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Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) is doing research and development in the field of megawatt-class radio frequency (RF) sources (gyrotrons) for the Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ECRH) systems of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) and the DEMOnstration Fusion Power Plant that will follow ITER. In the focus is the development and verification of the European coaxial-cavity gyrotron technology which shall lead to gyrotrons operating at an RF output power significantly larger than 1 MW CW and at an operating frequency above 200 GHz. A major step into that direction is the final verification of the European 170 GHz 2 MW coaxial-cavity pre-prototype at longer pulses up to 1 s. It bases on the upgrade of an already existing highly modular short-pulse (ms-range) pre-prototype. That pre-prototype has shown a world record output power of 2.2 MW already. This paper summarizes briefly the already achieved experimental results using the short-pulse pre-prototype and discusses in detail the design and manufacturing process of the upgrade of the pre-prototype toward longer pulses up to 1 s.
The role played by Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydophila pneumoniae in the pathogenesis of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps has been the object of ongoing debate. We used real-time polymerase chain reaction to investigate the prevalence of both microorganisms in the nasal tissue samples of patients and controls.
We extracted DNA from nasal polyp samples obtained during functional endoscopic sinus surgery and the inferior turbinate samples of controls undergoing septoplasty. We used the highly sensitive real-time polymerase chain reaction to detect the presence of M pneumoniae and C pneumoniae DNA.
Patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps consisted of 62 individuals (39 men; mean age 51 years); the control group consisted of 24 individuals (13 men; mean age 45 years). All samples from both groups were negative for M pneumoniae and C pneumoniae DNA.
We have demonstrated that the likelihood of M pneumoniae and C pneumoniae acting as an ongoing inflammatory stimulus in chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps is slim.
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