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We report fourteen and twenty-eight protocluster candidates at z = 5.7 and 6.6 over 14 and 19 deg2 areas, respectively, selected from 2,230 Lyα emitters (LAEs) photometrically identified with Subaru/Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC) deep images. Six out of the 42 protocluster candidates include at least 1 spectroscopically confirmed LAEs at redshifts up to z = 6.574. By the comparisons with the cosmological Lyα radiative transfer (RT) model reproducing LAEs with the reionization effects, we find that more than a half of these protocluster candidates might be progenitors of the present-day clusters with a mass of ≳ 1014M⊙. We also investigate the correlation between LAE overdensity and Lya rest-frame equivalent width (EW), because the cosmological Lyα RT model suggests that a slope of EW-overdensity relation is steepened towards the epoch of cosmic reionization (EoR), due to the existence of the ionized bubbles around galaxy overdensities easing the escape of Lyα emission from the partly neutral intergalactic medium. The available HSC data suggest that the slope of the EW-overdensity correlation does not evolve from the post-reionization epoch z = 5.7 to the EoR z = 6.6 beyond the moderately large statistical errors.
Previous research suggests that many people receiving mental health
treatment do not meet criteria for a mental disorder but are rather ‘the
To examine the association of past-year mental health treatment with
The World Health Organization's World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys
interviewed community samples of adults in 23 countries
(n = 62 305) about DSM-IV disorders and treatment in
the past 12 months for problems with emotions, alcohol or drugs.
Roughly half (52%) of people who received treatment met criteria for a
past-year DSM-IV disorder, an additional 18% for a lifetime disorder and
an additional 13% for other indicators of need (multiple subthreshold
disorders, recent stressors or suicidal behaviours). Dose–response
associations were found between number of indicators of need and
The vast majority of treatment in the WMH countries goes to patients with
mental disorders or other problems expected to benefit from
The 24-item Dysfunctional Attitude Scale (DAS-24) is a short version of the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale, which is a self-report inventory for depressogenic schemata.
The object of this study was to examine the reliability and validity of the Japanese version of the DAS-24 (DAS-24-J).
Subjects consisted of non-clinical sample 1 (248 university students), non-clinical sample 2 (872 Japanese company employees) and a clinical sample (59 depressed out-patients).
Internal consistency was satisfactory in all three samples, Cronbach’s α coefficient being higher than 0.85. Test–retest reliability was satisfactory in non-clinical sample 1. The interclass correlation coefficient was 0.79 and there was no significant difference in the average score of DAS-24-J between the two points. The DAS-24-J showed satisfactory concurrent validity with the Japanese Irrational Belief Test-20 (r= 0.76); Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire – Revised total (r= 0.46), negative (r= 0.53) and positive (r=−0.41); and the Beck Depression Inventory-II (r= 0.44 for non-clinical sample, r= 0.63 for clinical sample). The clinical sample showed a significantly higher DAS-24-J score than non-clinical sample 2. According to a factor analysis combining all three samples, three factors were extracted: factor 1 (11 items) corresponded with ‘achievement’ in the original version, factor 2 (6 items) with ‘self-control’ and factor 3 (5 items) with ‘dependency’.
The DAS-24-J is a reliable and valid instrument to measure depressogenic schemata in Japanese.
The Keio Twin Research Center has conducted two longitudinal twin cohort projects and has collected three independent and anonymous twin data sets for studies of phenotypes related to psychological, socio-economic, and mental health factors. The Keio Twin Study has examined adolescent and adult cohorts, with a total of over 2,400 pairs of twins and their parents. DNA samples are available for approximately 600 of these twin pairs. The Tokyo Twin Cohort Project has followed a total of 1,600 twin pairs from infancy to early childhood. The large-scale cross-sectional twin study (CROSS) has collected data from over 4,000 twin pairs, from 3 to 26 years of age, and from two high school twin cohorts containing a total of 1,000 pairs of twins. These data sets of anonymous twin studies have mainly targeted academic performance, attitude, and social environment. The present article introduces the research designs and major findings of our center, such as genetic structures of cognitive abilities, personality traits, and academic performances, developmental effects of genes and environment on attitude, socio-cognitive ability and parenting, genes x environment interaction on attitude and conduct problem, and statistical methodological challenges and so on. We discuss the challenges in conducting twin research in Japan.
Amultidisciplinary collaborative study examining cognition in a large sample of twins is outlined. A common experimental protocol and design is used in The Netherlands, Australia and Japan to measure cognitive ability using traditional IQ measures (i.e., psychometric IQ), processing speed (e.g., reaction time [RT] and inspection time [IT]), and working memory (e.g., spatial span, delayed response [DR] performance). The main aim is to investigate the genetic covariation among these cognitive phenotypes in order to use the correlated biological markers in future linkage and association analyses to detect quantitativetrait loci (QTLs). We outline the study and methodology, and report results from our preliminary analyses that examines the heritability of processing speed and working memory indices, and their phenotypic correlation with IQ. Heritability of Full Scale IQ was 87% in the Netherlands, 83% in Australia, and 71% in Japan. Heritability estimates for processing speed and working memory indices ranged from 33–64%. Associations of IQ with RT and IT (−0.28 to −0.36) replicated previous findings with those of higher cognitive ability showing faster speed of processing. Similarly, significant correlations were indicated between IQ and the spatial span working memory task (storage [0.31], executive processing [0.37]) and the DR working memory task (0.25), with those of higher cognitive ability showing better memory performance. These analyses establish the heritability of the processing speed and working memory measures to be used in our collaborative twin study of cognition, and support the findings that individual differences in processing speed and working memory may underlie individual differences in psychometric IQ.
We examined whether effortful control (EC), a temperament proposed by Rothbart and Bates (1998), has genetically coherent structure. A self- report measure of EC was administered to 450 Japanese twins (151 males and 299 females, ages 17 to 32 years) including 152 monozygotic and 73 dizygotic pairs. Univariate genetic analysis revealed that AE model fit best for the total EC as well as its subscales. The heritability estimate for total EC was 49%, and the estimates for subscales ranged between 32% and 45%. Multivariate genetic analysis revealed that the subscales of EC were genetically correlated to a high degree and environmentally correlated to a moderate degree. These results suggest that EC has substantial genetic basis and genetically coherent structure, supporting the validity of the construct. The implications to molecular genetic study and study of psychopathology were discussed.
The purpose of the present study is to clarify the mechanism of Japanese self-esteem (SE) in genetic and environmental influences using twin methodology. Eighty-one pairs of adolescent twins, including 50 pairs of monozygotic (MZ) twins and 31 pairs of dizygotic (DZ) twins, participated in this study. Self-esteem was assessed using the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), translated into Japanese. As a result of using univariate twin analyses, model comparisons using the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) indicated that the AE model was the best fit (AIC = −5.35). In the best-fitting AE model, the heritability (a2) of SE was revealed to be moderate, accounting for 49% of the variance; environmental influences (individual-specific environmental factors) explained 51% of the variance. These results are consistent with the findings of some behavioral genetics studies of SE in the West and show that there is no difference between Western and Japanese populations in the mechanism of SE considering genetic and environmental influences. The results also suggest the importance of considering both genetic and environmental factors in studies of Japanese SE.
The purpose of the present study was to clarify genetic and environmental origins of psychological traits of eating disorders using a Japanese female twin sample. Participants were 162 pairs of female twins consisting of 116 pairs of monozygotic (MZ) twins and 46 pairs of dizygotic (DZ) twins in their adolescence. Psychological traits of eating disorders were assessed with five subscales of the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI). As a result of using univariate twin analyses, among five subscales of EDI (maturity fears, ineffectiveness, interpersonal distrust, interoceptive awareness, and perfectionism), perfectionism showed significant additive genetic contributions and individual specific environmental effects. On the other hand, maturity fears, ineffectiveness, interoceptive awareness, and interpersonal distrust indicated significant shared environment contributions and individual specific environment effects. The results suggest the importance of both genetic and shared environmental influences on psychological traits of eating disorders in the present study.
Since established in 1998, the Keio Twin Project (KTP) has been dedicated to investigating genetic and environmental sources contributing to human psychological traits in adolescence and young adulthood. A population-based twin registry was constructed by the KTP through the use of official residential records in the Tokyo area, and to date requests to participate in our research have generated 1040 pairs of twins and triplets of age 14 to 30, forming one of the largest twin registries in Asia. Our comprehensive datasets, obtained through questionnaires, performance tests, and physical measurements, cover a wide range of human traits: personality, psychiatry, mental health, sociality, cognition, and physical index. Demographic variables and environment of upbringing are also sought by twins and by some parents. This extensive information allows us to clarify the genetic and environmental overlap across multiple traits as well as specificities unique to single traits. Adding an evolutionary psychology perspective to the behavior genetics framework is currently being attempted in order to develop a grand theory of human genetics.
In 1961 in Japan, the son of a hospitalized man suffering from severe pain after a stroke mixed a cup of milk with insecticide and arranged for his unsuspecting mother to give this to the patient, who had requested that his son assist him in dying. The son could not endure his father's condition and killed him in order to show his love.
Suicide is a leading cause of death worldwide; however, the prevalence and risk factors for the immediate precursors to suicide – suicidal ideation, plans and attempts – are not well-known, especially in low- and middle-income countries.
To report on the prevalence and risk factors for suicidal behaviours across 17 countries.
A total of 84 850 adults were interviewed regarding suicidal behaviours and socio-demographic and psychiatric risk factors.
The cross-national lifetime prevalence of suicidal ideation, plans, and attempts is 9.2% (s.e.=0.1), 3.1% (s.e.=0.1), and 2.7% (s.e.=0.1). Across all countries, 60% of transitions from ideation to plan and attempt occur within the first year after ideation onset. Consistent cross-national risk factors included being female, younger, less educated, unmarried and having a mental disorder. Interestingly, the strongest diagnostic risk factors were mood disorders in high-income countries but impulse control disorders in low- and middle-income countries.
There is cross-national variability in the prevalence of suicidal behaviours, but strong consistency in the characteristics and risk factors for these behaviours. These findings have significant implications for the prediction and prevention of suicidal behaviours.
A novel process of TMCTS vapor annealing combined with a plasma treatment has been developed for improving the mechanical strength of porous silica films having ultralow dielectric constant. When porous silica films annealed under 1,3,5,7-tetramethylcyclotetrasiloxane (TMCTS) vapor were treated with argon plasma and then re-treated with TMCTS vapor, the mechanical strength (i.e., elastic modulus, hardness) of the films increased significantly. Results of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) suggested an accelerative effect resulted from the plasma treatment on the conversion of Si-CH3 and Si-H groups to Si-OH groups. The latter group appears to react faster with TMCTS from the second annealing to form cross-linked polymer network on the porous silica wall surfaces. The resulting cross-linked network is thought to keep the low permittivity and enhance the mechanical strength of the low-k films.
We investigated the mechanical effect of an abrasive in an abrasive-free-like (AFL) slurry using CMP evaluation and ζ potential evaluation. The amount of abrasive strongly influenced CMP performance. We found out the optimum amount of abrasive for optimal CMP performance. The ζ potential of the abrasive was positive, and those of the Cu and barrier metal were negative. We discussed a planarization model of the AFL slurry in detail based on the ζ potential results obtained.
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