To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
This study investigates the linear instability of a thin-film coating inside a rigid tube. The flow is assumed to be inertialess and driven by an axial body force (e.g. gravity), an interfacial shearing force, or their combinations. The interface and the bulk of the film are laden with soluble surfactant. The properties of the soluble surfactant, i.e. solubility, sorption kinetics and bulk diffusivity, modulate the interfacial dynamics of the film. The influence of these properties on the linear instability of the film is comprehensively investigated via long-wave approximation analysis and numerical calculation. Two modes, namely the interface mode and the surfactant mode, are identified to dominate the instability. For a quiescent film, it is found that solubility, sorption kinetics and bulk diffusivity act to improve the uniformity of the surface surfactant and mitigate the stabilizing effect of the Marangoni force. For the film driven by the axial body/interfacial shearing force, the results reveal that solubility plays contrasting roles in the interface mode and the surfactant mode. A window with intermediate solubility is detected where the film can be linearly stabilized. Moreover, sorption kinetics is found to destabilize the perturbations with long wavelength whereas it stabilizes the perturbations with finite wavelength. The bulk diffusivity of the surfactant has a non-monotonic influence on the flow instability, and the film can be relatively stable at both strong and weak diffusivity.
Through the collateral channel for entrepreneurs, a positive housing demand shock in Liu et al. [(2013) Econometrica 81, 1147–1184.] increases land prices and business investment, but consumption decreases on impact and there is thus a comovement problem. This paper improves Liu et al. [(2013) Econometrica 81, 1147–1184.] by adding general household preferences with broader intratemporal and intertemporal substitutions Bayesian estimation of our structural model based on aggregate US data suggests that the intratemporal substitution is larger than unity and the intertemporal substitution is smaller than unity. Our impulse responses show that a positive housing demand shock increases land prices, business investment, and consumption, which resolves the comovement problem. Moreover, the strength of the collateral channel linking land prices and business investment in our Bayesian DSGE model is larger than that in Liu et al. [(2013) Econometrica 81, 1147–1184.]. Housing demand shocks explain 39−43% of the variance of output and 41−47% of the variance of investment in our model, but the same shocks explain only 17−31% of the variance of output and 30−41% of the variance of investment in Liu et al. [(2013) Econometrica 81, 1147–1184.]. Variance decomposition reveals that housing demand shocks account for a larger share of the fluctuations in land prices, investment, employment, and output than other shocks. Using the marginal data density as the measure of fit for models, we find that our model can better explain the same US aggregate data.
The relationship between magmatism and gold mineralization has been a topic of interest in understanding the formation of ore deposits. The Baizhangzi gold deposit, located in the northern margin of the North China Craton, is hosted by the Baizhangzi granite (BZG) and provides a case to evaluate the relation between granite and gold mineralization in Late Triassic. In this study, we present petrography, bulk geochemistry, zircon U-Pb isotope and trace elements data, as well as major elements of biotite and plagioclase for the BZG to evaluate the petrogenesis and link with gold mineralization. The BZG comprises biotite monzogranite, biotite-bearing monzogranite and monzogranite (BZGs). Zircon U-Pb geochronology shows that all the granitoids of BZGs were coeval with a formation age of 232 Ma. The granitoids, with high SiO2, Al2O3 and Sr, while low Y and Yb, show adakitic affinity. They are enriched in LILFs (e.g., Rb, Ba, Th, U and Sr) and LREEs, while depletion in HFSEs (e.g., Nb, Ta, P and Ti). The geochemical and mineral chemical data suggest that the granitoids have experienced the fractional crystallization of biotite + plagioclase + K- feldspar + apatite. Crystallization temperature is estimated as ca. 700°C, and pressure is between 0.71 kbar and 1.60 kbar. The monzogranite shows higher values of logfO2, △FMQ and △NNO than the biotite-bearing monzogranite, ranging from −19.76 to −11.71, −4.93 to +3.67 and −5.48 to +3.11, respectively. The fractional crystallization, together with high fO2, K-metasomatism and low evolution degree, provided favourable conditions for gold mineralization.
Straightplasma channels are widely used to guide relativistic intense laser pulses over several Rayleigh lengths for laser wakefield acceleration. Recently, a curved plasma channel with gradually varied curvature was suggested to guide a fresh intense laser pulse and merge it into a straight channel for staged wakefield acceleration [Phys. Rev. Lett. 120, 154801 (2018)]. In this work, we report the generation of such a curved plasma channel from a discharged capillary. Both longitudinal and transverse density distributions of the plasma inside the channel were diagnosed by analyzing the discharging spectroscopy. Effects of the gas-filling mode, back pressure and discharging voltage on the plasma density distribution inside the specially designed capillary are studied. Experiments show that a longitudinally uniform and transversely parabolic plasma channel with a maximum channel depth of 47.5 μm and length of 3 cm can be produced, which is temporally stable enough for laser guiding. Using such a plasma channel, a laser pulse with duration of 30 fs has been successfully guided along the channel with the propagation direction bent by 10.4°.
The relationship of a diet low in fibre with mortality has not been evaluated. This study aims to assess the burden of non-communicable chronic diseases (NCD) attributable to a diet low in fibre globally from 1990 to 2019.
All data were from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study 2019, in which the mortality, disability-adjusted life-years (DALY) and years lived with disability (YLD) were estimated with Bayesian geospatial regression using data at global, regional and country level acquired from an extensively systematic review.
All data sourced from the GBD Study 2019.
All age groups for both sexes.
The age-standardised mortality rates (ASMR) declined in most GBD regions; however, in Southern sub-Saharan Africa, the ASMR increased from 4·07 (95 % uncertainty interval (UI) (2·08, 6·34)) to 4·60 (95 % UI (2·59, 6·90)), and in Central sub-Saharan Africa, the ASMR increased from 7·46 (95 % UI (3·64, 11·90)) to 9·34 (95 % UI (4·69, 15·25)). Uptrends were observed in the age-standardised YLD rates attributable to a diet low in fibre in a number of GBD regions. The burden caused by diabetes mellitus increased in Central Asia, Southern sub-Saharan Africa and Eastern Europe.
The burdens of disease attributable to a diet low in fibre in Southern sub-Saharan Africa and Central sub-Saharan Africa and the age-standardised YLD rates in a number of GBD regions increased from 1990 to 2019. Therefore, greater efforts are needed to reduce the disease burden caused by a diet low in fibre.
In this study, we report the first complete mitochondrial genome of the tapeworm Nippotaenia mogurndae in the order Nippotaeniidea Yamaguti, 1939. This mitogenome, which is 14,307 base pairs (bp) long with an A + T content of 72.2%, consists of 12 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, two rRNA genes, and two non-coding regions. Most tRNAs have a conventional cloverleaf structure, but trnS1 and trnR lack dihydrouridine arms of tRNA. The two largest non-coding regions, NCR1 (220 bp) and NCR2 (817 bp), are located between trnY and trnS2 and between nad5 and trnG, respectively. Phylogenetic analyses of mitogenomic data indicate that N. mogurndae is closely related to tapeworms in the order Cyclophyllidea.
The Jueluotage area, which is located in the southern branch of the Eastern Tianshan and northeast of the Tarim Basin, represents a vital locality for investigating intracontinental reactivation induced by the tectonic events at the Eurasian plate margin. This study applies zircon and apatite (U–Th)/He and apatite fission-track thermochronology to the Jueluotage area in the Eastern Tianshan. Our data and thermal history modelling show that the Jueluotage area experienced Triassic–Early Jurassic (˜240–180 Ma) cooling, reflecting the closure of the North Tianshan Ocean and subsequent far-field effects of collision/accretion of the Qiangtang Block and Kunlun terrane. Following this period of fast cooling, a differential exhumation process occurred between the various tectonic belts in the Jueluotage area. The Aqishan–Yamansu belt was exposed at the surface during the Triassic–Early Jurassic cooling phase and experienced subsequent burial, which continued until Early Cretaceous time when a pulse of exhumation occurred. However, the major fault zones (Kanggurtag ductile shear zone and Aqikkuduk Fault) and Central Tianshan arc have remained tectonically stable since Early Jurassic time. No Cenozoic rapid cooling was recorded by the low-temperature thermochronology results in this study, indicating that much of the Jueluotage area was exhumed to the upper crust in the late Mesozoic period.
We investigate the dynamics of a self-rewetting drop placed on a substrate with a constant temperature gradient via three-dimensional numerical simulations using a conservative level-set approach to track the interface of the drop. The surface tension of a so-called self-rewetting fluid exhibits a parabolic dependence on temperature with a well-defined minimum. Two distinct drop behaviours, namely deformation and elongation, are observed when it is placed at the location of the minimum surface tension. The drop spreads slightly and reaches a pseudo-steady state in the deformation regime, while it continuously spreads until breakup in the elongation regime. Theoretical models based on the forces exerted on the drop have been developed to predict the critical condition at which the drop undergoes the transition between the two regimes, and the predictions are in good agreement with the numerical results. We also investigate the effect of the initial position of the drop with respect to the location of the minimum surface tension on the spreading and migration dynamics. It is found that, at early times, the migration of the drop obeys an exponential function with time, but it diverges at the later stage due to an increase in the drop deformation.
The TanDEM-X DEM is a valuable data source for estimating glacier mass balance. However, the accuracy of TanDEM-X elevation over glaciers can be affected by microwave penetration and phase decorrelation. To investigate the bias of TanDEM-X DEMs of glaciers on the Tibetan Plateau, these DEMs were subtracted from SPOT-6 DEMs obtained around the same time at two study sites. The average bias over the studied glacier areas in West Kunlun (175.0 km2) was 2.106 ± 0.012 m in April 2014, and it was 1.523 ± 0.011 m in Geladandong (228.8 km2) in October 2013. By combining backscatter coefficients and interferometric coherence maps, we found surface decorrelation and baseline decorrelation can cause obvious bias in addition to microwave penetration. If the optical/laser data and winter TanDEM-X data were used as new and historic elevation sources for mass-balance measurements over an arbitrary observation period of 10 years, the glacier mass loss rates in West Kunlun and Geladandong would be potentially underestimated by 0.218 ± 0.016 and 0.158 ± 0.011 m w.e. a−1, respectively. The impact is therefore significant, and users should carefully treat the bias of TanDEM-X DEMs when retrieving a geodetic glacier mass balance.
The aim of the study was to investigate the continuous changing pattern of H4K12 acetylation, and the expression levels of histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and histone deacetyltransferases (HDACs) in mouse oocytes during meiosis and after parthenogenetic activation (PA). The immunofluorescence results showed hyperacetylation of lysine-12 on histone H4 (H4K12) in the germinal vesicle (GV) oocytes that then decreased during germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD), and disappeared in metaphase II (MII). However, it reappeared in the early 1-cell embryos derived after 4 h of PA. The expression levels of some selected HATs and HDACs also validated the changing pattern of H4K12 acetylation during meiosis and PA. In conclusion, H4K12 is deacetylated in GVBD and MII, and re-hyperacetylated after PA.
The high-cycle fatigue (HCF) behavior is significantly affected by surface roughness, especially for high strength metal FV520B-I. However, with surface roughness effect, neither the fatigue property, nor the high-cycle fatigue life model about FV520B-I with surface roughness has been reported. In this paper, designed fatigue experiment using the specimen with different surface roughness is presented to study the effectiveness of the roughness to the fatigue. The observations of the fatigue crack initiation sites and the crack propagation. Then the high cycle fatigue behavior of FV520B-I affected by surface roughness is analyzed. The existing very-high-cycle fatigue life model is not well-fit for high-cycle fatigue model of FV520B-I. A NEW high-cycle fatigue life prediction model of FV520B-I, taking surface roughness as a main effective variable is proposed. The model is built up by a comprehensive use of experimental data and the traditional fatigue modeling theory. The new finding between the fatigue strength coefficient and stress amplitude, with surface roughness, is adopted, leading to a NEW modified life prediction model. Study on fatigue model of FV520B-I with surface roughness is a very beneficial effort in fatigue theory and fatigue engineering development.
The long-term outcome of never-treated patients with schizophrenia is
To compare the 14-year outcomes of never-treated and treated patients
with schizophrenia and to establish predictors for never being
All participants with schizophrenia (n = 510) in Xinjin,
Chengdu, China were identified in an epidemiological investigation of 123
572 people and followed up from 1994 to 2008.
The results showed that there were 30.6%, 25.0% and 20.4% of patients who
received no antipsychotic medication in 1994, 2004 and 2008 respectively.
Compared with treated patients, those who were never treated in 2008 were
significantly older, had significantly fewer family members, had higher
rates of homelessness, death from other causes, being unmarried, living
alone, being without a caregiver and poor family attitudes. Partial and
complete remission in treated patients (57.3%) was significantly higher
than that in the never-treated group (29.8%). Predictors of being in the
never-treated group in 2008 encompassed baseline never-treated status,
being without a caregiver and poor mental health status in 1994.
Many patients with schizophrenia still do not receive antipsychotic
medication in rural areas of China. The 14-year follow-up showed that
outcomes for the untreated group were worse. Community-based mental
healthcare, health insurance and family intervention are crucial for
earlier diagnosis, treatment and rehabilitation in the community.
Salivary α-amylase (sAA) is responsible for the ‘pre-digestion’ of starch in the oral cavity and accounts for up to 50 % of salivary protein in human saliva. An accumulating body of literature suggests that sAA is of nutritional importance; however, it is still not clear how sAA is related to individual's nutritional status. Although copy number variations (CNV) of the salivary amylase gene (AMY1) are associated with variation in sAA levels, a significant amount of sAA variation is not explained by AMY1 CNV. To measure sAA responses to gustatory stimulation with citric acid, we used sAA ratio (the ratio of stimulated sAA levels to those of resting sAA) and investigated acute sAA responses to citric acid in children with normal (Normal-BMI, n 22) and low (Low-BMI, n 21) BMI. The AMY1 gene copy number was determined by quantitative PCR. We, for the first time, demonstrated attenuated acute sAA responses (decreased sAA ratio) to gustatory stimulation in Low-BMI (thinness grade 3) children compared with the Normal-BMI children, which suggest that sAA responses to gustatory stimulation may be of nutritional importance. However, child's nutritional status was not directly related to their resting or stimulated sAA levels, and it was not associated with AMY1 gene copy number. Finally, AMY1 CNV might influence, but did not eventually determine, sAA levels in children.
The present study aims to evaluate the antiparasitic activity of active components from Costus speciosus against Ichthyophthirius multifiliis. Bioassay-guided fractionation was employed to identify active compounds from C. speciosus yielding 2 bioactive compounds: Gracillin and Zingibernsis newsaponin. In-vitro assays revealed that Gracillin and Zingibernsis newsaponin could be 100% effective against I. multifiliis at concentrations of 0·8 and 4·5 mg L−1, with median effective concentration (EC50) values of 0·53 and 3·2 mg L−1, respectively. All protomonts and encysted tomonts were killed when the concentrations of Gracillin and Zingibernsis newsaponin were 1·0 and 5·0 mg L−1. In-vivo experiments demonstrated that fish treated with Gracillin and Zingibernsis newsaponin at concentrations of 1·0 and 5·0 mg L−1 carried significantly fewer parasites than the control (P<0·05). Mortality of fish did not occur in the treatment group (Zingibernsis newsaponin at 5·0 mg L−1) during the trial, although 100% of untreated fish died. Acute toxicities (LD50) of Gracillin and Zingibernsis newsaponin for grass carp were 1·64 and 20·7 mg L−1, respectively. These results provided evidence that the 2 compounds can be selected as lead compounds for the development of new drugs against I. multifiliis.
The aim of the present study was to determine the potential long-term metabolic effects of early nutritional programming on carbohydrate utilisation in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio). High-carbohydrate diets were fed to fish during four ontogenetic stages: from the first-feeding stage to the end of the yolk-sac larval stage; from the first-feeding stage to 2 d after yolk-sac exhaustion; after yolk-sac exhaustion for 3 or 5 d. The carbohydrate stimuli significantly increased the body weight of the first-feeding groups in the short term. The expression of genes was differentially regulated by the early dietary intervention. The high-carbohydrate diets resulted in decreased plasma glucose levels in the adult fish. The mRNA levels and enzyme activities of glucokinase, pyruvate kinase, α-amylase and sodium-dependent glucose co-transporter 1 were up-regulated in the first-feeding groups. There was no significant change in the mRNA levels of glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) in any experimental group, and the activity of G6Pase enzyme in the FF-5 (first feeding to 2 d after yolk-sac exhaustion) group was significantly different from that of the other groups. The expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase gene in all the groups was significantly decreased. In the examined early programming range, growth performance was not affected. Taken together, data reported herein indicate that the period ranging from the polyculture to the external feeding stage is an important window for potential modification of the long-term physiological functions. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that it is possible to permanently modify carbohydrate digestion, transport and metabolism of adult zebrafish through early nutritional programming.
Telomerase is an attractive molecular target because it is active in most malignant cells but undetectable in most normal somatic cells. Small, interfering ribonucleic acid segments have been shown to be effective tools for inhibiting the expression of a given gene within human cells. In the present study, we examined the effects of short hairpin ribonucleic acid expression vectors on the growth of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma in nude mice, and we assessed potential side effects in these animals.
Short hairpin ribonucleic acid expression vectors targeting the messenger ribonucleic acid of the telomerase catalytic unit were constructed and transfected into Hep-2 human laryngeal squamous cells carcinoma in nude mice. Apoptosis and telomerase catalytic unit expression within tumour cells were evaluated after treating with short hairpin ribonucleic acid. Peripheral blood was collected for haematological and biochemical analysis.
The findings demonstrated that short hairpin ribonucleic acid plasmids could inhibit tumour cell growth by 76.5 per cent, and that many tumour cells underwent necrotic or apoptotic cell death. There were no significant side effects of short hairpin ribonucleic acid on the heart, liver, kidney, spleen or blood system in this experimental model.
These results indicated that the short hairpin ribonucleic acid expression vector targeted at the telomerase catalytic unit of messenger ribonucleic acid significantly inhibited the growth of laryngeal carcinoma in nude mice, with no significant side effects on the experimental animals.
Long-term mortality and the risk factors for premature death among
patients with schizophrenia living in rural communities are unknown.
To explore the 10-year mortality and its risk factors among patients with
We used data from a 10-year prospective follow-up study (1994–2004) of
mortality among people with schizophrenia, and death registration data
for Xinjin County, Chengdu, China.
The mortality rate was 2228 per 100 000 person-years during follow-up.
Both all-cause mortality and suicide rates were significantly greater in
male than in female patients. Age at illness onset (>45 years),
duration of illness (⩾10 years), age greater than 50 years, physical
illness, inability to work, male gender, and never having received
treatment were identified as independent predictors of increased
Higher mortality rates in male patients may contribute to the higher
prevalence of schizophrenia in women compared with men in China. The
findings of risk factors for mortality should be taken into account when
developing interventions to improve outcomes among people with
Objective: Analysis of the correlation between telomerase and the expression of its related proteins may provide insight into the molecular mechanism of nasopharyngeal carcinogenesis. We investigated the effect of short hair pin ribonucleic acid (RNA) specific for human telomerase reverse transcriptase messenger RNA on the expression of the proteins c-myc (the transcription factor c-myc is a shortlived nuclear phospho-protein involved in cell proliferation and differentiation, belongs to the myc family), proliferating cell nuclear antigen and Caspase-3 in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells.
Methods: Short hairpin RNA expression vectors targeting the messenger RNA of human telomerase reverse transcriptase were constructed. Cells were treated with the short hairpin RNA expression vectors targeting human telomerase reverse transcriptase or vectors that included mismatched short hairpin RNA, and telomerase activity was measured by telomeric repeat amplification enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Cell viability was examined using the 3-(4,5-dimethyl thizol-2-yl) 2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay. The expression of the three proteins (c-myc, proliferating cell nuclear antigen and Caspase-3) was determined by Western blotting.
Results: Short hairpin RNA specific for human telomerase reverse transcriptase messenger RNA significantly inhibited telomerase activity. In addition, the expression of and proliferating cell nuclear antigen were both inhibited, while the expression of Caspase-3 was up-regulated.
Conclusions: Our results suggest that short hairpin RNA directed against human telomerase reverse transcriptase inhibits cell viability by regulating telomerase activity and its related proteins expression in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells. Therefore, RNA interference technology may be a promising strategy for the treatment of nasopharyngeal cancer.