Entrapment of the ulnar nerve at the elbow is the second most common focal peripheral neuropathy. Recent advances have facilitated the electrodiagnosis of this common nerve entrapment. The goals of electrodiagnosis are to localize ulnar nerve dysfunction, confirm that the disturbance is confined to the ulnar nerve, and assess the severity of ulnar nerve dysfunction. The goal of this review is to highlight the important advances in anatomy, neurophysiology and methodology that impact upon the electrodiagnosis of entrapment of the ulnar nerve at the elbow, illustrate the limits of electrodiagnosis, and discuss methodological issues that may be the subject of further study. Careful attention to elbow position, temperature, and conservative estimates of conduction block should be part of common practice. Awareness of anatomical variations in structural anatomy, anomalous innervation and fascicular arrangement of ulnar nerve fibers are required to interpret electrodiagnostic studies accurately. The most reliable finding is slowing of the ulnar across-elbow motor nerve conduction velocity to less than 50 m/sec while recording from the abductor digiti minimi muscle, and should be carefully interpreted in the presence of a polyneuropathy or other neurogenic process. Alternative techniques such as relative ulnar slowing in different ulnar nerve segments, use of alternative muscles, sensory and mixed nerve techniques provide complementary information, and like all nerve conduction studies are highly operator-dependent and should be used on a case by case basis. Recent studies have focused the electromyographer's attention on the use of shorter across-elbow segments (2-5 cm). This may offer a reasonable trade-off between sensitivity and measurement error and may result in improved electrodiagnosis.