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The Square Kilometre Array (SKA) is a planned large radio interferometer designed to operate over a wide range of frequencies, and with an order of magnitude greater sensitivity and survey speed than any current radio telescope. The SKA will address many important topics in astronomy, ranging from planet formation to distant galaxies. However, in this work, we consider the perspective of the SKA as a facility for studying physics. We review four areas in which the SKA is expected to make major contributions to our understanding of fundamental physics: cosmic dawn and reionisation; gravity and gravitational radiation; cosmology and dark energy; and dark matter and astroparticle physics. These discussions demonstrate that the SKA will be a spectacular physics machine, which will provide many new breakthroughs and novel insights on matter, energy, and spacetime.
In this contribution, we use heavy ion irradiation and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy to demonstrate that defects can be used to tailor the optical properties of two-dimensional molybdenum disulfide (MoS2). Sonicated MoS2 flakes were deposited onto Si/SiO2 substrate and subjected to 3 MeV Au2+ ion irradiation at room temperature to fluences ranging from 1 × 1012 to 1 × 1016 cm−2. We demonstrate that irradiation-induced defects can control optical excitations in the inner core shell of MoS2 by binding A1s- and B1s-excitons, and correlate the exciton peaks to the specific defects introduced with irradiation. The systematic increase of ion fluence produced different defect densities in MoS2, which were estimated using B/A exciton ratios and progressively increased with ion fluence. We show that up to the fluences of 1 × 1014 cm−2, the MoS2 lattice remains crystalline and defect densities can be controlled, whereas at higher fluences (≥1 × 1015 cm−2), the large number of introduced defects distorts the excitonic structure of the material. In addition to controlling excitons, defects were used to split bound and free trions, and we demonstrate that at higher fluences (1 × 1015 cm−2), both free and bound trions can be observed in the same PL spectrum. Most importantly, the lifetimes of these states exceed trion and exciton lifetimes in pristine MoS2, and PL spectra of irradiated MoS2 remains unchanged weeks after irradiation experiments. Thus, this work demonstrated the feasibility of engineering novel optical behaviors in low-dimensional materials using heavy ion irradiation. The insights gained from this study will aid in understanding the many-body interactions in low-dimensional materials and may ultimately be used to develop novel materials for optoelectronic applications.
The triplite LiFeSO4F displays both the highest potential ever reported for an Fe-based compound, as well as a comparable specific energy with that of popular LiFePO4. The synthesis is still a challenge because the present approaches are connected with long time, special equipments or organic reagents, etc. In this work, the triplite LiFeSO4F powder was synthesized through an ambient two-step solid-state route. The reaction process and phase purity were analyzed, coupled with structure refinement and electrochemical test.
The discovery of the first electromagnetic counterpart to a gravitational wave signal has generated follow-up observations by over 50 facilities world-wide, ushering in the new era of multi-messenger astronomy. In this paper, we present follow-up observations of the gravitational wave event GW170817 and its electromagnetic counterpart SSS17a/DLT17ck (IAU label AT2017gfo) by 14 Australian telescopes and partner observatories as part of Australian-based and Australian-led research programs. We report early- to late-time multi-wavelength observations, including optical imaging and spectroscopy, mid-infrared imaging, radio imaging, and searches for fast radio bursts. Our optical spectra reveal that the transient source emission cooled from approximately 6 400 K to 2 100 K over a 7-d period and produced no significant optical emission lines. The spectral profiles, cooling rate, and photometric light curves are consistent with the expected outburst and subsequent processes of a binary neutron star merger. Star formation in the host galaxy probably ceased at least a Gyr ago, although there is evidence for a galaxy merger. Binary pulsars with short (100 Myr) decay times are therefore unlikely progenitors, but pulsars like PSR B1534+12 with its 2.7 Gyr coalescence time could produce such a merger. The displacement (~2.2 kpc) of the binary star system from the centre of the main galaxy is not unusual for stars in the host galaxy or stars originating in the merging galaxy, and therefore any constraints on the kick velocity imparted to the progenitor are poor.
Legionnaires’ disease (LD) is a globally distributed systemic infectious disease. The burden of LD in many regions is still unclear, especially in Asian countries including China. A survey of Legionella infection using real-time PCR and nested sequence-based typing (SBT) was performed in two hospitals in Shanghai, China. A total of 265 bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) specimens were collected from hospital A between January 2012 and December 2013, and 359 sputum specimens were collected from hospital B throughout 2012. A total of 71 specimens were positive for Legionella according to real-time PCR focusing on the 5S rRNA gene. Seventy of these specimens were identified as Legionella pneumophila as a result of real-time PCR amplification of the dotA gene. Results of nested SBT revealed high genetic polymorphism in these L. pneumophila and ST1 was the predominant sequence type. These data revealed that the burden of LD in China is much greater than that recognized previously, and real-time PCR may be a suitable monitoring technology for LD in large sample surveys in regions lacking the economic and technical resources to perform other methods, such as urinary antigen tests and culture methods.
Based on the Bayesian Inference (BI) method, the Mixture-Model approach is improved to combine all kinematic data, including the coordinative position(
), proper motion (
) and radial velocity(v), to separate the motion of the cluster from field stars, as well as to determine the intrinsic kinematic status and dynamical effects of the cluster, such as the mass segregation, anisotropy etc.. Meanwhile, the membership probability of individual stars are estimated as by product results. This method has been testified by simulation of toy models and also successfully used for well studied open clusters, such as M67 and NGC188. It is expected to largely help the studies of open clusters while combine the coming GAIA data.
The current sample of star clusters (SCs) is still incomplete beyond 1.8 kpc. The Pan-STARRS1 with its wide field of views and sensitive cameras provides us an opportunity to identify and characterize SCs as much as possible. By using a star counting algorithm, we obtained a total of 491 stellar density enhancements in a field of 20° × 20° toward the Galactic Anti-Center (GAC), of which 50 are known SCs. The remaining 441 candidates are verified with radii, interstellar reddening, distances, and ages with proper motions and multiple bands photometries. Our results push the completeness of SCs almost near the edge of GAC. With the revised SC sample, the separation between Sagittarius and Perseus arms are about 3.2 ± 0.2 kpc and the widths of the nearby spiral arms—Sagittarius, Orion, and Perseus—with are 1.4 ± 0.1, 1.6 ± 0.1, and 3.3 ± 0.2 kpc, respectively.
We compiled a sample of 57 galaxies with spectroscopically confirmed redshifts and SPIRE detections in all three bands at z = 2.5-6.4, and compared their SPIRE colors with SED templates from local and high-z libraries. We find that local calibrations are inconsistent with high-z observations. For high-z libraries, the templates with an evolution from z = 0 to 3 can describe the average colors of the observations at high redshift well. Based on the templates, we defined color cuts to divide the SPIRE color-color diagram into different regions with different mean redshifts. We tested this method and two other color cut methods using a larger sample (783 galaxies) with photometric redshifts. We find that these color cuts can separate the sample into subsamples with different mean redshifts, but the dispersion of redshifts in each subsample is considerably large. Additional information is needed for better sampling.
Based on large-signal theory, a one-dimensional theoretical model of a coaxial vircator is developed to give the microwave gain of the nonlinear beam–wave interaction, and the effect of injected current premodulation on the microwave gain is analysed theoretically. In addition, a coaxial vircator with improved dual-cavity modulation structure, which has the advantage of enhancing the effect of the modulation cavity on the injected electron beam by way of feedback microwaves, is presented. The simulation results are presented to test the validity of the proposed theory, and it can be seen that the system power efficiency can become further strengthened by adjusting the parameters of the microwave feedback channel until the feedback electric field is at the proper phase. Finally, through optimization, a structure capable of generating 7.05 GW average output power and 19.5 % power conversion efficiency at 2.95 GHz operating frequency is obtained.
This study characterized Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C strains in China in order to establish their genetic relatedness and describe the use of multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) analysis (MLVA) to provide useful epidemiological information. A total of 215 N. meningitidis serogroup C strains, obtained from 2003 to 2012 in China, were characterized by MLVA with different published schemes as well as multilocus sequence typing. (i) Based on the MLVA scheme with a combination of five highly variable loci, 203 genotypes were identified; this level of discrimination supports its use for resolving closely related isolates. (ii) Based on a combination of ten low variable loci, clear phylogenetic relationships were established within sequence type complexes. In addition, there was evidence of microevolution of VNTR loci over the decade as strain lineages spread from Anhui to other provinces, the more distant the provinces from Anhui, the higher the genetic variation.
In a large serosurvey performed in Gaobeidian city, China, 1032 children and adolescents aged 3–18 years were divided into three age groups: 3–6, 7–11, and 12–18 years. The geometric mean of IgG antibodies against pertussis toxin (anti-PT IgG) varied from 3·47 IU/ml (3–6 years) to 8·71 IU/ml (12–18 years) and the seroprevalence (⩾40 IU/ml) varied from 4·48% (7–11 years) to 11·76% (12–18 years). Infections were clustered in three secondary schools (schools 1–3). However, excluding secondary schools 1–3, the IgG PT levels, seroprevalence and rates of recent infections (>100 IU/ml) in secondary schools 4–7 (where infections were not clustered) were very close to those in the 3–6 and 7–11 years age groups. This suggests that the high seroprevalence and anti-PT IgG levels in adolescents in Gaobeidian city, China were caused by the clustered cases in certain secondary schools. Our results also suggested that pertussis was still circulating in China, and the reported incidence might be underestimated.
The main Neisseria meningitidis adhesion molecules, type IV pili (Tfp) and Neisseria adhesion A (NadA), play important roles in the pathogenesis of invasive meningococcal disease. PilE is the major Tfp subunit. In this study, the prevalence and genetic diversity of pilE and nadA were investigated in the prevalent serogroups and clonal complexes (CC) of N. meningitidis isolated in China. All serogroup A strains belonging to CC1 and CC5 and all CC11 serogroup W135 strains were clustered into class II PilE clades. All serogroup C and most of serogroup B isolates except CC8 and ST5642 were class I PilE clades. Class II pilE sequences were highly conserved. All isolates belonging to class I PilE isolates were nadA negative. However, nadA-positive strains were exclusively found in CC5 and CC11 isolates (class II PilE). This study showed that PilE and NadA may be related to epidemic or endemic meningococcal disease.
We performed a thorough investigation of mid-infrared heavy-to-light hole intersubband absorption in the valence band of p-doped GaAs quantum wells with AlAs barriers. For the p-type doping a high-purity solid carbon source was used. The experimental results are compared with theoretical simulations. The inclusion of layer inter-diffusion well reproduces the transition energies. We estimate a 6-10 Å inter-diffusion length that is consistent with electron microscopy measurements. A careful analysis of our results provides valuable information for further design of emitters and detectors based on hole intersubband transitions in the valence band.
We propose the spot-size effect in laser-induced damage to optical thin films as a method to investigate the defect removal model which is one of the laser conditioning mechanisms, and the theoretical and experimental studies are presented. A standard deviation σ2 is set up for fitting the damage thresholds which are obtained by multi-spot size test. The laser conditioning effect on ZrO2/SiO2 multilayer high reflective films is analyzed through this application. It is found that the mean distance of two initiating defects is increased by laser conditioning, which means that the defect density is decreased. Thus, the initiating defects are removed partially by laser conditioning. Furthermore, the intrinsic damage threshold of the film is little affected through the laser conditioning process.
We test two contemporary low-mass atmospheric models using three L dwarfs with distances and published spectra. We find that the two models do not predict the same trends for temperature, gravity and metallicity in absorption lines. We find that one model appears to better reflect the temperature, but this sample is too small to investigate the other parameters in depth.
Energetic divergent proton beams can be generated in the interaction of ultra-intense laser pulses with solid-density foil targets via target normal sheath acceleration (TNSA). In this paper, a scheme using a capillary to reduce the proton beam divergence is proposed. By two-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations, it is shown that strong transverse electric and magnetic fields rapidly grow at the inner surface of the capillary when the laser-driven hot electrons propagate through the target and into the capillary. The spontaneous magnetic field collimates the electron flow, and the ions dragged from the capillary wall by hot electrons neutralize the negative charge and thus restrain the transverse extension of the sheath field set up by electrons. The proton beam divergence, which is mainly determined by the accelerating sheath field, is therefore reduced by the transverse limitation of the sheath field in the capillary.
Given the unpredictability of Neisseria meningitidis outbreaks and the increased prevalence of serogroup C strains following the introduction of serogroup A-based vaccines, we conducted an analysis of serogroups and sequence types (STs) in disease-associated and carrier N. meningitidis isolates that have emerged in China since 2003. We used multilocus sequence-typing techniques to investigate 371 N. meningitidis strains isolated from patients with meningitis and healthy carriers. Two lineages were identified in serogroup A and C isolates, genotyped as the ST5 complex and ST4821 complex, respectively. Both clonal complexes were found throughout China, although ST4821 was more concentrated in the eastern region of the country. The ST5 complex has been persistent in China since the late 1980s and has since spread across the entire country. Isolates belonging to the ST4821 complex have been a dominant lineage since 2003.
Studies in Western countries have repeatedly shown that women with a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) are at increased risk for developing major depression (MD). Would this relationship be found in China?
Three levels of CSA (non-genital, genital, and intercourse) were assessed by self-report in two groups of Han Chinese women: 1970 clinically ascertained with recurrent MD and 2597 matched controls. Diagnostic and other risk factor information was assessed at personal interview. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated by logistic regression and regression coefficients by linear or Poisson regression.
Any form of CSA was significantly associated with recurrent MD [OR 3.26, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.95–5.45]. This association strengthened with increasing CSA severity: non-genital (OR 2.47, 95% CI 1.17–5.23), genital (OR 2.77, 95% CI 1.32–5.83) and intercourse (OR 13.35, 95% CI 1.83–97.42). The association between any form of CSA and MD remained significant after accounting for parental history of depression, childhood emotional neglect (CEN), childhood physical abuse (CPA) and parent–child relationship. Among the depressed women, those with CSA had an earlier age of onset, longer depressive episodes and an increased risk for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD; OR 1.92, 95% CI 1.39–2.66) and dysthymia (OR 2.16, 95% CI 1.52–3.09).
In Chinese women CSA is strongly associated with MD and this association increases with greater severity of CSA. Depressed women with CSA have an earlier age of onset, longer depressive episodes and increased co-morbidity with GAD and dysthymia. Although reporting biases cannot be ruled out, our results are consistent with the hypothesis that, as in Western countries, CSA substantially increases the risk for MD in China.
Foodborne zoonoses have a major impact on public health in China. Its booming economy and rapid socioeconomic changes have affected food production, food supplies and food consumption habits, resulting in an increase in the number of outbreaks of foodborne zoonoses. Both emerging and re-emerging foodborne zoonoses have attracted increasing national and international attention in recent years. This paper briefly reviews the main foodborne zoonoses that have had a major impact on public health over the last 20 years in China. The major causative microorganisms, including foodborne bacteria, parasites and viruses, are discussed. The prevention and control of foodborne zoonoses are difficult challenges in China. The information provided here may aid the development of effective prevention and control strategies for foodborne zoonoses.