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To probe the factors that contributes to the relapse of the major depression after being hospitalized for a period of three consecutive months in a psychiatric clinic.
Material & methods
22 patients (8 men) who were in the clinic were examined (average age 49.2, SD=7.2) suffering from major depression and who fully recovered between episodes. The criteria for their participation in the sample were according to DSM-IV®, and the >2 relapses/year.
By the stepwise multiple regression analysis it was found that by hierarchy the factors that cause the relapse are, the fact that the patient does not respond to the first antidepressant treatment (parameter estimate p< 0.002), child or teenage depression background (p< 0.002), the presence of stressful facts (diseases, financial problems, loss of 1st degree relatives, p< 0.004) and the co morbidity with character disorders in the II (p< 0.01) axis.
The importance of a negative outcome of the major depression should be co estimated with the danger of self-destruction as a result of the illness, the difficulties of the interpersonal relationships, the professional activities, the impact on the family, alcoholism, drug abuse etc. and mainly the empirical impact on the patient.
Of this project was to study the characteristics of stress and depression in mental health professionals and the degree at which they are affected by demographic factors.
Material - method
The sample of the study includes 62 mental health professionals. An anonymous closed questionnaire by Bedford & Foulds was used. The data analysis was made with the use of SPSS 16.0.
Two factors were found statistically essential; the age[F(5,41)=0,52 p=0,004] and the marital statue [F(5,41)=0.49 p=0.008]. The married people seem to statistically develop higher anxiety (p=0,001), higher tension (p=0,002) and higher insomnia (p=0,001) in comparison to the singles, the divorced and the widows/widowers. The singles seem to keep more calm (p=0.014) in comparison to the married and the divorced (p=0.001).Working people aged 35-49 experience more intense sorrow than the other age groups (p=0,003), more intense feelings of panic (p=0,018) and tension (p=0,049). The age groups in stressful or depression situations diversify their needs as regards smoking, with the 35-49 age group being the heaviest smokers (p=0,029).
It is discovered that a different defense mechanism is used by mental health professionals as regards their marital statue and their age, developing sleeping disorders, increase in smoking and sadness elements indifference for the future, more often.
The objective of the present work was the investigation of the general health level and factors that influence the job satisfaction in a sample of health care workers that they serve in primary, secondary and tertiary health care in Central Greece.
Materials and methods
500 professionals of health were administered:
a) a closed type questionnaire of job satisfaction evaluation, based on Likert scale, and
b) the questionnaire of general health GHQ-28.
Health Care Workers in the 2 general hospitals and in the health centers of Lamia and Larissa, as well as in the Regional University Hospital of Larissa participated in the study. 386 sufficiently filled in questionnaires were evaluated. Statistics was processed with SPSS (version 15.0). Level of statistical importance was considered at p < 0.05.
93 participants (24,1%) were men and 291 (75,4%) were women. The work load, the occasions of development and the collaboration with colleagues were the critical factors in which the nurses exhibited worse statistically significantly scores in comparison with the other groups of health professionals. In the factor “job satisfaction” the nurses had lower scores (intermediate =3, IQR=2-5) compared with non- nurses (intermediate = 5, IQR=3-6) p< 0,001. In the same parameters the workers in the hospitals presented with worse scores than the workers in the health centers. The anxiety level stress of nurses is high.
The nurses constitute the group of health care workers with the lower job satisfaction and the highest anxiety levels.
Depression is a dysfunction with great range of demonstrations and according to researches appears at person with diabetes mellitus two or three times more than in general population. The knowledge although about the reasons and the way that depression affects the management of diabetes are limited.
Of this study was the examination of existence of possible depression at patients with diabetes mellitus.
164 diabetics were studied (72 male and 92 female, medieval age 66,9 ± 11,53 years) at diabetic clinics. We used the self evaluation scale of Zung (ZDRS) and structured questionnaire about demographical and body measure data.
The statistic analysis was done with the statistic package SPSS 18.0.
57,3% of diabetics were overweight, and 30,5% obese, with high rates of central obesity (83,3% at males and 92,4% at females), while the big Index of Body Maze [r = 0,309, p = 0,001] and central obesity [t(162)=4,773, p = 0,001] were related significantly with depression. 50% of diabetics appeared depression symptoms at mild levels and 20% at medium levels, with the females [t(162)=3,26, p = 0,001] and elder to be related statistically significant with depression.
The majority of the sample appeared a level of mild or medium depression and correlation was observed between bad glycemic examinations. The daily and for many years effort of diabetes control can create the suitable situation for depressive symptomatology appearance. The examination and evaluation of the causative factors can help at the adaptation of diabetic and the solution of his problems.
Anxiety is considered to be a situation of agony, anguish and is being experienced as psychological pressure. At Mental Health Professionals’ work environment, a lot of factors may contribute to anxiety appearance and create the conditions of depression symptomatology development. The smoking habit is being connected with a great range of psychiatric diagnosis, including anxiety and depression.
Of this study was the examination of the relationship of smoking habit with the appearance of anxiety and depression at Mental Health Professionals.
317 mental health professionals were being examined (144 male, 173 female, with medieval age 38, 64 ± 7,945 years) and their smoking habits were recorded. For anxiety and depression examination the DSSI/Sad QUESTIONNAIRE was being used. The analysis of data was done by the use of statistical package SPSS 16.0.
Smokers have higher levels of depression (t(315) = 2,417, p = 0,016) as well as of anxiety (t(315) = 2,219, p = 0,027). However no one of the specific degrees was related with the number of cigarettes smoked by smokers (r = 0,022, p = 0,777 for depression, r = 0,133, p = 0,084 for anxiety)
The smoking habit appeared to be related with anxiety and depression, it cannot although be considered as the reason but as the result of emotional difficulty of the participants. Even though smoking decreases the privative symptoms, it does not decrease the anxiety and the depression or the confrontation of their deeper reasons. It is being seen the need of development and materialization of interventions of effective support for Mental Health Professional at their own work environment.
The presence of macro vascular diseases is common among patients with diabetes mellitus, with result the increase of danger for depression appearance.The attack of greater vessels (macro vascular disease) conducts to the appearance of coronary disease, vascular brain episodes(strokes) and peripheral vasculopathy.
of this study was the examination of the relation between depression and the existence of macro vascular diseases at patients with diabetes mellitus type II.
164 diabetics were examined (72 male and 92 female, medieval age 66,9 ± 11,53 years), at diabetological clinics. The tools that were used at this study was the scale of depression self evaluation of Zung and a structured questionnaire about the existence of macro vascular diseases. The analysis was done with the statistic package SPSS 18.0.
64,6% of diabetics reported hypertension and 61% dyslipidemia, 30,5% suffered from coronary disease and 26.2% of vascular brain episode (stroke), while 13,4% suffered from heart attack and 19,5% from other diseases. 50% of diabetics had depression at mild levels and another 20% at medium levels.
The majority of the sample appeared mild or medium degree depression and relation was observed between accompanying macro vascular diseases. The coronary disease, hypertension and dyslipidemia seemed to be independent prognostic factors of depression even after the abstraction of age effect and diseases duration effect, while the depressive effect of heart attack or stroke seemed to be effected mainly by age.
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