To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The aim of this study was to investigate the association between daily Se intake and postpartum weight retention (PPWR) among Chinese lactating women, and the impact of their Se nutritional status on infants’ physical development. Se contents in breast milk and plasma collected from 264 lactating Chinese women at the 42nd day postpartum were analysed with inductively coupled plasma MS. Daily Se intake was calculated based on plasma Se concentration. The dietary data of 24-h records on three consecutive days were collected. Infant growth status was evaluated with WHO standards by Z-scores. Linear regression analyses and multinomial logistic regression were conducted to examine the impact of Se disequilibrium (including other factors) on PPWR and growth of infants, respectively. The results indicated that: (1) the daily Se intake of the subjects was negatively associated with their PPWR (B = −0·002, 95 % CI − 0·003, 0·000, P = 0·039); (2) both insufficient Se daily intake (B = −0·001, OR 0·999, 95 % CI 0·998, 1·000, P = 0·014) and low level of Se in milk (B = −0·025, OR 0·975, 95 % CI 0·951, 0·999, P = 0·021) had potential associations with their infants’ wasting, and low level of Se in milk (B = −0·159, OR 0·853, 95 % CI 0·743, 0·980, P = 0·024) had a significant association with their infants’ overweight. In conclusion, the insufficient Se nutritional status of lactating Chinese women was first found as one possible influencing factor of their PPWR as well as low physical development of their offspring.
The Chinese culture of filial piety has historically emphasised children's responsibility for their ageing parents. Little is understood regarding the inverse: parents’ responsibility and care for their adult children. This paper uses interviews with 50 families living in rural China's Anhui Province to understand intergenerational support in rural China. Findings indicate that parents in rural China take on large financial burdens in order to sustain patrilineal traditions by providing housing and child care for their adult sons. These expectations lead some rural elders to become migrant workers in order to support their adult sons while others provide live-in grandchild-care, moving into their children's urban homes or bringing grandchildren into their own homes. As the oldest rural generations begin to require ageing care of their own, migrant children are unable to provide the sustained care and support expected within the cultural tradition of xiao. This paper adds to the small body of literature that examines the downward transfer of support from parents to their adult children in rural China. The authors argue that there is an emerging cultural rupture in the practice of filial piety – while the older generation is fulfilling their obligations of upbringing and paying for adult children's housing and child care; these adult children are not necessarily available or committed to the return of care for their ageing parents. The authors reveal cultural and structural lags that leave millions of rural ageing adults vulnerable in the process of urbanisation in rural China.
New occurrences of middle–late Darriwilian (Middle Ordovician) conodonts are reported from the Nyalam region, southern Tibet. The conodont-yielding strata, referred to the Chiatsun Group, accumulated on the north Indian continental margin of northern Gondwana. These Middle Ordovician conodonts include the informal species Histiodella sp. A in the middle part of the Lower Formation of the Chiatsun Group succeeded by a fauna of the Pygodus serra Zone in the upper part of that formation. Pygodus anserinus is recorded from the base of the Upper Formation of the Chiatsun Group. The Nyalam succession and its conodont taxa allow for precise correlation of the strata preserved on top of Mount Qomolangma (Mount Everest), eastern Tibet and the Peri-Gondwana Lhasa (north central Tibet), South China, North China, Tarim Basin and Thailand-Malaysia (Sibumasu Terrane) terranes and/or microcontinents. The middle Darriwilian positive increase in δ13Ccarb values (carbon isotope excursion, or MDICE) is recorded from most terranes, and can be related to a late middle Darriwilian global short-term cooling and sea-level drop. The cooling event prompted temperate- to warm-water taxa to migrate towards the palaeoequator and constrained the Australasian Province to locations near and at the palaeoequator. The intensified oceanic circulation and upwelling on continental margins probably caused some characteristic taxa to become extinct. The incoming fauna was mainly of cool-water taxa. The conodont specimens from southern Tibet are black to pale grey, corresponding to conodont colour index (CAI) values of 5 to 6, which demonstrates that the host sedimentary rocks were once heated to more than 360°C.
Post-stroke depression (PSD) is the most common psychiatric complication facing stroke survivors and has been associated with increased distress, physical disability, poor rehabilitation, and suicidal ideation. However, the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying PSD remain unknown, and no objective laboratory-based test is available to aid PSD diagnosis or monitor progression.
Here, an isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)-based quantitative proteomic approach was performed to identify differentially expressed proteins in plasma samples obtained from PSD, stroke, and healthy control subjects.
The significantly differentiated proteins were primarily involved in lipid metabolism and immunoregulation. Six proteins associated with these processes – apolipoprotein A-IV (ApoA-IV), apolipoprotein C-II (ApoC-II), C-reactive protein (CRP), gelsolin, haptoglobin, and leucine-rich alpha-2-glycoprotein (LRG) – were selected for Western blotting validation. ApoA-IV expression was significantly upregulated in PSD as compared to stroke subjects. ApoC-II, LRG, and CRP expression were significantly downregulated in both PSD and HC subjects relative to stroke subjects. Gelsolin and haptoglobin expression were significantly dysregulated across all three groups with the following expression profiles: gelsolin, healthy control > PSD > stroke subjects; haptoglobin, stroke > PSD > healthy control.
Early perturbation of lipid metabolism and immunoregulation may be involved in the pathophysiology of PSD. The combination of increased gelsolin levels accompanied by decreased haptoglobin levels shows promise as a plasma-based diagnostic biomarker panel for detecting increased PSD risk in post-stroke patients.
We present a spatiotemporal model of pulse amplification in the double-pass active mirror (AM) geometry. Three types of overlap condition are studied, and the spatiotemporal scaling under the four-pulse overlapping (4PO) condition is fully characterized for the first time, by mapping the temporal and spatial segments of beam to the instantaneous gain windows. Furthermore, the influence of spatiotemporal overlaps on the amplified energy, pulse distortion and intensity profile is unraveled for both AM and zigzag configurations. The model, verified by excellent agreement between the predicted and measured results, can be a powerful tool for designing and optimizing high energy multi-pass solid-state laser amplifiers with AM, zigzag and other geometries.
The timing of the Holocene summer monsoon maximum (HSMM) in northeastern China has been much debated and more quantitative precipitation records are needed to resolve the issue. In the present study, Holocene precipitation and temperature changes were quantitatively reconstructed from a pollen record from the sediments of Tianchi Crater Lake in northeastern China using a plant functional type-modern analogue technique (PFT-MAT). The reconstructed precipitation record indicates a gradual increase during the early to mid-Holocene and a HSMM at ~5500–3100 cal yr BP, while the temperature record exhibits a divergent pattern with a marked rise in the early Holocene and a decline thereafter. The trend of reconstructed precipitation is consistent with that from other pollen records in northeastern China, confirming the relatively late occurrence of the HSMM in the region. However, differences in the onset of the HSMM within northeastern China are also evident. No single factor appears to be responsible for the late occurrence of the HSMM in northeastern China, pointing to a potentially complex forcing mechanism of regional rainfall in the East Asian monsoon region. We suggest that further studies are needed to understand the spatiotemporal pattern of the HSMM in the region.
Data on dietary patterns in relation to the risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in a middle-aged Chinese population are sparse. The present study was performed to determine the major dietary patterns among a population aged 45–59 years and to evaluate their associations with MetS risk in China.
Cross-sectional examination of the association between dietary patterns and MetS. Face-to-face interviews were used to assess dietary intake using a validated semi-quantitative FFQ. OR and 95 % CI for MetS were calculated across quartiles of dietary pattern scores using multivariate logistic regression analysis models.
City of Linyi, Shandong Province, China.
Adults (n 1918) aged 45–59 years.
Three major dietary patterns were identified: traditional Chinese, animal food and high-energy. After adjustment for potential confounders, individuals in the highest quartile of the traditional Chinese pattern had a reduced risk of MetS relative to the lowest quartile (OR=0·72, 95 % CI 0·596, 0·952; P<0·05). Compared with those in the lowest quartile, individuals in the highest quartile of the animal food pattern had a greater risk of MetS (OR=1·28; 95 % CI 1·103, 1·697; P<0·05). No significant association was observed between the high-energy pattern and risk of MetS.
These findings indicate that the traditional Chinese pattern was associated with a reduced risk, while the animal food pattern was associated with increased risk of MetS. Given the cross-sectional nature of our study, further prospective studies are warranted to confirm these findings.
A direct prejudgement strategy that takes the diffraction ring as the analysis target is put forward to predict hot images induced by defects of tens of microns in the main amplifier section of high power laser systems. Analysis of hot-image formation process shows that the hot image can be precisely calculated with the extracted intensity oscillation of the diffraction ring on the front surface of the nonlinear plate. The gradient direction matching (GDM) method is adopted to detect diffraction rings. Recognition of simulated diffraction rings shows that it is feasible to directly prejudge hot images induced by those closely spaced defects and the defects that are far apart from each other. Image compression and cluster analysis are utilized to optimize the performance of the GDM method in recognizing actually collected diffraction images. Results show that hot images induced by defects of tens of microns can be directly prejudged without redundant information.
Material mechanical behavior of tube has an essential influence on cross-sectional deformation of rectangular waveguide tube in rotary draw bending (RDB) process. Thus, taking widely used 3A21 aluminum alloy and H96 brass rectangular tubes as research objects, the cross-sectional deformation of these tubes in RDB with and without mandrel was investigated using the reliable three-dimensional finite element models. The results show that when no mandrel is used, compared with 3A21 tube, the position of wrinkle initiation for H96 tube is closer to the final bending section, and the cross-sectional deformation of H96 tube along bending direction is more homogeneous. When a mandrel is used, in bending process, the cross-sectional deformation of 3A21 tube in mandrel support zone (MSZ) is in coincidence with that of H96 tube, and the deformation of 3A21 tube is larger in transition zone (TZ) while smaller in no mandrel affect zone (NMAZ) than that of H96 tube. In retracting mandrel or springback process, the cross-sectional deformation of 3A21 tube in MSZ and TZ is constantly larger than that of H96 tube, while in NMAZ, the deformation of both tubes reverses.
The hydrogen concentration and composition of garnets in the ultrahigh pressure eclogites at Shuanghe, eastern Dabieshan, were investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and electron microprobe analysis. The OH absorption bands can be divided into four groups: (1) 3635–3655 cm–1; (2) 3600–3630 cm–1; (3) 3540–3580 cm–1; and (4) 3400–3450 cm–1 and the water content ranges from 45 to 2529 ppm. Based on the behaviour of the OH absorption band and the relationship between water content and the composition of garnets, the samples can be divided into two classes: samples with >400 ppm H2O and samples with ≤400 ppm H2O. The water content of the former shows an obvious positive correlation with Ca atoms and a negative correlation with the Si, Mg and Fe2+ atoms per 12 anions, whereas the water content of the latter shows no obvious linear correlation with cations. It is concluded that the major mechanism of hydroxyl incorporation in garnets with >400 ppm H2O is by the coupled substitution 4H +Z□ → □+ZSi in the tetrahedral site, and that several mechanisms are responsible for OH incorporation in garnets with ≤400 ppm H2O.
In the near future, the inactivated enterovirus 71 (EV71) vaccine is expected to become available on the market in China. Since EV71 is a major cause of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD), the vaccine is expected to significantly reduce the number of cases, as well as the detrimental economic effect of the disease. However, for a national vaccination strategy to be developed, policy-makers need more information on the socioeconomic burden of EV71 HFMD infection. Based on the 2011 population data, we estimated the clinical and economic effect of EV71 HFMD infection in children aged 0–9 years in Shanghai, China. The annual cost related to HFMD is >US$7.66 million for a population of 1·42 million children aged 0–9 years with an average cost of US$208.2/case. The extrapolated cost for EV71 HFMD infection was US$3.53 million, comprising 46·1% of the overall cost associated with HFMD. Around 97% of all of the HFMD-related expenses were paid for by the families creating a considerable economic burden. Our findings could provide the necessary recommendations on the most effective national EV71 vaccine implementation, as well as a baseline data for assessing the cost-effectiveness of the vaccine in China.
The solid-state phase equilibria of the copper (Cu)–dysprosium (Dy)–titanium (Ti) ternary system at 973 K has been experimentally investigated. The existence of nine binary compounds, Cu4Ti, Cu3Ti2, Cu4Ti3, CuTi, CuTi2, CuTi3, CuDy, Cu2Dy, and Cu5Dy was confirmed. The controversial phase of CuTi3 was found in this work. The temperature range of Cu7Dy was determined to be from 1112 to 1183 K. The phase relations at 973 K are governed by ten ternary phase regions, 21 binary phase regions, and 12 single-phase regions. The solid solubility of Cu in Dy is undetectable. None of the other phase in this system reveals a remarkable homogeneity range at 973 K.
Multiferroic CoFe2O4–BiFeO3 (CFO–BFO) core–shell nanofibers were synthesized by coaxial electrospinning. The spinel structure of CFO and perovskite structure of BFO were confirmed by x-ray diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The core–shell configuration of nanofibers was verified by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy images. The macroscopic ferromagnetic property of core–shell nanofibers was demonstrated by magnetic hysteresis loop. The local magnetoelectric (ME) coupling was confirmed by using dual frequency piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) under an external magnetic field, showing magnetically induced evolution of piezoresponse and domain structure. The ferroelectric characteristics are demonstrated by the switching spectroscopy PFM. From PFM hysteresis and butterfly loops, it is observed that the piezoresponse amplitude is reduced while coercive voltage increased under external in-plane magnetic field, induced through the mechanical interactions between magnetostrictive CFO and piezoelectric BFO, from which the lateral ME coupling can be estimated quantitatively. The nanofibers thus can find a variety of applications as a one-dimensional multiferroic material.
Traditionally, elder care in China has been confined to the familial sphere, long enshrined by the Confucian norm of filial piety. However, in recent years demographic shifts and rapid socioeconomic changes have escalated concerns about whether Chinese families will still be able to take care of a rapidly growing elderly population. These concerns are compounded by China’s one-child policy, which has been in effect for more than thirty years, further straining the capacities of family caregivers. Against this backdrop, formal long-term care services have emerged and expanded rapidly in China, a process catalysed both by government policies and private-sector initiatives.
In this chapter, we begin with an outline of the unprecedented challenges for Chinese elder care in the context of population ageing and profound socioeconomic transformations, followed by an overview of the evolving long-term care landscape in China. Next, we document the rise of formal long-term care services for the elderly, and summarize major policy efforts mounted by the Chinese government in spurring the growth of these services over the last decade. This is followed by a description of the current regulatory structure and process from the perspectives of both central and local government authorities. We conclude by highlighting the need for strengthening regulatory oversight through the building of an information infrastructure in this rapidly growing long-term care service sector.
4-arm poly(ethylene glycol) end-capped with mimics of adhesive moiety found in mussel adhesive protein, dopamine, was combined with a biocompatible nano-silicate, Laponite, in creating a nanocomposite hydrogel with improved materials and adhesive properties. Dopamine’s ability to form both irreversible covalent (cohesive and interfacial) and reversible physical (with Laponite) crosslinks was exploited in creating an injectable tissue adhesive. Incorporation of Laponite did not interfere with the curing of the adhesive. In some instances, increasing Laponite content reduced gelation time as dopamine-Laponite bond reduced the required number of covalent bonds needed for network formation. Incorporation of Laponite also increased compressive materials properties (e.g., max strength, energy to failure, etc.) of the nanocomposite without compromising its compliance as strain at failure was also increased. From lap shear adhesion test using wetted pericardium as the substrate, incorporating Laponite increased work of adhesion by 5 fold over that of control. Strong, physical bonds formed between dopamine and Laponite increased bulk materials properties, which contributed to the enhanced adhesive properties.
As the technology of global navigation satellite system (GNSS) and augmentation systems are evolving rapidly, compatibility becomes a critical issue for system providers. By April 2011, China had successfully launched eight satellites of the Compass phase II (CP II) navigation system, which will provide positioning, navigation, timing and communication services to the Asia-Pacific region by the year 2012. Due to the limitations of available radio frequency bandwidths, it is important to assess the compatibility and to design signals based on the compatibility within these limited radio frequency bandwidths. This paper presents a modified compatibility assessment methodology, derived from the traditional methodologies that are based on the spectral separation coefficient (SSC) and the effective carrier-power-to-noise density ratio. The modified methodology takes into account additional factors including the Doppler offset, code tracking loop, and band-limiting, sampling and quantisation (BSQ) of the GNSS receiver. In the simulation section, the comprehensive compatibility assessment between CP II and other GNSSs, such as GPS, Galileo, Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS) and European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service (EGNOS) on L1 Band are carried out and presented with some new results. Simulation results reveal that CP II does not cause serious interference on GPS, Galileo, WAAS and EGNOS as the interference level is below the 0·25 dB threshold recommended by ITU.
Bulk production of iron nanowire inside carbon nanotubes (CNTs) from iron phthalocyanine (FePc) polymer under 800 °C is presented for the first time. The bis-phthalonitrile was firstly reacted with iron nanoparticles to produce iron phthalonitrile oligomer, and heat treatments made the formation of CNTs occurred during the carbonization process of FePc polymer at ambient pressure in nitro atmosphere under 800 °C. The iron nanowire inside carbon tubes from the metal Pc polymer possessed excellent electromagnetic loss and magnetic loss properties.
The intersystem interference between Galileo and Compass, known as a radio frequency compatibility problem, has become a matter of great concern for the system providers and user communities. This paper firstly describes two fundamentally different methods to assess the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) intersystem interference, by using different interference coefficients that are calculated for each combination of signals: the spectral separation coefficient (SSC) and code tracking spectral sensitivity coefficient (CT_SSC). And then a complete methodology combining the SSC and CT_SSC is presented. Real simulations are carried out to assess the interference effects where Galileo and Compass signals are sharing the same band (E1/B1 and E6/B3 bands) at every time and place on the Earth. Simulation results show that the effects of intersystem interference are significantly different by using these two methodologies. It is also shown that the Compass system leads to intersystem interference on Galileo but that the maximal values are lower than Galileo interference to Compass. The design and implementation of any new signal has to be conducted carefully in order for there to be radio frequency compatibility.