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Post-stroke depression (PSD) is the most common psychiatric complication facing stroke survivors and has been associated with increased distress, physical disability, poor rehabilitation, and suicidal ideation. However, the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying PSD remain unknown, and no objective laboratory-based test is available to aid PSD diagnosis or monitor progression.
Here, an isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)-based quantitative proteomic approach was performed to identify differentially expressed proteins in plasma samples obtained from PSD, stroke, and healthy control subjects.
The significantly differentiated proteins were primarily involved in lipid metabolism and immunoregulation. Six proteins associated with these processes – apolipoprotein A-IV (ApoA-IV), apolipoprotein C-II (ApoC-II), C-reactive protein (CRP), gelsolin, haptoglobin, and leucine-rich alpha-2-glycoprotein (LRG) – were selected for Western blotting validation. ApoA-IV expression was significantly upregulated in PSD as compared to stroke subjects. ApoC-II, LRG, and CRP expression were significantly downregulated in both PSD and HC subjects relative to stroke subjects. Gelsolin and haptoglobin expression were significantly dysregulated across all three groups with the following expression profiles: gelsolin, healthy control > PSD > stroke subjects; haptoglobin, stroke > PSD > healthy control.
Early perturbation of lipid metabolism and immunoregulation may be involved in the pathophysiology of PSD. The combination of increased gelsolin levels accompanied by decreased haptoglobin levels shows promise as a plasma-based diagnostic biomarker panel for detecting increased PSD risk in post-stroke patients.
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with abnormal functional connectivity (FC) of amygdala and decreased function of cortico-limibic circuit, which play important roles in the pathogenesis of MDD. However, little is known about the connectivity alterations in late-onset depression (LOD), and whether such disrupted function is correlated with cognitive impairment is unclear.
A total of twenty-three LOD patients and thirty-seven controls underwent neuropsychological tests and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI). Regional homogeneity (ReHo) and FC of bilateral amygdala seed were used to analyze blood oxygen level-dependent fMRI data between groups.
Compared to controls, LOD groups showed weaker functional activity in bilateral middle frontal gyrus and left medial orbitofrontal gyrus, moreover, the decreased ReHo was positively correlated with Trail making test-B score (TMTB, r= 0.462,P= 0.04). In aspects of FC, left amygdala has reduced FC with right fusiform gyrus, right superior temporal gyrus and right putamen, while right amygdala has reduced FC with left cerebellum. Further correlative analysis found that the decreased FC between amygdala and right putamen was positively correlated with Verbal fluency test-verb score (VFT-verb, r= 0.513,P= 0.021) and the decreased FC between amygdala and superior temporal gyrus was positively correlated with Auditory Verbal Memory Test-delayed recall score (AVLT-delayed recall, r= 0.446,P= 0.049).
Our finding of reduced activation of prefrontal gyrus as well as decreased connection of bilateral amygdala may be key factors of impaired cognitive function in LOD patients and these changes could be early indicator for cognitive deficits.
The catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene is related to dopamine degradation and has been suggested to be involved in the pathogenesis of major depressive disorder (MDD). However, how this gene affects brain function properties in MDD is still unclear.
Fifty patients with MDD and 35 cognitively normal participants underwent a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scan. A voxelwise and data-drive global functional connectivity density (gFCD) analysis was used to investigate the main effects and the interactions of disease states and COMT rs4680 gene polymorphism on brain function.
We found significant group differences of the gFCD in bilateral fusiform area (FFA), post-central and pre-central cortex, left superior temporal gyrus (STG), rectal and superior temporal gyrus and right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC); abnormal gFCDs in left STG were positively correlated with severity of depression in MDD group. Significant disease × COMT interaction effects were found in the bilateral calcarine gyrus, right vlPFC, hippocampus and thalamus, and left SFG and FFA. Further post-hoc tests showed a nonlinear modulation effect of COMT on gFCD in the development of MDD. Interestingly, an inverted U-shaped modulation was found in the prefrontal cortex (control system) but U-shaped modulations were found in the hippocampus, thalamus and occipital cortex (processing system).
Our study demonstrated nonlinear modulation of the interaction between COMT and depression on brain function. These findings expand our understanding of the COMT effect underlying the pathophysiology of MDD.
Tephritidae is a large family that includes several fruit and vegetable pests. These organisms usually harbor a variegated bacterial community in their digestive systems. Symbiotic associations of bacteria and fruit flies have been well-studied in the genera Anastrepha, Bactrocera, Ceratitis, and Rhagoletis. Molecular and culture-based techniques indicate that many genera of the Enterobacteriaceae family, especially the genera of Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Pectobacterium, Citrobacter, Erwinia, and Providencia constitute the most prevalent populations in the gut of fruit flies. The function of symbiotic bacteria provides a promising strategy for the biological control of insect pests. Gut bacteria can be used for controlling fruit fly through many ways, including attracting as odors, enhancing the success of sterile insect technique, declining the pesticide resistance, mass rearing of parasitoids and so on. New technology and recent research improved our knowledge of the gut bacteria diversity and function, which increased their potential for pest management. In this review, we discussed the diversity of bacteria in the economically important fruit fly and the use of these bacteria for controlling fruit fly populations. All the information is important for strengthening the future research of new strategies developed for insect pest control by the understanding of symbiotic relationships and multitrophic interactions between host plant and insects.
An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of supplementing different amounts of daidzein in a diet on the growth performance, blood biochemical parameters and meat quality of finishing beef cattle. Thirty finishing Xianan steers were distributed in three groups equilibrated by weight and fed three different dietary treatments (concentrate ratio = 80%): (1) control; (2) 500 mg/kg daidzein and (3) 1000 mg/kg daidzein, respectively. Steers were slaughtered after an 80-day feeding trial. Results showed that daidzein supplementation had no effect on the final body weight, average daily gain and feed conversion rate of steers. Steers fed with 1000 mg/kg daidzein had greater dry matter intake than those fed with control diets. Compared with the control group, the 1000 mg/kg daidzein group had a higher fat thickness, lower shear force and lightness. The pH, drip loss, cooking loss, redness (a*), yellowness (b*), moisture, ash, crude protein and intramuscular fat of the Longissimus dorsi muscle were unaffected by daidzein supplementation. Compared with the control group, the 1000 mg/kg daidzein group significantly increased the serum concentrations of insulin, free fatty acid and Glutamic-pyruvic transaminase. The 500 mg/kg daidzein group significantly increased the serum concentration of tetraiodothyronine compared with the control group. Supplemental daidzein did not affect the blood antioxidant ability and blood immune parameters in serum. In conclusion, daidzein supplementation above 500 mg/day modifies feed intake and metabolic and hormonal profile, with positive and negative effects on meat quality.
The oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) is a destructive insect pest of a wide range of fruit crops. Commensal bacteria play a very important part in the development, reproduction, and fitness of their host fruit fly. Uncovering the function of gut bacteria has become a worldwide quest. Using antibiotics to remove gut bacteria is a common method to investigate gut bacteria function. In the present study, three types of antibiotics (tetracycline, ampicillin, and streptomycin), each with four different concentrations, were used to test their effect on the gut bacteria diversity of laboratory-reared B. dorsalis. Combined antibiotics can change bacteria diversity, including cultivable and uncultivable bacteria, for both male and female adult flies. Secondary bacteria became the dominant population in female and male adult flies with the decrease in normally predominant bacteria. However, in larvae, only the predominant bacteria decreased, the bacteria diversity did not change a lot, likely because of the short acting time of the antibiotics. The bacteria diversity did not differ among fruit fly treatments with antibiotics of different concentrations. This study showed the dynamic changes of gut bacterial diversity in antibiotics-treated flies, and provides a foundation for research on the function of gut bacteria of the oriental fruit fly.
With so many spectroscopic surveys, both past and upcoming, such as SDSS and LAMOST, the number of accessible stellar spectra is continuously increasing. There is therefore a great need for automated procedures that will derive estimates of stellar parameters. Working with spectra from SDSS and LAMOST, we put forward a hybrid approach of Kernel Principal Component Analysis (KPCA) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) to determine the stellar atmospheric parameters effective temperature, surface gravity and metallicity. For stars with both APOGEE and LAMOST spectra, we adopt the LAMOST spectra and APOGEE parameters, and then use KPCA to reduce dimensionality and SVM to measure parameters. Our method provides reliable and precise results; for example, the standard deviation of effective temperature, surface gravity and metallicity for the test sample come to approximately 47–75 K, 0.11–0.15 dex and 0.06–0.075 dex, respectively. The impact of the signal:noise ratio of the observations upon the accuracy of the results is also investigated.
The endoparasitoid Microplitis prodeniae Rao and Chandry is an important potential augmentative biological control agent for lepidopteran pests of vegetables and tobacco. However, cold storage of pupae is required to ensure that sufficient parasitoids are available when they are needed in the field. In this study, pupae were maintained at 0, 4 or 10°C for 5–50 days after which the adults were evaluated for emergence, pre-emergence period, sex ratio, female longevity, oviposition period, and fecundity. Cold storage did not affect the pre-emergence period or proportion of females; however, there was a significant reduction in emergence, female longevity, oviposition period, and fecundity with increased exposure to cold. The pre-emergence period was approximately 5 days, and approximately 50% of the emergent parasitoids were females. A cold storage regime of 10 days at 10°C had no effect on the parasitoids and adult emergence was greater than 50% even after 20 days at 10°C. There was no carryover of the cold treatment from parental to F1 and F2 generations. Thus, M. prodeniae can be stockpiled for field release by exposing the pupae to a cold regime and subsequently holding them for adult emergence at 28°C.
In this paper, the occurrence of the stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) and its effects on stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) pulse compression in FC-40 are investigated. As the experimental medium, the characteristics of FC-40 are suitable for pulse compression. Firstly, the frequency shifts and the threshold of SRS in FC-40 are studied with a mode-locked laser system as pump source, without taking the SBS effect into account. On the basis of the experimental results, the competition between SRS and SBS as well as its effect on pulse compression is investigated. Results show that SRS gets higher gain and grows rapidly with the increase of the laser intensity by pump effect, which will result in decreasing of SBS energy reflection.
We report that the tail modulation of Stokes pulses in the high-energy stimulated Brillouin scattering pulse compression can be suppressed by controlling effective pulse width of the pump. It is shown through numerical simulations and validated experimentally that the effective pulse width is an appropriate parameter, which determines the generation of tail modulation. The effective pulse width broaden as the increase of energy. This mechanism leads to the amplification of Stokes tail edge and it is the cause of tail modulation.
Maximum ellipsoidal magnitude of the droplet is an important basic parameter for calculating drag force, droplets axial-velocity and dispersed-phase pressure gradient in an annular-mist pipe flow. An analytical correlation to predict the maximum ellipsoidal magnitude of a low-viscosity droplet in a parallel gas stream based on energy conservation and volume conservation. Stagnant pressure distribution on droplet surface is revised from Flachsbart's formula. The proposed correlation has clear physical meaning and easy to use. The correlation captures the deformation mechanism with an average absolute percent error of 9.53%. The effect of stagnant pressure distribution on the proposed correlation's accuracy is discussed.
Escherichia albertii is a newly emerging enteric pathogen that has been associated with gastroenteritis in humans. Recently, E. albertii has also been detected in healthy and sick birds, animals, chicken meat and water. In the present study, the prevalence and characteristics of the eae-positive, lactose non-fermenting E. albertii strains in retail raw meat in China were evaluated. Thirty isolates of such strains of E. albertii were identified from 446 (6·73%) samples, including duck intestines (21·43%, 6/28), duck meat (9·52%, 2/21), chicken intestines (8·99%, 17/189), chicken meat (5·66%, 3/53), mutton meat (4·55%, 1/22) and pork meat (2·44%, 1/41). None was isolated from 92 samples of raw beef meat. Strains were identified as E. albertii by phenotypic properties, diagnostic PCR, sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene, and housekeeping genes. Five intimin subtypes were harboured by these strains. All strains possessed the II/III/V subtype group of the cdtB gene, with two strains carrying another copy of the I/IV subtype group. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed high genetic diversity of E. albertii in raw meats. Our findings indicate that E. albertii can contaminate various raw meats, posing a potential threat to public health.
This study characterized Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C strains in China in order to establish their genetic relatedness and describe the use of multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) analysis (MLVA) to provide useful epidemiological information. A total of 215 N. meningitidis serogroup C strains, obtained from 2003 to 2012 in China, were characterized by MLVA with different published schemes as well as multilocus sequence typing. (i) Based on the MLVA scheme with a combination of five highly variable loci, 203 genotypes were identified; this level of discrimination supports its use for resolving closely related isolates. (ii) Based on a combination of ten low variable loci, clear phylogenetic relationships were established within sequence type complexes. In addition, there was evidence of microevolution of VNTR loci over the decade as strain lineages spread from Anhui to other provinces, the more distant the provinces from Anhui, the higher the genetic variation.
A completely solid state dye sensitized solar cell (DSSSC) is proposed in which chemically robust phthalocyanine (Pc) sensitizers, F16ZnPc and F40ZnPc, are sandwiched between n-TiO2 and p-NiO. While the energy conversion efficiencies of conventional Grätzel cells are continually increasing, the DSSSC design effectively solves the long term stability issues of the volatile liquid electrolyte. Through analysis of the electronic structure of the Pc|semiconductor systems, the free energy associated with hole injection into the valence band of NiO upon photoexcitation of the sensitizer and electron injection into the conduction band of TiO2 from the reduced form of the sensitizer as well as the competing charge recombination processes are calculated. Thermodynamically, the charge injection processes are found to be favored over the undesired charge recombination processes. These findings suggest promising energy conversion for the NiO|Pc|TiO2 DSSSC.
Nanoparticles (NPs) of Indium Antimonide (InSb) were synthesized using a vapor phase synthesis technique known as Inert Gas Condensation. NPs were directly deposited, at room temperature and under high vacuum, on glass cover slides, TEM grid, 1 inch-square (111) p-type Silicon wafer and Sodium Chloride substrates. XRD study revealed the crystalline behavior of these NPs exhibiting a cubic symmetry with preferred growth direction of (111). The average grain size of the NPs obtained using XRD results and the Debye-Scherrer formula was 25.62 nm. TEM studies showed a bimodal distribution of NPs with average NPs size of 13.70 and 33.20 nm. These values are consistent with the value obtained using XRD. 1:1 composition ratio of In:Sb was confirmed by the Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy studies. The band gap of the NPs obtained using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was 0.413 eV at 300 K, which indicates quantum confinement in the band structure of these NPs.
We report the synthesis of Cu2SnS3 (CTS) nanostructures and its incorporation into an inorganic-organic hybrid device to enhance the photoresponse under AM 1.5 G solar illumination. The nanostructures were structurally and optically characterized. From X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) the CTS nanocrystals were found to be tetragonal. Flower like structures of CTS were obtained as seen from Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). A band gap of 1.4 eV was obtained from absorption studies. Two devices have been studied, P3HT: PCBM = 1: 1 and CTS: P3HT: PCBM = 8:1:1. The photocurrent increased from a value of 2.33 mA at dark to 2.5 mA for the P3HT-PCBM blend to 3.36 mA for CTS: P3HT: PCBM = 8:1:1 device. The responsivity, sensitivity, external quantum efficiency and specific detectivity increased from 18.81 mA/W, 1.07, 4.25% and 6.88 × 108 Jones respectively for P3HT:PCBM sample to 189.97 mA/W, 1.44, 42.9% and 6.95 × 109 Jones for CTS: P3HT: PCBM = 8:1:1 sample at 1V bias and 1 Sun illumination intensity. The time dependent photoresponse was stable over different ON-OFF cycles. From the fit to the rise and decay curves, the rise and decay time constants were obtained.
Nanomedicine is fostering significant advances in the development of platforms for early detection and treatment of diseases. Nanoparticles (NPs) like quantum dots (QDs) exhibit size-dependent optical properties for light-driven technologies, which might become important in bio-imaging, sensing and photo-dynamic therapy (PDT) applications. The present research addresses the synthesis of water-stable Cd-based QDs via a Microwave-Assisted synthesis approach using cadmium sulfate salt, and thioglycolic acid as Cd- and S-precursors, respectively. Selenide ions were available by reductive leaching of metallic Selenium in Sodium bisulfite solution. The size control and the tunability of the optical properties were achieved by a suitable control of the reaction temperature (in the 140°C- 190°C range) and reaction time (10 minutes-40 minutes). X-ray diffraction analyses suggested the development of a CdSe,S face cubic centered structure; the broadening of the diffraction peaks indicated the presence of very small nanocrystals in the samples. The average crystallite size was estimated at 5.50 nm ± 1.17nm and 3.72 nm ± 0.04 nm, for nanoparticles synthesized at 180°C after 40 minutes or 10 minutes of reaction, respectively. HRTEM images confirmed the crystalline nature and the small size of the synthesized nanocrystals. In turn, the exciton was red-shifted from 461nm to 549 nm when the reaction temperature was prolonged from 140°C to 190 °C, suggesting the crystal growth. The corresponding band gap values were approximately 2.2 eV, confirming the quantum confinement effect (bulk value 1.74eV). This red shift was also evidenced in PL measurements where the main emission peak was shifted from 507 nm to 564 nm when the samples were excited at 420 nm. A narrow size-tunable emission also was supported by the full width at half maximum (∼ 45 nm) for the synthesized nanocrystals. The reactive oxygen species generation capability of as-synthesized QDs was also investigated. The correlation between the particle size and the generation of (ROS) by the degradation of methylene blue was evident with a reduction of MB concentration from 10μM to 7.5μM and 6.7μM after 15 minutes of UV irradiation for reaction time of 10 min. and 40 min. respectively. No additional degradation was noticed after 60 minutes of irradiation.
Due to the potential applications to high-efficiency and light-weight solar cells, the growth of CuInGaSe2 (CIGS) nanoparticles is a recent research focus. We have developed a relatively simple solvothermal route to grow high quality CIGS nanoparticles in an autoclave under different temperatures (170 – 280°C). The effect of reaction temperature on the shape of CIGS nanoparticles has been investigated. At lower temperatures, the CIGS particles show plate-like shape. Whereas at higher temperatures, most of them exhibit rod-like feature. The nanoparticle products have been also characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques.
Π-conjugated porous polymers with hierarchical pore structures were synthesized via high internal phase emulsion polymerization (polyHIPE) technique. The polymers could be used as heterogeneous photocatalysts for highly selective oxidation of organic sulfides into sulfoxides and the free radical polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) under visible light irradiation.