Field studies were conducted at Lewiston–Woodville and Rocky Mount, NC in 2001 and 2002 to evaluate weed control and peanut response to POST treatments of diclosulam at various rates and application timings. Diclosulam controlled common ragweed and entireleaf morningglory when applied within 35 d after planting (DAP). Common ragweed 61 cm tall was controlled ≥92% with 4 to 13 g ai/ha diclosulam and larger common ragweed (107 to 137 cm tall) were controlled ≥97% with 27 g/ha diclosulam. Common lambsquarters was controlled 62% or less with all diclosulam POST treatments following metolachlor applied PRE, which provided 48% control. Peanut injury was less than 15% with all diclosulam POST treatments and was transitory. In separate studies, POST diclosulam treatments did not affect peanut yield in a weed-free environment. Peanut yield in weedy environments was reduced as the diclosulam application timing was delayed because of early season weed interference. A linear relationship was observed between yield and application timing with yield decreasing as application timing was delayed. This yield response documents the importance of early season weed management for maximizing peanut yield potential. Virginia peanut varieties were not affected by different POST rates of diclosulam; however, early season peanut injury showed a linear and quadratic relationship with diclosulam rate and was less than 14% at rates as high as 71 g/ha, and was not apparent by late season.