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Late adverse effects following radiation therapy for prostate cancer involve the urinary and lower gastrointestinal tracts, with continuous rectal bleeding being the most serious issue. We focused on late adverse effects, particularly rectal bleeding after volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT), for patients with locally advanced prostate cancer.
Materials and Methods
Seventy-three patients with localized prostate cancer were treated with radiation therapy using VMAT with an image-guided radiation therapy system. Patient age at the start of irradiation ranged from 54 to 81 years (median, 71 years). The follow-up period ranged from 23 to 87 months (median, 57 months). The prescribed total irradiation dose was 76 Gy in 38 fractions.
Late rectal bleeding was observed in 14 (19%) patients, with nine (12.3%), four (5.5%), and one (1.4%) being classified as grades 1, 2, and 3, respectively. One grade 3 patient with rectal bleeding had severe diabetes and was administered intravenous warfarin for cardiomyopathy.
VMAT may provide better accuracy and involve fewer time constraints for patients compared with other intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) methods. The incidence of late rectal bleeding in VMAT is almost equivalent to that of other IMRT methods.
We analyse the chemical abundances of stars in the local group dwarf galaxies using the SAGA database. The inspection of the relationship between Eu and Ba abundances confirms an anomalously Ba-rich population in Fornax, which indicates a pre-enrichment of interstellar gas with r-process elements.
We present a new method to investigate the IMF in the early universe from observations of extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars. EMP stars are the low-mass survivors of stars which are formed in the early universe. We can give constraints on the IMF from statistics of the elemental abundances of the EMP stars in the Galactic halo.
Charge injection property of organic thin film devices is a key issue to
understand the device operation. Displacement current measurement (DCM) is a
powerful technique to probe the charge injection behaviors in terms of a
change in the apparent capacitance of test devices. However, it requires to
suppress actual current flowing through the device for investigating the
details of interface phenomena. We propose here the use of ionic liquids
(ILs) as a top contact insulator in organic metal-insulator-semiconductor
(MIS) structures. Because of the high stability and dielectric constant of
the ILs, the external applied voltage was applied mainly to the organic
layer with suppressing the actual current. The DCM curves of Pt
wire/IL/α-NPD/ITO structure were measured, and they actually show the
signals due to the hole injection from theITO to α-NPD layer and
accumulation at the IL/α-NPD.
We explore the general characteristics of extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars in the Galaxy using the Stellar Abundances for Galactic Archaeology (SAGA) database (Suda et al. 2008, PASJ, 60, 1159). The overall trend of EMP stars suggests that there are at least two types of extra mixing to change the surface abundances of EMP stars. One is to deplete lithium abundance during the early phase of giant branch and another is to decrease C/N ratio by one order of magnitude during the red giant branch or AGB phase. On the other hand, these mixing processes are different from those suggested in the Galactic globular clusters because of the different relations between O, Na, Mg, and Al abundances.
We have investigated the thickness dependence of critical current for YBa2Cu3O7-x (YBCO) film with artificial pinning centers on metallic substrate. Artificial pinning centers were introduced by the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) using YBCO target including YSZ particles. The film over 1 μm in thickness exhibited with high critical current (Ic) of 40.7A in applied magnetic field of 3T parallel to the c-axis at 77K. This value was 5 times as high as the normal YBCO film without artificial pinning centers. The large Ic enabled us to approach to a practical application in the near future. Furthermore, it was clarified that the columnar nano-structure formed in the film, we call “the bamboo structure”, was a dominant pinning center because each Jc-θ curve of all thick films formed a universal line by the normalization of Jc. In addition, it was also found that YSZ addition has an optimal concentration for pinning by the study of YSZ concentration in the film.
Our multi-plume and multi-turn (MPT) pulsed-laser deposition (PLD) has been improved to accelerate reliable and fast deposition technique of high Ic (critical current) YBCO (YBa2Cu3O7-x) layer for a long coated conductor fabrication, for we increased the number of multi-turn, from three to four, in our multi-plume and multi-turn (MPT) PLD system. This increase of the number of depositing turns achieved high deposition rate corresponded to 75 mm3/h (=1 μm-thick × 10 mm-wide × 7.5 m/h, throughout all 4 turns) for YBCO layer. This four turn (4t)-MPT-PLD also indicated a capability to combine high deposition rate and high Ic. We attained the highest Ic's of 321 A at the tape speed of 3 m/h and 340 A at tape speed of 2 m/h by 4t-MPT-PLD in 10 mm-wide and 10 cm-long samples.
Based on these results, we successfully deposited a 100 m long YBCO layer by 4t-MPT-PLD. This coated conductor had high Ic as high as 159 A, therefore, the multiplication of Ic and length exhibited high value of 15.9 kA·m.
We prepared REBa2Cu3O7- δ (RE= Gd, Sm, Dy, Er, Y) coated conductors on pulsed laser deposition (PLD) -CeO2/ion-beam assisted deposition (IBAD) – Gd2Zr2O7 (GZO) / metal tapes by the PLD method and measured the characteristics in magnetic fields. The GdBa2Cu3O7- σ (Gd-123) films showed superior characteristics than others in magnetic fields and showed weak anisotropy. Critical current density (Jc) value of the Gd-123 film was 3.87MA/cm2 at self-field and 0.19MA/cm2 at 3 T of perpendicular field to the tape surface in liquid nitrogen (77 K). Angular dependences in magnetic fields (Jc -Θ) of the Gd-123 and the SmBa2Cu3O7- σ (Sm-123) were superior to others and peaks in Jc -Θ were found also at 0 degree. The reduction ratios of Jc in Jc -Θ for the Gd-123 film and the Sm-123 film were smaller than other films. Transmission electron microscopy showed that the Gd-123 film had many stacking faults. It may be considered that this stacking faults naturally introduced by the PLD method contribute to improvement of anisotropy of Jc -Θ in the Gd-123 film.
Ion-beam-assisted deposition (IBAD) has been used to prepare biaxially textured templates necessary to realizing high superconducting performance in coated conductors.The IBAD method is characterized by the direct deposition of sharply aligned templates on nontextured metal substrates using fluorite-like oxide films (yttrium-stabilized zirconia, Gd2Zr2O7, etc.).Recent progress in vacuum technology for IBAD has made it possible to reproducibly fabricate long lengths (100 m) of IBAD-GZO templates.Continuous deposition of YBCO films on these templates has been achieved by pulsed laser deposition (PLD).Furthermore, a new approach to improving the texture of IBAD templates was found by using CeO2 films grown by PLD.Trifluoroacetate-based metalorganic deposition has also been used instead of PLD to produce superconducting layers on IBAD buffered tapes, aiming at a low-cost process.This article reviews progress in the research and development of biaxially textured templates produced using IBAD and their subsequent use in fabricating superconducting tapes and wires by means of several processes.
Periodic 2-dimensional (2-D) hexagonal and the disordered pore structure
silica films have been developed using nonionic surfactants as the
templates. The pore structure was controlled by the static electrical
interaction between the micelle of the surfactant and the silica oligomer.
No X-ray diffraction peaks were observed for the disordered mesoporous
silica films, while the pore diameters of 2.0-4.0 nm could be measured by
small angle X-ray scattering spectroscopy. By comparing the properties of
the 2-D hexagonal and the disordered porous silica films which have the same
porosity, it is found that the disordered porous silica film has advantages
in terms of the dielectric constant and Young's modulus as well as the
hardness. The disordered porous silica film is more suitable for the
interlayer dielectrics for ULSI.
Thin Pb(Zr, Ti)O3 films were grown on a 8-inch Ir(111)/SiO2/Si substrate by a liquid-source MOCVD system. These films showed dependency of ferroelectric properties on several deposition parameters. PZT single phase was obtained at a substrate temperature of 620°C. The film showed (111) preferred orientation and the Pt/Pb1.16(Zr0.45, Ti0.55)Ox(115nm)/Ir capacitors had excellent ferroelectric properties. The switching charge (Qsw) value (at 2V), saturation voltage (V90) and leakage current density (at 1.5V) were 47.4uC/cm2, 1.7V and 7.5E-8A/cm2 respectively. The capacitor made by using an IrOx top electrode had excellent fatigue-free property.
The difference between vitamin K metabolism in the liver and that in the bone of vitamin K-deficient rats was examined. After 17 d administration of vitamin K-deficient food, vitamin K in the liver was almost depleted, and prothrombin time (PT) was prolonged. Serum total osteocalcin level was slightly decreased by vitamin K deficiency, whereas serum undercarboxylated osteocalcin level did not change. The level of menaquinone (MK)-4 as well as that of phylloquinone was decreased, but approximately 40 % of the initial level still existed in the femur after the 17 d period. A single-dose administration of vitamin K (250 nmol/kg body weight) markedly increased vitamin K level in the liver but not in the femur. These results suggest that the turnover of vitamin K in the bone is slower than that in the liver, and bone metabolism may be little affected by the short period of intake of vitamin K-deficient food. However, intake of a larger amount of vitamin K is required for its accumulation in the bone than in the liver. Furthermore, the counteracting effect of MK-7 on prolonged PT in vitamin K-deficient rats was found to be higher than phylloquinone or MK-4.
The coordination of the carbon atoms in the diamond-like carbon (DLC) films formed by Ar gas cluster ion beam (GCIB) assisted deposition of fullerene was investigated using synchrotron radiation. Near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectra of the carbon K-edge of the DLC films formed by various methods were measured over the excitation energy range 275-320 eV, using synchrotron radiation. On the basis of the analysis of the peak corresponding the transition of the excitation electron from carbon 1s orbital to Φ orbital, relative sp2 contents of various DLC films were determined. The DLC films formed by Ar GCIB assisted fullerene deposition were found to consist of a high sp3 hybridized carbon.
YBCO films on LaAlO3and IBAD (YSZ/Hastelloy) substrate were made by TFA-MOD (metalorganic deposition using trifluoroacetate) process. Improved coating solution resulted in high Jc at 77.3K and 0T of 7 MA/cm2 and 1.7 MA/cm2 for LaAlO3 and IBAD substrates, respectively. The magnetic field dependence of Jc at 77.3K also showed superior property: 105 A/cm2 at 4T (B//c-axis) for the LaAlO3substrate and at 3T (B//c-axis)) for IBAD substrate. Furthermore, the difference in Jc between single crystal LaAlO3and IBAD was small up to 3T. The present results imply that TFA-MOD process is promising for the practical YBCO coated conductor process.
The capability of discharge-pumped vacuum ultraviolet F2 molecular laser for laser annealing of heavily ion implanted semiconductor was demonstrated for the first time using Se+ heavily ion implanted GaAs. Cr-doped semi-insulationg GaAs wafers were used as the substrates, and the Se+ implantation energy and dose were controlled to 100 keV and 1× 1015 cm-2, respectively. Samples were annealed using a F2 molecular laser ( wavelength = 157 nm ) with a single pulse ( width ~ 20 ns ) in the energy density range from 200 to 800 mJ/cm2 in a nitrogen atmosphere. In addition, furnace annealing was done on separate samples at 850 ºC for 20 minutes in a purified hydrogen atmosphere for comparison. Characterization of the samples was carried out using Raman scattering and ellipsometry. The laser annealed samples exhibited intense Raman scattering LO phonon peaks whose intensity increased with increasing laser power density, whereas the furnace annealed samples exhibited a very weak LO phonon peak. It was demonstrated for the first time that VUV photons can be very effective in annealing ion implantation damage as compared with conventional furnace annealing. The behavior of Raman scattering spectra as a function of laser energy density was explained quantitatively by a “spatial correlation” model. The model made it possible to estimate the average size of the recovered crystal regions in samples for any given laser energy density.
Effect of quantity and nutritional quality of dietary proteins on the content of mRNA of insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) was studied in rat liver and kidney. IGFBP-1 mRNA content per unit RNA increased in liver and kidney of rats fed on a protein-free diet and in those of fasted rats compared with that in the rats fed on a casein diet. When rats were given a gluten diet for 7 d, IGFBP-1 mRNA content in liver did not change significantly but that in kidney increased considerably compared with that in those organs of the rats fed on the casein diet. Because IGFBP-1 mRNA has been demonstrated both in liver parenchymal and non-parenchymal cells (Takenaka et al. 1991), the effect of the protein-free diet on these two types of cells has been studied. An increase in IGFBP-1 mRNA content under protein deprivation was observed in both liver parenchymal and non-parenchymal cells, suggesting that these two types of cells are regulated in a similar mode as far as IGFBP-1 mRNA content is concerned. The physiological and nutritional significance of the previously stated results on protein anabolism are discussed when considered together with our previous observations on the plasma concentrations of IGF-1 (Takahashi et al. 1990) and IGFBP (Umezawa et al. 1991) and insulin-like growth factor-1 mRNA content in liver (Miura et al. 1991).
Critical current densities and upper critical fields were measured for a single crystal of the high Tc oxide superconductor, Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+d, within the ab basal plane and along the c axis. The anisotropy in critical current densities was observed to be Jc⊥/Jc//=10 in agreement with the anisotropy in resistivity for the normal state. The magnetic field dependence of the critical current densities can be interpreted by the anisotropy in the upper critical fields. The scaling of the critical current density with the magnetic field was found. The critical current density scaled to zero at fields Bc2 in the ab plane and along the c axis which were in good agreement with the upper critical fields measured by transport.
The anisotropy in flux pinning force density along the b axis, Fp//b, and along the a axis, Fp//a, was found to be Fp//b/Fp//a=3. The data provided strong evidence for flux pinning by the modulated structure in this system.
This paper describes an experimental study of the effects of surface roughness on the flow between two concentric cylinders, one of which rotates. The surface roughness has some effects on the coefficient of viscous frictional torque CM in the transient and in the fully developed turbulent region. In the fully developed rough turbulent flow, the value of CM depends on both the Reynolds number Rω and the relative roughness rm/k in the case where the outer cylinder rotates, but CM depends only on rm/k in the case where the inner cylinder rotates. The effect of the surface roughness of the inner cylinder is greater than that of the outer one for both cases.
This paper is concerned with the variation of snow glide and its predictability in full-depth avalanches. From field measurements of snow glide using a newly developed gear-type glide-meter which is fixed to the ground and which measures the amount of glide as the angle of rotation of a gear, the following characteristics are deduced: (1) the variation of gliding rate is composed of both short-term and long-term variations, and (2) the existence of correlation between the short-term variation and the relative frequency of avalanches is recognized.
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