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The timing of the Holocene summer monsoon maximum (HSMM) in northeastern China has been much debated and more quantitative precipitation records are needed to resolve the issue. In the present study, Holocene precipitation and temperature changes were quantitatively reconstructed from a pollen record from the sediments of Tianchi Crater Lake in northeastern China using a plant functional type-modern analogue technique (PFT-MAT). The reconstructed precipitation record indicates a gradual increase during the early to mid-Holocene and a HSMM at ~5500–3100 cal yr BP, while the temperature record exhibits a divergent pattern with a marked rise in the early Holocene and a decline thereafter. The trend of reconstructed precipitation is consistent with that from other pollen records in northeastern China, confirming the relatively late occurrence of the HSMM in the region. However, differences in the onset of the HSMM within northeastern China are also evident. No single factor appears to be responsible for the late occurrence of the HSMM in northeastern China, pointing to a potentially complex forcing mechanism of regional rainfall in the East Asian monsoon region. We suggest that further studies are needed to understand the spatiotemporal pattern of the HSMM in the region.
A direct prejudgement strategy that takes the diffraction ring as the analysis target is put forward to predict hot images induced by defects of tens of microns in the main amplifier section of high power laser systems. Analysis of hot-image formation process shows that the hot image can be precisely calculated with the extracted intensity oscillation of the diffraction ring on the front surface of the nonlinear plate. The gradient direction matching (GDM) method is adopted to detect diffraction rings. Recognition of simulated diffraction rings shows that it is feasible to directly prejudge hot images induced by those closely spaced defects and the defects that are far apart from each other. Image compression and cluster analysis are utilized to optimize the performance of the GDM method in recognizing actually collected diffraction images. Results show that hot images induced by defects of tens of microns can be directly prejudged without redundant information.
Data on dietary patterns in relation to the risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in a middle-aged Chinese population are sparse. The present study was performed to determine the major dietary patterns among a population aged 45–59 years and to evaluate their associations with MetS risk in China.
Cross-sectional examination of the association between dietary patterns and MetS. Face-to-face interviews were used to assess dietary intake using a validated semi-quantitative FFQ. OR and 95 % CI for MetS were calculated across quartiles of dietary pattern scores using multivariate logistic regression analysis models.
City of Linyi, Shandong Province, China.
Adults (n 1918) aged 45–59 years.
Three major dietary patterns were identified: traditional Chinese, animal food and high-energy. After adjustment for potential confounders, individuals in the highest quartile of the traditional Chinese pattern had a reduced risk of MetS relative to the lowest quartile (OR=0·72, 95 % CI 0·596, 0·952; P<0·05). Compared with those in the lowest quartile, individuals in the highest quartile of the animal food pattern had a greater risk of MetS (OR=1·28; 95 % CI 1·103, 1·697; P<0·05). No significant association was observed between the high-energy pattern and risk of MetS.
These findings indicate that the traditional Chinese pattern was associated with a reduced risk, while the animal food pattern was associated with increased risk of MetS. Given the cross-sectional nature of our study, further prospective studies are warranted to confirm these findings.
Material mechanical behavior of tube has an essential influence on cross-sectional deformation of rectangular waveguide tube in rotary draw bending (RDB) process. Thus, taking widely used 3A21 aluminum alloy and H96 brass rectangular tubes as research objects, the cross-sectional deformation of these tubes in RDB with and without mandrel was investigated using the reliable three-dimensional finite element models. The results show that when no mandrel is used, compared with 3A21 tube, the position of wrinkle initiation for H96 tube is closer to the final bending section, and the cross-sectional deformation of H96 tube along bending direction is more homogeneous. When a mandrel is used, in bending process, the cross-sectional deformation of 3A21 tube in mandrel support zone (MSZ) is in coincidence with that of H96 tube, and the deformation of 3A21 tube is larger in transition zone (TZ) while smaller in no mandrel affect zone (NMAZ) than that of H96 tube. In retracting mandrel or springback process, the cross-sectional deformation of 3A21 tube in MSZ and TZ is constantly larger than that of H96 tube, while in NMAZ, the deformation of both tubes reverses.
The hydrogen concentration and composition of garnets in the ultrahigh pressure eclogites at Shuanghe, eastern Dabieshan, were investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and electron microprobe analysis. The OH absorption bands can be divided into four groups: (1) 3635–3655 cm–1; (2) 3600–3630 cm–1; (3) 3540–3580 cm–1; and (4) 3400–3450 cm–1 and the water content ranges from 45 to 2529 ppm. Based on the behaviour of the OH absorption band and the relationship between water content and the composition of garnets, the samples can be divided into two classes: samples with >400 ppm H2O and samples with ≤400 ppm H2O. The water content of the former shows an obvious positive correlation with Ca atoms and a negative correlation with the Si, Mg and Fe2+ atoms per 12 anions, whereas the water content of the latter shows no obvious linear correlation with cations. It is concluded that the major mechanism of hydroxyl incorporation in garnets with >400 ppm H2O is by the coupled substitution 4H +Z□ → □+ZSi in the tetrahedral site, and that several mechanisms are responsible for OH incorporation in garnets with ≤400 ppm H2O.
In the near future, the inactivated enterovirus 71 (EV71) vaccine is expected to become available on the market in China. Since EV71 is a major cause of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD), the vaccine is expected to significantly reduce the number of cases, as well as the detrimental economic effect of the disease. However, for a national vaccination strategy to be developed, policy-makers need more information on the socioeconomic burden of EV71 HFMD infection. Based on the 2011 population data, we estimated the clinical and economic effect of EV71 HFMD infection in children aged 0–9 years in Shanghai, China. The annual cost related to HFMD is >US$7.66 million for a population of 1·42 million children aged 0–9 years with an average cost of US$208.2/case. The extrapolated cost for EV71 HFMD infection was US$3.53 million, comprising 46·1% of the overall cost associated with HFMD. Around 97% of all of the HFMD-related expenses were paid for by the families creating a considerable economic burden. Our findings could provide the necessary recommendations on the most effective national EV71 vaccine implementation, as well as a baseline data for assessing the cost-effectiveness of the vaccine in China.
The solid-state phase equilibria of the copper (Cu)–dysprosium (Dy)–titanium (Ti) ternary system at 973 K has been experimentally investigated. The existence of nine binary compounds, Cu4Ti, Cu3Ti2, Cu4Ti3, CuTi, CuTi2, CuTi3, CuDy, Cu2Dy, and Cu5Dy was confirmed. The controversial phase of CuTi3 was found in this work. The temperature range of Cu7Dy was determined to be from 1112 to 1183 K. The phase relations at 973 K are governed by ten ternary phase regions, 21 binary phase regions, and 12 single-phase regions. The solid solubility of Cu in Dy is undetectable. None of the other phase in this system reveals a remarkable homogeneity range at 973 K.
Multiferroic CoFe2O4–BiFeO3 (CFO–BFO) core–shell nanofibers were synthesized by coaxial electrospinning. The spinel structure of CFO and perovskite structure of BFO were confirmed by x-ray diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The core–shell configuration of nanofibers was verified by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy images. The macroscopic ferromagnetic property of core–shell nanofibers was demonstrated by magnetic hysteresis loop. The local magnetoelectric (ME) coupling was confirmed by using dual frequency piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) under an external magnetic field, showing magnetically induced evolution of piezoresponse and domain structure. The ferroelectric characteristics are demonstrated by the switching spectroscopy PFM. From PFM hysteresis and butterfly loops, it is observed that the piezoresponse amplitude is reduced while coercive voltage increased under external in-plane magnetic field, induced through the mechanical interactions between magnetostrictive CFO and piezoelectric BFO, from which the lateral ME coupling can be estimated quantitatively. The nanofibers thus can find a variety of applications as a one-dimensional multiferroic material.
Traditionally, elder care in China has been confined to the familial sphere, long enshrined by the Confucian norm of filial piety. However, in recent years demographic shifts and rapid socioeconomic changes have escalated concerns about whether Chinese families will still be able to take care of a rapidly growing elderly population. These concerns are compounded by China’s one-child policy, which has been in effect for more than thirty years, further straining the capacities of family caregivers. Against this backdrop, formal long-term care services have emerged and expanded rapidly in China, a process catalysed both by government policies and private-sector initiatives.
In this chapter, we begin with an outline of the unprecedented challenges for Chinese elder care in the context of population ageing and profound socioeconomic transformations, followed by an overview of the evolving long-term care landscape in China. Next, we document the rise of formal long-term care services for the elderly, and summarize major policy efforts mounted by the Chinese government in spurring the growth of these services over the last decade. This is followed by a description of the current regulatory structure and process from the perspectives of both central and local government authorities. We conclude by highlighting the need for strengthening regulatory oversight through the building of an information infrastructure in this rapidly growing long-term care service sector.
4-arm poly(ethylene glycol) end-capped with mimics of adhesive moiety found in mussel adhesive protein, dopamine, was combined with a biocompatible nano-silicate, Laponite, in creating a nanocomposite hydrogel with improved materials and adhesive properties. Dopamine’s ability to form both irreversible covalent (cohesive and interfacial) and reversible physical (with Laponite) crosslinks was exploited in creating an injectable tissue adhesive. Incorporation of Laponite did not interfere with the curing of the adhesive. In some instances, increasing Laponite content reduced gelation time as dopamine-Laponite bond reduced the required number of covalent bonds needed for network formation. Incorporation of Laponite also increased compressive materials properties (e.g., max strength, energy to failure, etc.) of the nanocomposite without compromising its compliance as strain at failure was also increased. From lap shear adhesion test using wetted pericardium as the substrate, incorporating Laponite increased work of adhesion by 5 fold over that of control. Strong, physical bonds formed between dopamine and Laponite increased bulk materials properties, which contributed to the enhanced adhesive properties.
As the technology of global navigation satellite system (GNSS) and augmentation systems are evolving rapidly, compatibility becomes a critical issue for system providers. By April 2011, China had successfully launched eight satellites of the Compass phase II (CP II) navigation system, which will provide positioning, navigation, timing and communication services to the Asia-Pacific region by the year 2012. Due to the limitations of available radio frequency bandwidths, it is important to assess the compatibility and to design signals based on the compatibility within these limited radio frequency bandwidths. This paper presents a modified compatibility assessment methodology, derived from the traditional methodologies that are based on the spectral separation coefficient (SSC) and the effective carrier-power-to-noise density ratio. The modified methodology takes into account additional factors including the Doppler offset, code tracking loop, and band-limiting, sampling and quantisation (BSQ) of the GNSS receiver. In the simulation section, the comprehensive compatibility assessment between CP II and other GNSSs, such as GPS, Galileo, Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS) and European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service (EGNOS) on L1 Band are carried out and presented with some new results. Simulation results reveal that CP II does not cause serious interference on GPS, Galileo, WAAS and EGNOS as the interference level is below the 0·25 dB threshold recommended by ITU.
Bulk production of iron nanowire inside carbon nanotubes (CNTs) from iron phthalocyanine (FePc) polymer under 800 °C is presented for the first time. The bis-phthalonitrile was firstly reacted with iron nanoparticles to produce iron phthalonitrile oligomer, and heat treatments made the formation of CNTs occurred during the carbonization process of FePc polymer at ambient pressure in nitro atmosphere under 800 °C. The iron nanowire inside carbon tubes from the metal Pc polymer possessed excellent electromagnetic loss and magnetic loss properties.
This work presents the study on the recognition and absorption of the water-soluble X-ray contrast medium iodixanol in aqueous solution using synthetic molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs). A non-covalent imprinting technique was applied to prepare iodixanol-imprinted polymers using 4-vinylpyridine as the functional monomer and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as the cross-linker. The effects of quantity of iodixanol templates, the crosslink density, and the solvent were studied in terms of the binding capacity and imprint effect of the polymers. UV-vis spectrometric analysis shows that the highest binding capacity achieved is 284 mg iodixanol per gram of dry polymer, which is 8.8 times higher than the binding capacity of the non-imprinted control polymers (NIPs). SEM and BET surface analysis have also been performed to investigate the effect of morphology and porosity on the binding capacities of polymers.
The intersystem interference between Galileo and Compass, known as a radio frequency compatibility problem, has become a matter of great concern for the system providers and user communities. This paper firstly describes two fundamentally different methods to assess the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) intersystem interference, by using different interference coefficients that are calculated for each combination of signals: the spectral separation coefficient (SSC) and code tracking spectral sensitivity coefficient (CT_SSC). And then a complete methodology combining the SSC and CT_SSC is presented. Real simulations are carried out to assess the interference effects where Galileo and Compass signals are sharing the same band (E1/B1 and E6/B3 bands) at every time and place on the Earth. Simulation results show that the effects of intersystem interference are significantly different by using these two methodologies. It is also shown that the Compass system leads to intersystem interference on Galileo but that the maximal values are lower than Galileo interference to Compass. The design and implementation of any new signal has to be conducted carefully in order for there to be radio frequency compatibility.
Growing evidence shows that the deregulation of the circadian clock plays an important role in the development of malignant tumors, including gliomas. However, the molecular mechanisms of genes controlling circadian rhythm in glioma cells have not been explored.
Using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry techniques, we examined the expression of two important clock genes, Per1 and Per2, in 33 gliomas.
In this study, out of 33 gliomas, 28 were Per1-positive, and 23 were Per2-positive. The expression levels of Per1 and Per2 in glioma cells were significantly different from the surrounding non-glioma cells (P<0.01). The difference in the expression rate of Per1 and Per2 in high-grade (grade III and IV) and low-grade (grade 1 and II) gliomas was insignificant (P>0.05). While there was no difference in the intensity of immunoactivity for Per2 between high-grade gliomas and low-grade gliomas (r=-0.330, P=0.061), the expression level of Per1 in highgrade gliomas was significantly lower than that in low-grade gliomas(r=-0.433, P=0.012).
In this study, we found that the expression of Per1 and Per2 in glioma cells was much lower than in the surrounding non-glioma cells. Therefore, we suggest that disturbances in Per1 and Per2 expression may result in the disruption of the control of normal circadian rhythm, thus benefiting the survival of glioma cells. Differential expression of circadian clock genes in glioma and non-glioma cells may provide a molecular basis for the chemotherapy of gliomas.
Up to now, many “immunoactive” brain areas have been identified, such a hypothalamic nuclei, brain reward system; but the nucleus ambiguous (Amb), a nucleus nervi vagis of medulla oblongata, was less well studied in neuroimmunomodulation.
In order to obtain more profound comprehension and more knowledge on Amb, we studied the effect of acute electrical stimulation of Amb on thymus and spleen activity in rat. A stimulator was applied to stimulate the Amb of the anaesthetic rats using the parameter at 100μAx5ms x100 Hz every 1s for 1 min. The levels of TGF-β and thymosin-β4 mRNA in thymus, the release of IL-2 and IL-6 at splenocyte in vitro and splenic lymphocyte proliferation were measured at hour 0.5,1,2,3 following the electrical stimulation.
The results showed that concanavalin A (Con A)-induced splenic lymphocyte proliferation and the release of IL-2 and IL-6 were all significantly enhanced at 0.5, 1, and 2 h following effective Amb stimulation as compared to in the control group. However, as compared to in the control group, the levels of TGF-β and thymosin-β4 mRNA in the thymus were both remarkably reduced at 0.5, 1, and 2 h following effective Amb stimulation.
These findings reveal that the Amb participates in the modulation of animal immune functions.
An electron-beam accelerator based on spiral water pulse forming line which consists of a primary storage capacitor system, an air core spiral strip transformer, a spiral pulse forming line of water dielectric, and a field-emission diode, is described. The experimental results showed that the diode voltage is more than 500 kV, the electron beam current of diode is about 24 kA, and the pulse duration is about 200 ns. The main parameters of the accelerator were calculated theoretically. The distributions for electrical field in the pulse forming line were obtained by the simulations. In addition, the process of the accelerator charging a spiral pulse forming line was simulated through the Pspice software to get the waveforms of charging voltage of pulse forming line, the diode voltage and diode current of accelerator. The theoretical and simulated results agree with the experimental results. This accelerator is very compact and works stably and reliably.
A high voltage pulse Tesla transformer with a coupling coefficient of 0.75 was designed and experimentally investigated. The transformer was employed to charge a spiral water pulse forming line (PFL) in a high current electron beam accelerator, and was featured by its compactness, stability, and reliability. When the primary input voltage is 55 kV, the transformer can charge the PFL to 720 kV with an energy conversion efficiency of 36%. The formulas for calculating the primary and secondary inductances of the transformer were deduced, with which the main parameters of the transformer were calculated theoretically. The distributions for electrical and magnetic fields in the transformer were obtained by the simulations of calculation. In addition, the process of an accelerator of the transformer charging a spiral PFL was simulated through the Pspice software to get the waveform of charging voltage, the diode voltage, and diode current of accelerator. The theoretical and simulated results agree with the experimental results.