waveform and to improve the electron beam quality of such an accelerator, the uniformity of the spiral middle cylinder should be improved and the electron emission of the cathode holder should be avoided. The theoretical analysis and simulated output voltage waveform shows reasonable agreement with that of the experimental results.
In general, multiplication of operators is not essentially commutative in an algebra generated by integral-type operators and composition operators. In this paper, we characterize the essential commutativity of the integral operators and composition operators from a mixed-norm space to a Bloch-type space, and give a complete description of the universal set of integral operators. Corresponding results for boundedness and compactness are also obtained.
Oligomeric ionmer-grafted silica nanoparticles were synthesized via atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) and applied to dope Nafion to investigate proton-sweeping effect of these hybrid nanoparticles. Two types of vinyl monomers, sulfopropyl acrylate, potassium (SPA) and N,N’-methyl-(6-hexylcarbamatoethylmethacrylate) imidazolonium bromide (EMACI), were employed to construct the grafted ionmer chains. The ionmer-grafted silica particles present a thick polymer layer surrounding the SiO2 core according to TEM investigation. The DSC analysis shows that the grafted ionmer oligomers (DP < 10) exhibit a stronger ionic attractive interaction than the corresponding long chain counterparts. The other structural characterizations of the ionmer-grafted SiO2 nanoparticles also include FT-IR and EDX. The most interesting feature of the grafted ionmer shrub lies in its proton-conduction enhancing effect when combined with Nafion® polymer. A series of such composite membranes were prepared through dispersing the ionmer-grafted SiO2 nanoparticles in Nafion solution and followed by casting. The grafted copolymer (SPA-co-EMACI) demonstrated a greater promoting effect on proton conduction than its homopolymer counterparts of either (SPA) or (EMACI) in the matrix of Nafion. This outcome could be attributed to the adjacent proton-sweeping effect of the pendant imidazolonium group.
The spatio-temporal expressed profiles of two kinds of chemical communication-related protein genes, the odorant-binding protein of Ac-ASP2 and chemosensory protein of Ac-ASP3, were identified by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results obtained using the 2−ΔΔCt method showed that Ac-ASP2 was a gene coding antenna-specific protein that did not express in larvae and pupae, but had discontinuous high abundance periods at 1, 9, 15, 27 and 30 days. The expressing abundance at such periods was at least ten times higher than that at other periods. From the distribution of Ac-ASP3 mRNA observed in different tissues, the transcript levels seemed to be higher in the wings, abdomen and thorax (of order ~106), and lower in the legs, antennae and head (of order ~105). From highest to lowest, the original copy number was found in the various body parts in the following order: wings, abdomen, thorax, legs, antenna, and head. The results suggest that Ac-ASP3 has an intimate relation with the chemosensory behaviour of wings and abdomen in Apis cerana cerana.
The elements for the Semliki forest virus (SFV) RNA replicon were obtained from the Alphavirus genome. It was designed to overcome the poor efficacy of some current plasmid vectors. Genes coding for viral replicases are preserved while genes coding for structural proteins are replaced by foreign genes in the RNA replicon. High levels of RNA replication and expression of foreign genes in the cytoplasm are regulated by the replicases. To evaluate the effects of the SFV RNA replicon on the improvement of gene expression, a LacZ gene was inserted into pIRES-neo digested by BamHI and dephosphorylated by alkaline phosphatase to construct pIRES-neo-LacZ. The RNA replicon vector pCMV-rep-LacZ and two conventional cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter-based vectors (pLNCX-LacZ and pIRES-neo-LacZ) were transfected, using Lipofectin, to prepared 293 cells. Growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) expression vectors (pCMV-Rep-GHRH, pCDNA3.1(+)-GHRH and pIRES-neo-GHRH) were also tested using the same procedure. Target gene expression was detected with radioimmunoassay (RIA) and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results showed that the expression level of the RNA replicon vector was 2–3 times higher than with normal plasmid vectors. This result will help to improve the efficiency of gene expression in eukaryotic cells.
The development of near-isogenic lines (NILs) is an important fundamental step in the cloning of quantitative trait loci (QTL) and molecular marker assisted breeding. In the present study, NILs for two major QTLs of basal root thickness (BRT) and 1000-grain-weight (TGW) were obtained by molecular marker-assisted selection (MAS) through foreground selection for target QTL and background selection in three backcross generations (BC1F1, BC2F1 and BC3F1). After phenotypic evaluation in the BC3F2 generation, nine BRT QTL-NILs with BRT ranges of 1.07–1.16 mm (6.11–15.18% greater than the recurrent parent) and an average recovery ratio of genetic background (RRGB) of 97.22%, and 11 TGW QTL-NILs with ranges of 21.25–26.25 g (7.05–32.16% greater than the recurrent parent) and 95.97% of RRGB, were selected.
A novel stearic acid (SA)/3-aminopropyltrethoxysilane (APS) composite structure was fabricated using the combined method of the Langmuir–Blodgett technique and self-assembly monolayer (SAM) technique. Its frictional, adhesive properties and interface contact types between the atomic force microscope tip and the samples were evaluated based on Amonton’s laws and the general Carpick’s transition equation, respectively. The results showed that the tip–sample contacts corresponded to the Johnson–Kendall–Robert/Derjaguin–Muller–Toporov (DMT) transition model for SiO2, APS-SAMs, and the unheated SA-APS composite structure, and for the heated SA-APS bilayer to the DMT model. Frictional forces for the four samples were linearly dependent on external loads at higher loads, and at lower loads they were significantly affected by adhesive forces. Frictional and scratching tests showed that the heated SA-APS composite structure exhibited the best lubricating properties and adhesion resistance ability, and its wear resistance capacity was greatly improved due to the binding-mode conversion from hydrogen bonds to covalent bonds. Thus, this kind of composite bilayer might be promising for applications in the lubrication of nano/microelectromechanical systems.