To show that a formula A is not provable in propositional classical logic, it suffices to exhibit a finite boolean model which does not satisfy A. A similar property holds in the intuitionistic case, with Kripke models instead of boolean models (see for instance ). One says that the propositional classical logic and the propositional intuitionistic logic satisfy a finite model property. In particular, they are decidable: there is a semi-algorithm for provability (proof search) and a semi-algorithm for non provability (model search). For that reason, a logic which is undecidable, such as first order logic, cannot satisfy a finite model property.
The case of linear logic is more complicated. The full propositional fragment LL has a complete semantics in terms of phase spaces [2, 3], but it is undecidable . The multiplicative additive fragment MALL is decidable, in fact PSPACE-complete , but the decidability of the multiplicative exponential fragment MELL is still an open problem. For affine logic, that is, linear logic with weakening, the situation is somewhat better: the full propositional fragment LLW is decidable .
Here, we show that the finite phase semantics is complete for MALL and for LLW, but not for MELL. In particular, this gives a new proof of the decidability of LLW. The noncommutative case is mentioned, but not handled in detail.