High strength mortars have been prepared utilizing optimized particle packing, reactive substituents to modify the chemistry- and addition of superplasticizers. Otherwise the processing techniques were conventional. The compressive strengths of one prototype material after curing at temperatures from 38 C to 250 C were above 70 MPa. The strengths were particularly high at 175 C (195 MPa) where excellent bonding had developed; one chemically modified material reached 245 MPa. The specimens cured at 175 and 250 C (after a lower temperature precure) developed their strengths rapidly, having reached essentially full strength by 7 days. At lower curing temperatures the strength increased with time, apparently still increasing at 56 days (106 MPa) for the materials cured at 38 C. Modified mixtures were prepared using different proportions of silica fume, MgO, different ratios of sand to fine components, and different sand mineralogy and other admixture proportions for rheological optimization. Microhardness, dynamic Young's modulus, density, and permeability were measured in addition to strength. Matrix chemistry and sand mineralogy and proportions affected the strength. Matrix-aggregate bond was very important. The above types of cementitious materials have potential importance for applications where they may be exposed to extreme conditions and to temperature cycling.