To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The LiCoO2 films were directly deposited on stainless steel (SS) using medium-frequency magnetron sputtering, and the effects of annealing parameters, such as ambiences, temperatures, holding times, and heating rates, were systematically compared based on surface morphologies, crystal structures, and electrochemical properties. The results demonstrate that an aerobic atmosphere with 3.5 Pa is the most important parameter to maintain the performance of LiCoO2 films. The influence of the annealing temperature (>550 °C) ranks second because the formed (101) or (104) planes of LiCoO2 facilitate Li+ migration. A short holding time of 20 min and a moderate heating rate of 3 °C/min are selected to reduce the oxidation or inter-diffusion between the LiCoO2 films and the SS substrate. Finally, the optimal annealing process is confirmed and corresponds to the initial discharge capacity of 37.56 μA h/(cm2 μm) and the capacity retention of 83.81% at the 50th cycle.
Spanwise rotating plane Poiseuille flow (RPPF) is one of the canonical flow problems to study the effect of system rotation on wall-bounded shear flows and has been studied a lot in the past. In the present work, a two-dimensional-three-component (2D/3C) model for RPPF is introduced and it is shown that the present model is equivalent to a thermal convection problem with unit Prandtl number. For low Reynolds number cases, the model can be used to study the stability behaviour of the roll cells. It is found that the neutral stability curves, critical eigensolutions and critical streamfunctions of RPPF at different rotation numbers (
) almost collapse with the help of a rescaling with a newly defined Rayleigh number
and channel height
. Analytic expressions for the critical Reynolds number and critical wavenumber at different
can be obtained. For a turbulent state with high Reynolds number, the 2D/3C model for RPPF is self-sustained even without extra excitations. Simulation results also show that the profiles of mean streamwise velocity and Reynolds shear stress from the 2D/3C model share the same linear laws as the fully three-dimensional cases, although differences on the intercepts can be observed. The contours of streamwise velocity fluctuations behave like plumes in the linear law region. We also provide an explanation to the linear mean velocity profiles observed at high rotation numbers.
Light-absorbing impurities (LAIs, e.g. black carbon (BC), organic carbon (OC), mineral dust (MD)) deposited on snow cover reduce albedo and accelerate its melting. Northern Xinjiang (NX) is an arid and semi-arid inland region, where snowmelt leads to frequent floods that have been a serious threat to local ecological security. There is still a lack of quantitative assessments of the effects of LAIs on snowmelt in the region. This study investigates spatial variations of LAIs in snow and its effect on snow albedo, radiative forcing (RF) and snowmelt across NX. Results showed that concentrations of BC, OC (only water-insoluble OC), MD ranged from 32 to 8841 ng g−1, 77 to 8568 ng g−1 and 0.46 to 236 µg g−1, respectively. Weather Research and Forecasting Chemistry model suggested that residential emission was the largest source of BC. Snow, Ice, and Aerosol Radiative modelling showed that the average contribution of BC and MD to snow albedo reduction was 17 and 3%, respectively. RF caused by BC significantly exceeded RF caused by MD. In different scenarios, changes in snow cover duration (SCD) caused by BC and MD decreased by 1.36 ± 0.61 to 6.12 ± 3.38 d. Compared with MD, BC was the main dominant factor in reducing snow albedo and SCD across NX.
A compact ultra-wideband (UWB) monopole antenna with reconfigurable band-notch characteristics is demonstrated in this paper. It is comprised of a modified rectangular patch and a defected ground plane. The band-notch property in the WiMAX and WLAN bands is achieved by etching an open-ended slot on the radiating patch and an inverted U-shaped slot on the ground plane, respectively. To obtain the reconfigurable band-notch performance, two PIN diodes are inserted in the slots, and then the notch-band can be switched by changing the states of the PIN diodes. The antenna has a compact size of 0.47 λ1 × 0.27 λ1. The simulated and measured results indicate that the antenna can operate at a UWB mode, two single band-notch modes, and a dual band-notch mode. Moreover, stable radiation patterns are obtained.
Seasonal influenza virus epidemics have a major impact on healthcare systems. Data on population susceptibility to emerging influenza virus strains during the interepidemic period can guide planning for resource allocation of an upcoming influenza season. This study sought to assess the population susceptibility to representative emerging influenza virus strains collected during the interepidemic period. The microneutralisation antibody titers (MN titers) of a human serum panel against representative emerging influenza strains collected during the interepidemic period before the 2018/2019 winter influenza season (H1N1-inter and H3N2-inter) were compared with those against influenza strains representative of previous epidemics (H1N1-pre and H3N2-pre). A multifaceted approach, incorporating both genetic and antigenic data, was used in selecting these representative influenza virus strains for the MN assay. A significantly higher proportion of individuals had a ⩾four-fold reduction in MN titers between H1N1-inter and H1N1-pre than that between H3N2-inter and H3N2-pre (28.5% (127/445) vs. 4.9% (22/445), P < 0.001). The geometric mean titer (GMT) of H1N1-inter was significantly lower than that of H1N1-pre (381 (95% CI 339–428) vs. 713 (95% CI 641–792), P < 0.001), while there was no significant difference in the GMT between H3N2-inter and H3N2-pre. Since A(H1N1) predominated the 2018–2019 winter influenza epidemic, our results corroborated the epidemic subtype.
In this work, two types of zinc adipate β-nucleating agents, Adi-Zn(OH)2 (1:1) and Adi-ZnO (1:1), for polypropylene (PP) were prepared and their performances were evaluated and compared with commercial β-nucleating agent (named CNA). Results showed that Adi-Zn(OH)2 (1:1) was more effective in promoting PP to form β-crystals and improving the impact strength of PP in the range of nucleating agent addition (0–0.4 wt%). Based on these findings, the ratio of adipic acid to zinc hydroxide and the nonisothermal crystallization kinetics of the optimum ratio of adipic acid to zinc hydroxide were systematically studied; results showed that at 0.2 wt%, Adi-Zn(OH)2 (1:2), the nucleated PP displayed the highest impact strength, which was 2.6 times that of pure PP and 42% higher than that of CNA. Besides, Adi-Zn(OH)2 (1:2) could also afford to induce the formation of a high content of β-crystals and shorten the crystallization half time (t1/2) and accelerate the crystallization of PP.
A magnetic dipole quasi-Yagi antenna based on a dielectric resonator (DR) is proposed in this letter. The dominate TE1δ1 mode of the rectangular DR is used as a magnetic dipole which can be differentially fed by the coplanar strip line (CPS). Thanks to the DR employment, the proposed antenna has several advantages such as compact size and flexible design which means the 3-D dimensions of the DR can be easily adjusted to cater for various applications. Meanwhile, the gain of the proposed DR quasi-Yagi antenna is higher than that of traditional electric dipole counterparts. Furthermore, since the DR driver is horizontally polarized, both the metal strip and DR can be used as a director for enhancing the end-fire gain. To verify the design concept, a prototype operating at the X-band is fabricated and measured. Good agreement between the simulated and measured results can be observed.
Hot extrusion experiments were conducted on Al–5.50Zn–2.35Mg–1.36Cu (wt%) alloy under various temperatures and extrusion speeds. Results indicated that dynamic recovery occurred at low temperature and then dynamic recrystallization was triggered at higher temperature or speed. High billet temperature reduced the grain size and increased the volume fraction of Al23CuFe4 and AlMgZn. When the extrusion speed was enhanced to 0.5 mm/s, the peak of MgZn2 phase diminished in the results of X-ray diffraction. The strong brass and S components appeared in all the extruded specimens. Texture intensity gradually decreased with increasing temperature and the fraction of texture components was also significantly affected by the extrusion parameters. The extruded alloy exhibited the highest ultimate tensile strength of 350.2 MPa at 480 °C and 0.5 mm/s and the best elongation of 16.78% at 520 °C and 0.1 mm/s. Moreover, the extrusion speed had more significant effects on the tensile properties than that of the temperature.
It has been suggested that dust generation was closely linked to the development of global ice sheets and/or cooling. This feature has allowed Asian dust to be a potential chronostratigraphic tool in North Pacific Ocean (NPO) sediments. The orbital-scale age control in NPO sediments is usually established by adjusting the benthic-foraminiferal δ18O to the global δ18O stack (LR04). However, it would become difficult if the sediments did not contain enough foraminifera. This study investigates Sr and Nd isotopes, trace elements, mineralogy and grain size of the ‘operationally defined aeolian dust’ (ODED) extracted from the sediments recovered at Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) site 1209B on the Shatsky Rise in the NPO covering the past five glacial–interglacial cycles. The geochemical results show that the ODED at site 1209B is actually a mixture of Asian dust and volcanic ash. The variation of Nd isotope mimics the cycles of glacial–interglacial ice sheets as revealed by the global benthic foraminifera’s oxygen isotope stack (LR04) over the past 500 ka. The low (high) ϵNd values corresponded with the cool (warm) periods. We propose that ϵNd variation reflects the evolving aeolian dust in site 1209 sediments. The excellent agreement between ϵNd values at site 1209B and LR04 stack over the past 500 ka allows establishing the orbital-timescale age control by tuning ϵNd to the LR04 curve. We thus propose that Nd isotope provides a chronostratigraphic technique in NPO sediments, especially for sediments with a limited amount of foraminifera.
The Beijing Twin Study (BeTwiSt), which was established in 2006, is an ongoing study aiming to investigate the genetic and environmental etiology of adolescent psychopathology. Resting-state brain imaging datasets have been examined for same-sex twins, and other psychological traits and emotional and behavioral variables have been examined for all twins. Based on the registry, the main findings regarding the etiological mechanism underlying adolescent development, magnetic resonance imaging results, and genetic and environmental influences on other psychological traits have been published. This article summarizes the key findings in these three areas and discusses future plans for the BeTwiSt.
Using ethanol adsorption calorimetry, the surface energetics of two carbon substrates and two products in microwave-assisted carbon nanotube (CNT) growth was studied. In this study, the ethanol adsorption enthalpies of the two graphene-based samples at 25 °C were measured successfully. Specifically, the near-zero differential enthalpies of ethanol adsorption are −75.7 kJ/mol for graphene and −63.4 kJ/mol for CNT-grafted graphene. Subsequently, the differential enthalpy curve of each sample becomes less exothermic until reaching a plateau, −55.8 kJ/mol for graphene and −49.7 kJ/mol for CNT-grafted graphene, suggesting favorable adsorbate–adsorbent binding. Moreover, the authors interpreted and discussed the partial molar entropy and chemical potential of adsorption as the ethanol surface coverage (loading) increases. Due to the low surface areas of carbon black–based samples, adsorption calorimetry could not be performed. This model study demonstrates that using adsorption calorimetry as a fundamental tool and ethanol as the molecular probe, the overall surface energetics of high–surface area carbon materials can be estimated.
Few of the previous studies of clinical high risk of psychosis (CHR) have explored whether outcomes other than conversion, such as poor functioning or treatment responses, are better predicted when using risk calculators. To answer this question, we compared the predictive accuracy between the outcome of conversion and poor functioning by using the NAPLS-2 risk calculator.
Three hundred CHR individuals were identified using the Chinese version of the Structured Interview for Prodromal Symptoms. Of these, 228 (76.0%) completed neurocognitive assessments at baseline and 199 (66.3%) had at least a 1-year follow-up assessment. The latter group was used in the NAPLS-2 risk calculator.
We divided the sample into two broad categories based on different outcome definitions, conversion (n = 46) v. non-conversion (n = 153) or recovery (n = 138) v. poor functioning (n = 61). Interestingly, the NAPLS-2 risk calculator showed moderate discrimination of subsequent conversion to psychosis in this sample with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.631 (p = 0.007). However, for discriminating poor functioning, the AUC of the model increased to 0.754 (p < 0.001).
Our results suggest that the current risk calculator was a better fit for predicting a poor functional outcome and treatment response than it was in the prediction of conversion to psychosis.
The Upper Ordovician Sandbian to Katian strata from the East Qilianshan (northeastern Tibet Plateau) bear a graptolite fauna of moderately high diversity. Graptolites from the Amplexograptus maxwelli beds to the Appendispinograptus longispinus Biozone (Sa2–Ka4 intervals) proposed herein include 27 species of 13 genera. This important graptolite fauna is first described herein although it was initially reported in 1963. Most of them occur in the A. longispinus Biozone corresponding to the Dicellograptus complexus to Paraorthograptus pacificus biozones of the Wufeng Formation in the Yangtze region. Alulagraptus new genus is established based on the materials from the East Qiqiaogou section. The endemic species, e.g., Alulagraptus ensiformis (Mu and Zhang in Mu et al., 1963), Dicellograptus sinicus Mu and Zhang in Mu et al., 1963, and Climacograptus? papilio Mu and Zhang in Mu et al., 1963, could indicate that East Qilianshan block was separated from South China.
Farmer training is important to improve weed management practices in tea cultivation. To explore the group characteristics of tea growers, we interviewed 354 growers in Guizhou Province, China. Sixty-one percent of the respondents planted tea for companies or cooperative groups, and 56% managed tea gardens larger than 10 ha. Self-employed tea growers tended to be older and smallholders, and to apply herbicides and conduct weed control less frequently (P < 0.05). Approximately 87% of the respondents conducted weed control two to four times yr−1, 83% spent between $200 and $2,000 ha−1 yr−1 for weed control, and 42% thought weed control costs would decrease by 5 years from this study. Twenty-eight species were mentioned by the respondents as being the most serious. According to canonical correspondence analysis, latitude, altitude, being self-employed or a member of a cooperative, having training experience in tea-garden weed management, and frequency and cost of weed control in tea gardens had significant (P < 0.05) influence on the composition of most troublesome weed species listed by respondents. Among the respondents, 60% had had farmer’s training on weed management in tea gardens. Of these, a significant number (P < 0.05) tended to think weed control costs would decrease, and a nonsignificant number (P > 0.05) tended to conduct weed control more frequently and have lower weed management costs in their tea gardens.
l-Carnitine is essential for mitochondrial β-oxidation and has been used as a lipid-lowering feed additive in humans and farmed animals. d-Carnitine is an optical isomer of l-carnitine and dl-carnitine has been widely used in animal feeds. However, the functional differences between l- and d-carnitine are difficult to study because of the endogenous l-carnitine background. In the present study, we developed a low-carnitine Nile tilapia model by treating fish with a carnitine synthesis inhibitor, and used this model to investigate the functional differences between l- and d-carnitine in nutrient metabolism in fish. l- or d-carnitine (0·4 g/kg diet) was fed to the low-carnitine tilapia for 6 weeks. l-Carnitine feeding increased the acyl-carnitine concentration from 3522 to 10 822 ng/g and alleviated the lipid deposition from 15·89 to 11·97 % in the liver of low-carnitine tilapia. However, as compared with l-carnitine group, d-carnitine feeding reduced the acyl-carnitine concentration from 10 822 to 5482 ng/g, and increased lipid deposition from 11·97 to 20·21 % and the mRNA expression of the genes involved in β-oxidation and detoxification in the liver. d-Carnitine feeding also induced hepatic inflammation, oxidative stress and apoptosis. A metabolomic investigation further showed that d-carnitine feeding increased glycolysis, protein metabolism and activity of the tricarboxylic acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation. Thus, l-carnitine can be physiologically utilised in fish, whereas d-carnitine is metabolised as a xenobiotic and induces lipotoxicity. d-Carnitine-fed fish demonstrates increases in peroxisomal β-oxidation, glycolysis and amino acid degradation to maintain energy homeostasis. Therefore, d-carnitine is not recommended for use in farmed animals.
To explore whether and how group cognitive-behavioural therapy (GCBT) plus medication differs from medication alone for the treatment of generalised anxiety disorder (GAD).
Hundred and seventy patients were randomly assigned to the GCBT plus duloxetine (n=89) or duloxetine group (n=81). The primary outcomes were Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA) response and remission rates. The explorative secondary measures included score reductions from baseline in the HAMA total, psychic, and somatic anxiety subscales (HAMA-PA, HAMA-SA), the Hamilton Depression Scale, the Severity Subscale of Clinical Global Impression Scale, Global Assessment of Functioning, and the 12-item Short-Form Health Survey. Assessments were conducted at baseline, 4-week, 8-week, and 3-month follow-up.
At 4 weeks, HAMA response (GCBT group 57.0% vs. control group 24.4%, p=0.000, Cohen’s d=0.90) and remission rates (GCBT group 21.5% vs. control group 6.2%, p=0.004; d=0.51), and most secondary outcomes (all p<0.05, d=0.36−0.77) showed that the combined therapy was superior. At 8 weeks, all the primary and secondary significant differences found at 4 weeks were maintained with smaller effect sizes (p<0.05, d=0.32−0.48). At 3-month follow-up, the combined therapy was only significantly superior in the HAMA total (p<0.045, d=0.43) and HAMA-PA score reductions (p<0.001, d=0.77). Logistic regression showed superiority of the combined therapy for HAMA response rates [odds ratio (OR)=2.12, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02−4.42, p=0.04] and remission rates (OR=2.80, 95% CI 1.27−6.16, p=0.01).
Compared with duloxetine alone, GCBT plus duloxetine showed significant treatment response for GAD over a shorter period of time, particularly for psychic anxiety symptoms, which may suggest that GCBT was effective in changing cognitive style.