To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The practice of medicine is an art, not a trade; a calling, not a business; a calling in which your heart will be exercised equally with your head.
This book is about education. While the subject is about teaching and learning professionalism, the authors discuss how best to educate the physicians of the future who will be responsible for much of the health and well-being of their fellow citizens. While medical education often appears to have developed in isolation from the formal world of pedagogy, medical students are adult learners and the science of cognition applies to them as it does to other learners. Through the centuries, we have come to understand a great deal about education, but there is still much that we do not know and probably will never fully comprehend. For a period of time, both general and medical education placed great emphasis on the acquisition of knowledge and skills. In our knowledge-based world, this is certainly appropriate, as one cannot function without a minimal level of knowledge. However, recent times have seen a return to an earlier belief that education represents more than facts and figures. It has been said that education is what remains after what has been learned has been forgotten. Michael Polanyi, that wonderful combination of chemist and philosopher, coined the term “tacit knowledge” to help us understand this phenomenon. He stated that “one knows things which one cannot tell.” Tacit knowledge is acquired through experiencing a broad spectrum of life's challenges.
The greatest difficulty in life is to make knowledge effective, to convert it into practical wisdom.
Sir William Osler
The challenge of teaching and learning professionalism has been highlighted by many authors. The increasing complexity of the practice of medicine, coupled with the entry of the state and corporate sector into the health care field, has drastically altered the relationship between the medical profession and the society it serves. At the same time, role modeling, the traditional method for transmitting professional values from one generation to the next, is no longer sufficient. Professionalism must be taught explicitly.
Despite consensus on the importance of teaching and learning professionalism, many clinical teachers are not able to articulate the attributes and behaviors characteristic of the physician as a professional. Many faculty members are also not sure of how to best teach and evaluate this content area and may not be serving as effective role models. As a result, faculty development is needed to ensure the successful teaching and learning of professionalism.
To date, the literature on faculty development designed to support the teaching and evaluation of professionalism is limited. The goal of this chapter is to outline the principles and strategies underlying faculty development programming in this area and to provide a case example from our own institution.
Faculty development refers to that broad range of activities institutions use to renew or assist faculty in their multiple roles.
As the chapters in this book demonstrate, professionalism is taught and learned in diverse and complex ways. Indeed, the past decade has witnessed a significant increase in the teaching and learning of professionalism in undergraduate and postgraduate medical education. However, despite this rapid growth, few authors have described the educational frameworks that underpin their work in this area, even though we all hold different assumptions about what we teach and how we try to achieve our goals.
For example, one contemporary school of thought has emphasized that professionalism needs to be taught explicitly, either by defining core content or outlining professionalism as a list of traits or characteristics. From this perspective, the goal is to ensure that every physician understands the nature of professionalism, its basis in morality, the reasons for its existence, its characteristics, and the obligations necessary to sustain it. Others have stated that the teaching of professionalism should be approached primarily as a moral endeavor, emphasizing altruism and service, the importance of role modeling, self-awareness, community service, and other methods of acquiring experiential knowledge. In this school of thought, explicit teaching receives less attention, and learning is embedded in an authentic activity. Although both approaches are needed to promote the teaching and learning of professionalism, as teachers and educators we must clarify the assumptions that we hold and try to answer the following question: What is our guiding theory or educational framework?
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.