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A compartmental model is proposed to predict the coronavirus 2019 (Covid-19) spread. It considers: detected and undetected infected populations, social sequestration, release from sequestration, plus reinfection. This model, consisting of seven coupled equations, has eight coefficients which are evaluated by fitting data for eight US states that make up 43% of the US population. The evolution of Covid-19 is fairly similar among the states: variations in contact and undetected recovery rates remain below 5%; however, variations are larger in recovery rate, death rate, reinfection rate, sequestration adherence and release rate from sequestration. Projections based on the current situation indicate that Covid-19 will become endemic. If lockdowns had been kept in place, the number of deaths would most likely have been significantly lower in states that opened up. Additionally, we predict that decreasing contact rate by 10%, or increasing testing by approximately 15%, or doubling lockdown compliance (from the current ~15% to ~30%) will eradicate infections in Texas within a year. Extending our fits for all of the US states, we predict about 11 million total infections (including undetected), and 8 million cumulative confirmed cases by 1 November 2020.
Erectile dysfunction is twice common in patient with depression. Testosterone plays vital role in erectile function. Low testosterone level is found in patients of depression. High level of prolactin has depressive effect on libido function. Hypogonadism and hyperprolactinemia can be the causative factor for depression. Hormonal changes can be both cause and effect of depression with ED.
In sample of 76 patients having depression with co morbid ED blood levels of prolactin, and free testosterone were determined.
Half of patients were treated with sex friendly antidepressants while in other half mesterolone and piribedil were used as adjunct medicines.
In 9.2% free testosterone level was below than reference value. In 28.9% prolactin level was high .51 .31% were found having border line free testosterone level.
In younger age group free testosterone level was lower than older age group. There exist inverse relation between prolactin level and free testosterone level. Patients who were given adjunct medication showed rapid improvement both for depression and erectile dysfunction.
Reduced level of free testosterone and high level of prolactin has bilateral relation with depression with co morbid ED. Although prevalence of hypogonadism and hyperprolactinemia is low in the study yet high numbers of borderline cases are of great significance. It is postulated that fall in sexual function is directly proportional to change in levels of these hormones from the base line that are reversed by adjunct medicines.
In patients with concomitant major depression and erectile dysfunction hormonal changes plays important role.
To determine incidence of complicated grief in the families of enforced disappearance in the conflict torn Kashmir valley. Complicated GRIEF is a recently identified symptom complex marked by continued separation distress and bereavement related accompanying traumatic distress.
A total of 100 family members who were recruited from a workshop conducted by department of psychiatry and MEDICENS SAN FRONTIERS with family members of enforced disappearances were screened by psychiatrists.
COMPLICATED GREIF was very prevalent, 79% screened positive for complicated grief, PTSD was present in 30% of screened, 41% met criteria for major depressive disorder, 38% neither met criteria for major depressive disord: er nor PTSD, even though everybody who met criteria for PTSD had major depressive disorder as comorbidity.
COMPLICATED GRIEF is a important diagnosis in this subgroup of population and results into significant distress and dysfunction and hence warrants attention.
Psychological distress and suicide are known to be associated with exposure to traumatic life events. No literature is available on prevalence of suicidal ideation in the aftermath of terrorist attacks in Pakistan.
To study suicidal ideation and desire for death in trauma exposed population in Pakistan.
To estimate the prevalence of suicidal ideation and desire for death one year after exposure to extreme trauma in a well-defined and accessible group in Pakistan.
Subjects were examined 1 year after exposure to a bomb blast in Islamabad, Pakistan. A semi-structured interview schedule and Beck Scale for Suicidal Ideation were used to assess a group of female University students. Assessment record of 50 consecutive study participants were evaluated to estimate point prevalence of suicidal ideation and desire for death in the study population.
All subjects were enroled in full time university education at the time of assessment. 17 subjects (34%) presented with weak desire for death whilst 5 subjects (10%) presented with moderate to severe desire for death. 15 Subjects (30%) presented with active suicidal ideation at the time of assessment. However, ony 3 subjects (6%) presented with moderate to severe suicidal ideation. The subjects presenting with suicidal ideation described family ties, religious beliefs, fear of irreversible injury as protective factors against their suicidal thoughts. Only 2 subjects (4%) had engaged in some degree of planning towards committing suicide.
This study provides the first structured estimate of prevalence of suicidal ideation in trauma exposed population of Pakistan.
Severe stress or exposure to life threatening trauma is known to affect social functioning and quality of life.
To study well-being and anger arousal as markers of social functioning and quality of life in a group of University students exposed to a suicide bomb attack on a University in Pakistan.
To examine indicators of social functioning in order to higlight them as targets for therapeutic interventions.
Subjects were assessed after one year of exposure to a life threatening incident on University campus. Subjects completed an assessment schedule incorporating World Health Organization's Well-Being Index and Novarco Anger Inventory (25 items).
54 students completed the assessment. The mean age of the group was 24 years. All subjects had completed 14–16 years of education and were in full time education at the time of assessment. The Well Being Index Score range was 1–24 with 26 sujects scoring 13 or lower scores indicating poor quality of life. 29 subjects scored higer levels of anger arousal on 10 or more items of Novarco Anger Inventory indicating difficulties in social functioning. The overall group showed a statistically significant negative correlation between the Well-Being Index Scores and the number of Novarco Anger Inventory items scored in the two highest categories of anger arousal.
The results of the study highlight anger arousal and well-being as important markers of functioning in the aftermath of a stressful life event. The study confirms their usefulness as legitimate therapeutic targets for pharmacotherapy, psychotherapeutic, and social interventions.
Early psychosis is not a discrete disorder; rather it is mixed-up state .Different states like depression, anxiety, psychosis, obsession manifest during this period. 20% to 40% of BLIPS positive subjects eventually make transition to psychosis. Large proportion of remaining patients develops anxiety or mood disorders. During early psychosis unitary psychosis, manifest itself in forms of different psychiatric disorders.
An electronic search was made at data based websites including pub med and Blackwell synergy using key words, unitary psychosis, prodrom, early psychosis .This was followed by manual and internet study of relevant articles .
Cognitive deficits and defects of facial recognition were present in both schizophrenic and bipolar prodrom .In 24.2% schizo-obsessive patients reduced size of the left hippocampus was found. 84% subjects reported depressive symptoms before transition to psychosis, 73% of patient of schizophrenia starts with non-specific affective and negative symptoms. In presence of depression, probability of transition to psychosis increased from 4% to 21.7%. In 47.3% of patients, OCD occur before onset of frank psychosis.
High prevalence of comorbidities during prodromal phase indicates that shared common factor is involved. Anxiety, depression and attenuated psychosis are integral components of early psychosis. Overlapping of bipolar and schizophrenic prodrms depicts commonality of origin of two disorders.OCD is associated with schizo-obsessive subgroup. Strong interactive relationship among different disorders could be explained on basis of unitary psychosis.
Presence of unitary psychosis is realized in the studies of early psychosis.
In psychiatry there exist, parallel trends of splitting and clumping of disorders. Former represents dichotomous Kraepelinian trend and latter stands for integrated approach of unitary psychosis .Advancement of biochemical studies and genetics have provided some evidences in favor of unitary psychosis.
Authors made an internet search at various databases websites including pub med, and Blackwell synergy using, early psychosis, prodrom, neuroprotection, apoptosis as key words. It was followed by manual and internet study of authentic psychiatric journals.
Anatomical, functional and neurochemical studies of brain reveal structural changes in early psychosis.
In schizophrenia, pathological process is progressive. Brain volume loss continues even after onset of overt symptoms.
Study of subjects in prodromal phase shows 15-point drop in GAD. Significant proportion also met criterion of anxiety 86% depression 76% low energy 62% and, social with drawl 71%.
Unitary psychosis symbolizes concept of unity in diversity. Neurodevelopmental apoptotic process has its own direction that manifests in form of affective symptoms, anxiety symptoms, obsessive symptoms cognitive deficits, positive psychotic symptoms and ends with negative symptoms. It is assumed that neurodevelopmental process move from lower to higher centers of brain. Neuroprotection during emerging phase of psychotic disorder can delay the onset. Neurochemical studies shows that SSRIs atypical antipsychotic, anticonvulsants, and lithium has antiapototic properties which modulate the progression This suggests that apoptotic process is the thread that connects apparently different disorder is unitary psychosis.
Neurobiological model can account for unitary psychosis.
Attention to caregiving consequences has been mainly restricted to bipolar disorder, although studies suggest that relatives of bipolar patients also experience considerable distress.
The purpose of this study was to explore the lived experiences from family member caregiver with bipolar disorder patient.
In a qualitative research of phenomenological methodology, the family member's caregivers of bipolar disorder in farshian psychiatric hospital in Hamedan (Iran) were selected by purposive sampling in the year 2010. By reaching data saturation the number of participant was 12. Data were gathered through in-depth interviews and analyzed by “Van manen” method.
Analysis of the interviews revealed six major themes: emotional impact, physical impact, social impact, Financial Impact, Disruption of family functioning and social support needs.
Highlight the need for family-oriented mental health services to be developed and for further research to identify the specific nursing interventions that are effective in helping to sustain family caregiving.
Many time people get addicted to a drug like opiods when prescribed for some medical purpose. Neurobiological models of addiction has proposed cellular adaptation as mechanism of drug addiction. Excessive release of dopamine in NA due to drug intake produces euphoric sensation leading to pathological learning. Repeated use of drug increase glutametergic drive from prefrontal to NA cause compulsive seeking of drug in drug addicts. Is it possible to prevent medically induced addiction.
Pub med search was made by using key words, addiction model, dopamine, glutamate, anticraving medicine, oxidative stress.
Different antiglutametergic medication like ketamine, mementine, accomprosate modulate glutamatic excitation to prevent addiction. Natural medicine like N acetyle cystine and oxytocin have protective role . Typical antipsychotic can block surge of dopamine in NA.
When addictive drug has to be used inevitably for medical purpose it should be combined with other drugs to prevent development of addiction. First euphoria related to dopamine release in NA can be blocked by use of low dose typical antipsychotic or dopamine partial antagonist . NMDA is molecular target of various addictive drugs. Memtentine, ketamine or accomprosate can minimize effects of glutametergic plasticity. N accetyle cystine can restore glutamatergic pathway by its system of cystine- glutamate antiporter. It is source of glutathione largest anti oxidant system of body. Intranasal oxytocin can prevent addiction through its action on stress, learning, memory and intimacy. Intranasal oxytocin can be delivered directly to the brain.
Different strategies can be used to prevent medically induced addiction.
In the present study, an effective secondary selection of transgressive variants from a homozygous population of Pusa Sugandh 3 (PS3) has led to the development of basmati variant SKUA 494. SKUA 494 exhibited a grain yield (7.9 t/ha) with superiority of 21.5% over its progenitor (6.5 t/ha). Besides, the genotype revealed an earliness of about 13 and 15 days for flowering and maturity, respectively. Hulling, milling and head rice recovery traits of SKUA 494 were comparatively better over the controls PS3 and Pusa Basmati 1509. No significant differences in the cooking quality were observed in SKUA 494 over its parental line. Quality traits of SKUA 494 revealed an intermediate score for alkali spreading value, besides similar values for gel consistency and amylose content in comparison to PS3. On the basis of stability variables, stability index and overall mean for most of the traits, SKUA 494 depicted stable performance across the locations and over the years. Molecular analysis based on simple sequence repeat markers revealed polymorphism at locus flanking the quantitative trait loci for days to heading (Hd6) between SKUA 494 and its parent (PS3). Based on overall superiority in the performance and adaptability of SKUA 494, the variety has been recommended to farmers for general cultivation under temperate ecology.
The advancement of human retinal pigment epithelial cell (hRPE) replacement therapy is partly dependent on optimization of cell culture, cell preservation, and storage medium. This study was undertaken to search for a suitable storage temperature and storage medium for hRPE. hRPE monolayer sheets were cultured under standard conditions at 37°C and then randomized for storage at six temperatures (4, 16, 20, 24, 28, and 37°C) for 7 days. After revealing a suitable storage temperature, hRPE sheets were subsequently stored with and without the silk protein sericin added to the storage medium. Live/dead assay, light microscopy, pH, and phenotypic expression of various proteins were used to assess cell cultures stored at different temperatures. After 7 days of storage, hRPE morphology was best preserved at 4°C. Addition of sericin to the storage medium maintained the characteristic morphology of the preserved cells, and improved pigmentation and levels of pigmentation-related proteins in the cultured hRPE sheets following a 7-day storage period at 4°C.
B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (B-cell NHL) is the second commonest malignancy in the stomach. We determined the distribution of Helicobacter pylori outer membrane protein Q (HopQ) allelic type, cytotoxin-associated gene (cag)-pathogenicity activity island (cag-PAI) and vacuolation activating cytotoxin A (vacA) genes, respectively, in patients with B-cell NHL. We also compared them with their distribution in non-ulcer dyspepsia (NUD). H. pylori was cultured from gastric biopsy tissue obtained at endoscopy. Polymerase chain reaction was performed. Of 170 patients enrolled, 114 (63%) had NUD and 56 (37%) had B-cell NHL. HopQ type 1 was positive in 66 (58%) in NUD compared with 46 (82%) (P = 0·002) in B-cell NHL; HopQ type 2 was positive in 93 (82%) with NUD compared with 56 (100%) (P < 0·001) in B-cell NHL. Multiple HopQ types were present in 46 (40%) in NUD compared with 46 (82%) (P < 0·001) in B-cell NHL. CagA was positive in 48 (42%) in NUD vs. 50 (89%) (P < 0·001) in B-cell NHL; cagT was positive in 35 (31%) in NUD vs. 45 (80%) (P < 0·001) in B-cell NHL; left end of the cagA gene (LEC)1 was positive in 23 (20%) in NUD vs. 43 (77%) (P < 0·001) in B-cell NHL. VacAs1am1 positive in B-cell NHL in 48 (86%) (P < 0·001) vs. 50 (44%) in NUD, while s1am2 was positive in 20 (17%) in NUD vs. 46 (82%) (P < 0·001) in B-cell NHL. H. pylori strains with multiple HopQ allelic types, truncated cag-PAI evidenced by expression of cagA, cagT and cag LEC with virulent vacAs1 alleles are associated with B-cell NHL development.
L-carnitine (B-hydroxy-Y-N-trimethyl aminobutyrate) is a water-soluble product, found in animals, plants and microorganisms. Its synthesis takes place from two important amino acids, lysine and methionine. Essentially, L-carnitine has an intermediary role in metabolism. It promotes energy metabolism for cell and regulates co-enzyme A concentration in cystosol and mitochondria, which are important in glucose and lipid metabolism. L-carnitine was first isolated from the chicken embryo in a significant amount, but is absent in the egg. Under normal physiological conditions, the endogenously synthesised levels are sufficient for normal growth and functions. Its requirements are increased in stressful conditions and during metabolic and physiological higher demands, such as growth and laying periods. L-carnitine increases energy production, fat metabolism and improves immune status in birds, which is energy demanding. In this review, several aspects of the beneficial effects of dietary supplementation of L-carnitine on poultry health and production are briefly summarised.
Mycotoxins are secondary fungal metabolites of structurally diverse groups occurring worldwide as contaminants of cereals such as wheat, corn, maize, peanut, and barley, which comprise the main ingredients of poultry diets. Milk thistle (Silybum marianum) has wide range of beneficial properties, including data showing its positive effects in protecting the liver of birds exposed to aflatoxins. Trials have shown that in broilers affected by aflatoxicosis, which adversely affected feed intake, weight gain, feed efficiency, serum biochemistry and immune status, supplementation of diets with silymarin reduced the detrimental effects, thereby improving the productivity and health. Although promising results have been reported, established doses and further research on the standardisation of this herb will increase its uses as alternative to synthetic drugs. The following review discusses several important aspects of the beneficial properties of milk thistle on poultry growth performance in experimentally induced aflatoxicosis.
The present study was conducted to appraise the ontogenic radio-sensitivity of a serious tropical pest, Spodoptera litura (Fabr.). The molecular responses pertaining to the phenoloxidase (PO) pathway and an anti-oxidant defense mechanism were evaluated in order to understand its implication in pest control at pre-harvest and post-harvest intervals. Irradiation exhibited an inverse relationship with age with respect to impact on developmental and transcriptional responses. Transcript abundance of PO cascade enzymes, prophenoloxidase (slppo-2), its activating enzyme (slppae-1) and free-radical scavenging enzymes, superoxide dismutase (slsod) and catalase (slcat) was evaluated upon gamma irradiation alone and the dual-stress of radiation plus microbial challenge. The slppo-2, slppae-1, slsod and slcat transcripts were significantly up-regulated in F1 L6 larvae (6th-instar) resulting from 100 Gy sub-sterilized male adults and unirradiated female moths. The extent of upregulation was relatively higher in comparison with L6 survivors (6th-instar larvae) developed from irradiated neonates (L1) treated with 100 Gy. Upon Photorhabdus challenge, the transcripts were down-regulated in irradiated L1 suggesting increased larval susceptibility to bacterial infections. Radioresistance increased with the age of the insect, and molecular responses (transcript abundance) of insect defense mechanism were less influenced when older age (F1 progeny) were irradiated. These findings will help to optimize the gamma dose to be employed in inherited sterility technique for (pre-harvest) pest suppression and (post-harvest) phytosanitation and quarantine, and suggest compatible integration of biorational tactics including nuclear technology.
Based upon its economical perspective, the phenomenon of forced moulting in the poultry industry has become a common practice to increase the productivity and reproductive life span of birds. Different feed supplements, including vitamins, minerals, probiotics and prebiotics have been extensively used by poultry farmers for many years. In the last decade, researchers have reported advantageous effects of these supplements in improving different health biomarkers of post moult poultry birds. Therefore, including with these supplements in post moult feed is believed to exhibit better results than moulting alone. The current review is aimed at highlighting the empirical data available on the importance of various feed supplements that are considered favourable in ameliorating the health status of moulted poultry birds.
Phenotype of cultured ocular epithelial transplants has been shown to affect clinical success rates following transplantation to the cornea. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between cell nucleus morphometry and phenotype in three types of cultured epithelial cells. This study provides knowledge for the development of a non-invasive method of determining the phenotype of cultured epithelium before transplantation. Cultured human conjunctival epithelial cells (HCjE), human epidermal keratinocytes (HEK), and human retinal pigment epithelial cells (HRPE) were analyzed by quantitative immunofluorescence. Assessments of nucleus morphometry and nucleus-to-cytoplasm ratio (N/C ratio) were performed using ImageJ. Spearman’s correlation coefficient was employed for statistical analysis. Levels of the proliferation marker PCNA in HCjE, HEK, and HRPE correlated positively with nuclear area. Nuclear area correlated significantly with levels of the undifferentiated cell marker ABCG2 in HCjE. Bmi1 levels, but not p63α levels, correlated significantly with nuclear area in HEK. The N/C ratio did not correlate significantly with any of the immunomarkers in HCjE (ABCG2, CK7, and PCNA) and HRPE (PCNA). In HEK, however, the N/C ratio was negatively correlated with levels of the undifferentiated cell marker CK14 and positively correlated with Bmi1 expression. The size of the nuclear area correlated positively with proliferation markers in all three epithelia. Morphometric indicators of phenotype in cultured epithelia can be identified using ImageJ. Conversely, the N/C ratio did not show a uniform relationship with phenotype in HCjE, HEK, or HRPE. N/C ratio therefore, may not be a useful morphometric marker for in vitro assessment of phenotype in these three epithelia.
We studied the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori virulence markers, e.g. cytotoxin associated gene (cagA), cagA promoter, vacuolating associated cytotoxin A (vacA) alleles induced by contact with epithelium (iceA type), and outer membrane protein Q (hopQ) in expatriates and compared them with those in local residents. Gastric biopsies were obtained at endoscopy for culture, histology and PCR for virulence marker and hopQ. Of 309 patients, 236 (76%) were males with a mean age of 45 years. A total of 102 patients were expatriates. hopQ type 1 was present in 98 (47%) local residents compared to 88 (86%) expatriates (P < 0·001), while hopQ type 2 was present in 176 (85%) local residents, compared to 60 (59%) expatriates (P < 0·001). H. pylori virulence marker cagA was positive in 97 (47%) local residents compared to 86 (84%) expatriates (P < 0·001) while cagA-P was positive in 72 (35%) local residents compared to 87 (85%) expatriates (P < 0·001). iceA type 1 was positive in 157 (76%) local residents compared to 45 (44%) expatriates (P < 0·001), while iceA type 2 was positive in 81 (39%) local residents compared to 86 (84%) expatriates (P < 0·001). Distribution of H. pylori cagA, cagA promoter, iceA and hopQ type in local residents and expatriates was different. H. pylori virulence markers were associated with severe pathology in expatriates.
Delineating site-specific management zones within fields can be helpful in addressing spatial variability effects for adopting precision farming practices. A 3-year (2008/09 to 2010/11) field study was conducted at the Postgraduate Agricultural Research Station, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan, to identify the most important soil and landscape attributes influencing wheat grain yield, which can be used for delineating management zones. A total of 48 soil samples were collected from the top 300 mm of soil in 8-ha experimental field divided into regular grids of 24 × 67 m prior to sowing wheat. Soil and landscape attributes such as elevation, % of sand, silt and clay by volume, soil electrical conductivity (EC), pH, soil nitrogen (N) and soil phosphorus (P) were included in the analysis. Artificial neural network (ANN) analysis showed that % sand, % clay, elevation, soil N and soil EC were important variables for delineating management zones. Different management zone schemes ranging from three to six were developed and evaluated based on performance indicators using Management Zone Analyst (MZA V0·1) software. The fuzziness performance index (FPI) and normalized classification entropy NCE indices showed minimum values for a four management zone scheme, indicating its appropriateness for the experimental field. The coefficient of variation values of soil and landscape attributes decreased for each management zone within the four management zone scheme compared to the entire field, which showed improved homogeneity. The evaluation of the four management zone scheme using normalized wheat grain yield data showed distinct means for each management zone, verifying spatial variability effects and the need for its management. The results indicated that the approach based on ANN and MZA software analysis can be helpful in delineating management zones within the field, to promote precision farming practices effectively.