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Depression and anxiety disorders are prevalent mental disorders in China. But some those patients do not seek help from psychiatrists firstly but see internists first.
Objectives and aims
This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of depressive - anxiety disorders in gastroenterology outpatients and assess the detection rate provided by physicians in China.
A multicenter, hospital-based cross-sectional study was carried on in the 15 large general hospitals of five cities cross China. A total of 1995 gastroenterological outpatients were screened by Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Subjects whose HADS scores ≥ 8 were interviewed by psychiatrists, using Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I) to make further diagnoses. Physicians’ diagnoses and treatment were recorded.
The adjusted prevalence of depressive disorder and anxiety disorders was 14.39% and 9.42% respectively.
The prevalence of depressive-anxiety disorder is high in gastroenterology outpatients in China, which suggests the related training of detecting these mental disorders is needed to gastroenterologists.
The Square Kilometre Array (SKA) is a planned large radio interferometer designed to operate over a wide range of frequencies, and with an order of magnitude greater sensitivity and survey speed than any current radio telescope. The SKA will address many important topics in astronomy, ranging from planet formation to distant galaxies. However, in this work, we consider the perspective of the SKA as a facility for studying physics. We review four areas in which the SKA is expected to make major contributions to our understanding of fundamental physics: cosmic dawn and reionisation; gravity and gravitational radiation; cosmology and dark energy; and dark matter and astroparticle physics. These discussions demonstrate that the SKA will be a spectacular physics machine, which will provide many new breakthroughs and novel insights on matter, energy, and spacetime.
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is a major public health concern all over the world. Little is known about the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on mental health in the general population. This study aimed to assess the mental health problems and associated factors among a large sample of college students during the COVID-19 outbreak in China.
This cross-sectional and nation-wide survey of college students was conducted in China from 3 to 10 February 2020. A self-administered questionnaire was used to assess psychosocial factors, COVID-19 epidemic related factors and mental health problems. Acute stress, depressive and anxiety symptoms were measured by the Chinese versions of the impact of event scale-6, Patient Health Questionnaire-9 and Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7, respectively. Univariate and hierarchical logistic regression analyses were performed to examine factors associated with mental health problems.
Among 821 218 students who participated in the survey, 746 217 (90.9%) were included for the analysis. In total, 414 604 (55.6%) of the students were female. About 45% of the participants had mental health problems. The prevalence rates of probable acute stress, depressive and anxiety symptoms were 34.9%, 21.1% and 11.0%, respectively. COVID-19 epidemic factors that were associated with increased risk of mental health problems were having relatives or friends being infected (adjusted odds ratio = 1.72–2.33). Students with exposure to media coverage of the COVID-19 ≥3 h/day were 2.13 times more likely than students with media exposure <1 h/day to have acute stress symptoms. Individuals with low perceived social support were 4.84–5.98 times more likely than individuals with high perceived social support to have anxiety and depressive symptoms. In addition, senior year and prior mental health problems were also significantly associated with anxiety or/and depressive symptoms.
In this large-scale survey of college students in China, acute stress, anxiety and depressive symptoms are prevalent during the COVID-19 pandemic. Multiple epidemic and psychosocial factors, such as family members being infected, massive media exposure, low social support, senior year and prior mental health problems were associated with increased risk of mental health problems. Psychosocial support and mental health services should be provided to those students at risk.
The triplite LiFeSO4F displays both the highest potential ever reported for an Fe-based compound, as well as a comparable specific energy with that of popular LiFePO4. The synthesis is still a challenge because the present approaches are connected with long time, special equipments or organic reagents, etc. In this work, the triplite LiFeSO4F powder was synthesized through an ambient two-step solid-state route. The reaction process and phase purity were analyzed, coupled with structure refinement and electrochemical test.
The discovery of the first electromagnetic counterpart to a gravitational wave signal has generated follow-up observations by over 50 facilities world-wide, ushering in the new era of multi-messenger astronomy. In this paper, we present follow-up observations of the gravitational wave event GW170817 and its electromagnetic counterpart SSS17a/DLT17ck (IAU label AT2017gfo) by 14 Australian telescopes and partner observatories as part of Australian-based and Australian-led research programs. We report early- to late-time multi-wavelength observations, including optical imaging and spectroscopy, mid-infrared imaging, radio imaging, and searches for fast radio bursts. Our optical spectra reveal that the transient source emission cooled from approximately 6 400 K to 2 100 K over a 7-d period and produced no significant optical emission lines. The spectral profiles, cooling rate, and photometric light curves are consistent with the expected outburst and subsequent processes of a binary neutron star merger. Star formation in the host galaxy probably ceased at least a Gyr ago, although there is evidence for a galaxy merger. Binary pulsars with short (100 Myr) decay times are therefore unlikely progenitors, but pulsars like PSR B1534+12 with its 2.7 Gyr coalescence time could produce such a merger. The displacement (~2.2 kpc) of the binary star system from the centre of the main galaxy is not unusual for stars in the host galaxy or stars originating in the merging galaxy, and therefore any constraints on the kick velocity imparted to the progenitor are poor.
Little is known about Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in Asia. The aims of our study were to explore (i) the prevalence, risk factors and molecular epidemiology of CDI and colonization in a tertiary academic hospital in North-Eastern Peninsular Malaysia; (ii) the rate of carriage of C. difficile among the elderly in the region; (iii) the awareness level of this infection among the hospital staffs and students. For stool samples collected from hospital inpatients with diarrhea (n = 76) and healthy community members (n = 138), C. difficile antigen and toxins were tested by enzyme immunoassay. Stool samples were subsequently analyzed by culture and molecular detection of toxin genes, and PCR ribotyping of isolates. To examine awareness among hospital staff and students, participants were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire. For the hospital and community studies, the prevalence of non-toxigenic C. difficile colonization was 16% and 2%, respectively. The prevalence of CDI among hospital inpatients with diarrhea was 13%. Out of 22 C. difficile strains from hospital inpatients, the toxigenic ribotypes 043 and 017 were most common (both 14%). In univariate analysis, C. difficile colonization in hospital inpatients was significantly associated with greater duration of hospitalization and use of penicillin (both P < 0·05). Absence of these factors was a possible reason for low colonization in the community. Only 3% of 154 respondents answered all questions correctly in the awareness survey. C. difficile colonization is prevalent in a Malaysian hospital setting but not in the elderly community with little or no contact with hospitals. Awareness of CDI is alarmingly poor.
Following the LAMOST Spectroscopic Survey and Xuyi's Photometric Survey of the Galactic anti-center (GAC), we plan to conduct a time-domain survey of GAC to study the variable sky using Nanshan 1m telescope. The survey will be conducted during winter (in Nov., Dec., and Jan.). The first goal of the survey is to cover 270 sq.deg. of sky area in three years. The survey intends to detect some strong transient events of stars and find some short time-scale variable stars of different types. In this paper, we introduce the survey and present the preliminary results already carried out.
To understand the clinical epidemiology and molecular characteristics of human bocavirus (HBoV) infection in children with diarrhoea in Guangzhou, South China, we collected 1128 faecal specimens from children with diarrhoea from July 2010 to December 2012. HBoV and five other major enteric viruses were examined using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Human rotavirus (HRV) was the most prevalent pathogen, detected in 250 (22·2%) cases, followed by enteric adenovirus (EADV) in 76 (6·7%) cases, human astrovirus (HAstV) in 38 (3·4%) cases, HBoV in 17 (1·5%) cases, sapovirus (SaV) in 14 (1·2%) cases, and norovirus (NoV) in 9 (0·8%) cases. Co-infections were identified in 3·7% of the study population and 23·5% of HBoV-positive specimens. Phylogenetic analysis revealed 14 HBoV strains to be clustered into species HBoV1 with only minor variations among them. Overall, the detection of HBoV appears to partially contribute to the overall detection gap for enteric infections, single HBoV infection rarely results in severe clinical outcomes, and HBoV sequencing data appears to support conserved genomes across strains identified in this study.
We advertise a new method of preliminary orbit determination for space debris using radar observations, which we call Infang†. We can perform a linkage of two sets of four observations collected at close times. The context is characterized by the accuracy of the range ρ, whereas the right ascension α and the declination δ are much more inaccurate due to observational errors. This method can correct α, δ, assuming the exact knowledge of the range ρ. Considering no perturbations from the J2 effect, but including errors in the observations, we can compare the new method, the classical method of Gibbs, and the more recent Keplerian integrals method. The development of Infang is still on-going and will be further improved and tested.
The transmission of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is deeply influenced by the reservoir and hantavirus prevalence rate. In this study, a surveillance on human HFRS cases, relative rodent abundance, and hantavirus infection prevalence was conducted in Shaanxi province, China, during 1984–2012. A generalized linear model with Poisson-distributed residuals and a log link was used to quantify the relationship between reservoir, virus and HFRS cases. The result indicated that there was a significant association of HFRS incidence with relative rodent density and the prevalence rate. This research provides evidence that the changes of infection prevalence in the reservoir could lead directly to the emergence of a new epidemic. It was concluded that the measurement of a number of these variables could be used in disease surveillance to give useful advance warning of potential disease epidemics.
Changes of sucrose metabolism in the subtending leaf to cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) boll at different fruiting branch nodes (FBN) were investigated. Two cotton cultivars, Kemian 1 and Sumian 15, were grown in the field at three planting dates in 2009 and 2011. Cotton planted on different dates but experiencing similar climatic factors flowered on the same date and had similar boll opening dates, but had different FBN. In the present study, boll weight and carbohydrate content were significantly affected by both flowering date (FD) and FBN. However, only cystolic fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (cy-FBPase) and sucrose-phosphate synthase (SPS) activities of the sucrose-metabolizing enzymes were influenced significantly by FBN, and the influence of FBN was lower with delayed FD. In general, effects of FBN on boll weight and sucrose metabolism in the subtending leaf were higher at the optimal FD (13 August) than those at later FD (9 September 2009 and 2 September 2011), and total fruiting branches were used to characterize cotton physiological age in the current study. Sucrose transport capacity (Tn) and SPS in the subtending leaf had significantly positive correlations with boll weight at 17–24 days post anthesis (DPA), a crucial period when boll weight was significantly affected. In addition, higher SPS activity was favourable for sucrose export and boll weight during boll development.
A suspected dengue fever outbreak occurred in 2010 at a solitary construction site in Shenzhen city, China. To investigate this epidemic, we used serological, molecular biological, and bioinformatics techniques. Of nine serum samples from suspected patients, we detected seven positive for dengue virus (DENV) antibodies, eight for DENV-1 RNA, and three containing live viruses. The isolated virus, SZ1029 strain, was sequenced and confirmed as DENV-1, showing the highest E-gene homology to D1/Malaysia/36000/05 and SG(EHI)DED142808 strains recently reported in Southeast Asia. Further phylogenetic tree analysis confirmed their close relationship. At the epidemic site, we also detected 14 asymptomatic co-workers (out of 291) positive for DENV antibody, and DENV-1-positive mosquitoes. Thus, we concluded that DENV-1 caused the first local dengue fever outbreak in Shenzhen. Because no imported case was identified, the molecular fingerprints of the SZ1029 strain suggest this outbreak may be due to vertical transmission imported from Southeast Asia.
Energetic divergent proton beams can be generated in the interaction of ultra-intense laser pulses with solid-density foil targets via target normal sheath acceleration (TNSA). In this paper, a scheme using a capillary to reduce the proton beam divergence is proposed. By two-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations, it is shown that strong transverse electric and magnetic fields rapidly grow at the inner surface of the capillary when the laser-driven hot electrons propagate through the target and into the capillary. The spontaneous magnetic field collimates the electron flow, and the ions dragged from the capillary wall by hot electrons neutralize the negative charge and thus restrain the transverse extension of the sheath field set up by electrons. The proton beam divergence, which is mainly determined by the accelerating sheath field, is therefore reduced by the transverse limitation of the sheath field in the capillary.
The 2009 novel H1N1 influenza pandemic had a significant impact on Shenzhen's population with 2063 laboratory-confirmed human H1N1 cases and five deaths being reported. We used parameters from two population-based surveys and the Shenzhen Influenza Surveillance System to estimate the total number of H1N1 influenza infections in Shenzhen in the 2009 pandemic. The attack rate of influenza-like illness (ILI) in family households was 11·2% (95% CI 9·4–13·0), with 80·2% (95% CI 77·8–82·5) seeking medical care. The ILI attack rate in workers was 38·1% (95% CI 34·3–41·7) with 72·5% (95% CI 66·9–78·0) seeking medical care. The average H1N1 positive rate in individuals reporting ILI and testing by polymerase chain reaction was 22·7%. A total of 611 000–768 000 people, or 4·7–5·9% of the Shenzhen population, are estimated to have experienced H1N1 influenza. The estimated total number of cases of H1N1 is likely to be 330 times greater than the number of laboratory-confirmed cases.
EuroRotaNet, a laboratory network, was established in order to determine the diversity of co-circulating rotavirus strains in Europe over three or more rotavirus seasons from 2006/2007 and currently includes 16 countries. This report highlights the tremendous diversity of rotavirus strains co-circulating in the European population during three years of surveillance since 2006/2007 and points to the possible origins of these strains including genetic reassortment and interspecies transmission. Furthermore, the ability of the network to identify strains circulating with an incidence of ⩾1% allowed the identification of possible emerging strains such as G8 and G12 since the beginning of the study; analysis of recent data indicates their increased incidence. The introduction of universal rotavirus vaccination in at least two of the participating countries, and partial vaccine coverage in some others may provide data on diversity driven by vaccine introduction and possible strain replacement in Europe.
Single-walled carbon nanotubes can be used as electron sources in the
process of field emission, and have great potential for practical
application of the field emission display (FED) panels with large screen
size. We fabricated a FED using the single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs)
as the cathode by the screen-printing process. Test showed that the SWNTs
emitters exhibit excellent macroscopic emission properties. It has low
turn-on voltage (2.7 V/μm) and high brightness, with a high current
density of good uniformity and stability. It was observed that the field
emission qualitatively follows the conventional Fowler–Nordheim (F–N)
theory, and aging treatment played an important role in improving the image
uniformity and stability. Compared to other complicated processes, the
simple fabrication using screen-printing process seems to be advantageous
for practical application.
To date, there has been no large-scale survey of geriatric depression (GD) involving both rural and urban areas in China using standardized assessment tools and diagnostic criteria. This study aimed to determine the 12-month and lifetime prevalence rates of GD and sociodemographic correlates in urban and rural regions of Beijing, China.
A total of 1601 elderly patients (aged ⩾60 years) were randomly selected and interviewed in Beijing using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI 1.0). Basic sociodemographic and clinical data were also collected during the interviews.
The overall 12-month prevalence of GD was 4.33%, and the 12-month prevalence rates for men and women were 2.65% and 5.83% respectively. The overall lifetime prevalence of GD was 7.83%, and lifetime prevalence rates for men and women were 4.65% and 10.66% respectively. Female sex, lower educational level, monthly income, rural abode, and the presence of one or more major medical conditions were associated with increased risk of GD. Of the GD subjects interviewed, 25.2% were receiving some type of treatment, with only 4.7% preferring to seek treatment from mental health professionals.
Although still relatively low by international standards, there is an increasing trend in the prevalence of GD in China. The low percentage of subjects treated for GD is a major public health concern that should be addressed urgently.
Since national figures on the occurrence of metabolic syndrome among Chinese adolescents are lacking, this study aims to estimate its prevalence and distribution among Chinese youngsters. The 2002 China National Nutrition and Health Survey is a nationally representative cross-sectional study. Applying the criteria for US adolescents, we estimated the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among 2761 adolescents aged 15 to 19 years. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome among Chinese adolescents overall was 3·7 % (10 % in US adolescents). It was 35·2 %, 23·4 % and 2·3 % among adolescents who were overweight (BMI ≥ 95th percentile), at risk of overweight (BMI between 85th and 95th percentile) and normal weight (BMI below the 85th percentile), respectively. Urban boys had the highest rate (5·8 %) compared with girls and rural youngsters. Among adolescents who had a BMI ≥ 85th percentile and one or two parent(s) with metabolic syndrome, the prevalence was 46·4 %. A total of 96 % of overweight adolescents had at least one and 74·1 % overweight adolescents had at least two abnormalities of metabolic syndrome. Based on these figures, it is estimated that more than three million Chinese adolescents have metabolic syndrome. Both overweight and metabolic syndrome prevalence among adolescents are still relatively low in China, but the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among Chinese overweight adolescents is similar to those living in the USA.
In liquid-filled batteries, the liquid electrolytes may escape or present a fire hazard and an inert spacer is needed to separate the electrodes. Alternative polymer-based electrolytes are of current technological interest. Solid polymer electrolytes are non-volatile, non-corrosive materials, which can readily be processed into any shape or size. However, despite possessing the required mechanical properties, they have inherently lower conductivity. Gel-based systems are an attempt to strike a balance between the high conductivity of organic liquid electrolytes and the dimensional stability of a solid polymer.
Rectorite was modified with dodecyl benzyl dimethyl ammonium chloride to form organic-modified rectorite (OREC). OREC was used as a filler additive to modify gel polymer electrolytes (GPEs) and prepare composite gel polymer electrolytes (CPEs) which consisted of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) used as a polymer matrix, propylene carbonate (PC), used as a plasticizer, and LiClO4, used as a lithium ion producer. A variety of physical and chemical techniques was used to characterize the CPEs. The interlayer d spacing of OREC was much larger than that of the initial rectorite (2.22 nm). OREC also possesses a fine microscopic structure, and has a hydrophobic surface. Molau and XRD analysis of CPEs indicate that OREC has good compatibility with the components of CPEs and can be dispersed well. The effects of temperature and OREC dose on properties were studied. The temperature dependence of ionic conductivity of CPEs is well fitted by the VTF (Vogel-Tamman-Fulcher) relation. OREC doses of 5 phr gave the greatest ionic conductivity. This amount also greatly increased the plasticizer maintenance levels. Due to the occupancy of free volume space in the polymer matrix of CPEs by OREC, the bulk resistance of the CPEs was lowered and the glass transition temperature (Tg) increased. The sheet structure of OREC is thought to improve the decomposition temperature of CPEs.